Low body temperature is considered beneficial in ischemic stroke due to neuroprotective mechanisms, yet some studies suggest that higher temperatures may improve clot lysis and outcomes in stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The effect of increased body temperature in stroke patients treated with tPA and with normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) on admission is unknown. We hypothesized a beneficial effect of higher body temperature in the absence of visible clots on CTA, possibly due to enhanced lysis of small, peripheral clots.
Patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and April 2013 were prospectively registered in a database (Bergen NORSTROKE Registry). Ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA with normal CTA of the cerebral arteries were included. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 1 week. An excellent outcome was defined as mRS=0, and a favorable outcome as mRS=0-1.
A total of 172 patients were included, of which 48 (27.9%) had an admission body temperature =37.0°C, and 124 (72.1%) had a body temperature
Cites: Circulation. 2007 May 22;115(20):e478-53417515473
The NOR-SASS (Norwegian Sonothrombolysis in Acute Stroke Study) aimed to assess effect and safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound treatment in an unselected acute ischemic stroke population.
Patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were randomized 1:1 to either contrast-enhanced sonothrombolysis (CEST) or sham CEST. A visible arterial occlusion on baseline computed tomography angiography was not a prerequisite for inclusion. Pulse-wave 2 MHz ultrasound was given for 1 hour and contrast (SonoVue) as an infusion for ˜30 minutes. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography were performed after 24 to 36 hours. Primary study end points were neurological improvement at 24 hours defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0 or reduction of =4 National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale points compared with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and favorable functional outcome at 90 days defined as modified Rankin scale score 0 to 1.
A total of 183 patients were randomly assigned to either CEST (93 patient) or sham CEST (90 patients). The rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or mortality were not increased in the CEST group. Neurological improvement at 24 hours and functional outcome at 90 days was similar in the 2 groups both in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis.
CEST is safe among unselected ischemic stroke patients with or without a visible occlusion on computed tomography angiography and with varying grades of clinical severity. There was, however, statistically no significant clinical effect of sonothrombolysis in this prematurely stopped trial.
Alteplase is the only approved thrombolytic agent for acute ischaemic stroke. The overall benefit from alteplase is substantial, but some evidence indicates that alteplase also has negative effects on the ischaemic brain. Tenecteplase may be more effective and less harmfull than alteplase, but large randomised controlled phase 3 trials are lacking. The Norwegian Tenecteplase Stroke Trial (NOR-TEST) aims to compare efficacy and safety of tenecteplase vs. alteplase.
NOR-TEST is a multi-centre PROBE (prospective randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint) trial designed to establish superiority of tenecteplase 0.4?mg/kg (single bolus) as compared with alteplase 0.9?mg/kg (10% bolus?+?90% infusion/60?minutes) for consecutively admitted patients with acute ischaemic stroke eligible for thrombolytic therapy, i.e. patients a) admitted
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