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Public Health Practice Report: water supply and sanitation in Chukotka and Yakutia, Russian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298113
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1423826
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2018
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Author Affiliation
a Hygiene Department , Northwest Public Health Research Center , St-Petersburg , Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1423826
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Housing
Humans
Russia
Sanitation - standards
Sewage
Water Purification
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
Information from 2013-2015 have been analysed on water accessibility, types of water service to households, use of water pretreatment, availability of sewerage, use of sewage treatment in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Yakutia Republic, based on evaluation information accessible in open sources, such as regional statistics and sanitary-epidemiologic reports. The main causes of the poor state of water supply and sanitation in the study regions include: very limited access to in-home running water (one-quarter of settlements in Chukotka and half of settlements in Yakutia have no regular water supply) and lack of centralised sewerage (78% and 94% of settlements correspondingly have no sewerage); lack of water pretreatment and sewage treatment, outdated technologies and systems; serious deterioration of facilities and networks, frequent accidents; secondary pollution of drinking water. Lack of open objective information on Russian Arctic water supply and sanitation in the materials of the regional and federal statistics hampers the assessment of the real state of affairs. The situation for water and sanitation supply in these Russian Arctic regions remains steadily unfavourable. A comprehensive intervention from national and regional governmental levels is urgently needed.
PubMed ID
29384013 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122663
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18592
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
  1 document  
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St-Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18592
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
4941326
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Male
Metals - isolation & purification
Organic Chemicals - isolation & purification
Population Groups
Risk Reduction Behavior
Russia
Abstract
The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction.
A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures.
Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food.
POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions.
Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007.
Notes
Cites: J Environ Monit. 2003 Aug;5(4):689-9612948250
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jun 1;230(1-3):1-8210466227
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2009 Sep 15;407(19):5216-2219608216
Cites: J Environ Monit. 2007 Aug;9(8):884-9317671671
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63 Suppl 2:179-8215736647
PubMed ID
22789517 View in PubMed
Documents
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Public Health Practice Report: water supply and sanitation in Chukotka and Yakutia, Russian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289398
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 Dec; 77(1):1423826
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2018
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Author Affiliation
a Hygiene Department , Northwest Public Health Research Center , St-Petersburg , Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 Dec; 77(1):1423826
Date
Dec-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Information from 2013-2015 have been analysed on water accessibility, types of water service to households, use of water pretreatment, availability of sewerage, use of sewage treatment in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Yakutia Republic, based on evaluation information accessible in open sources, such as regional statistics and sanitary-epidemiologic reports. The main causes of the poor state of water supply and sanitation in the study regions include: very limited access to in-home running water (one-quarter of settlements in Chukotka and half of settlements in Yakutia have no regular water supply) and lack of centralised sewerage (78% and 94% of settlements correspondingly have no sewerage); lack of water pretreatment and sewage treatment, outdated technologies and systems; serious deterioration of facilities and networks, frequent accidents; secondary pollution of drinking water. Lack of open objective information on Russian Arctic water supply and sanitation in the materials of the regional and federal statistics hampers the assessment of the real state of affairs. The situation for water and sanitation supply in these Russian Arctic regions remains steadily unfavourable. A comprehensive intervention from national and regional governmental levels is urgently needed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013 Dec 09;72:21856 PMID 24350064
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013 Dec 09;72:22646 PMID 24350065
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Apr 29;75:31149 PMID 27132632
PubMed ID
29384013 View in PubMed
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Cancer mortality in the indigenous population of coastal Chukotka, 1961-1990.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115323
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20471
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Valery S Chupakhin
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Hygiene Department, Northwest Public Health Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20471
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Humans
Neoplasms - ethnology - mortality
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The general aim was to assess the pattern and trend in cancer mortality among the indigenous people of coastal Chukotka during the period 1961-1990.
All cases of cancer deaths of indigenous residents of the Chukotsky district in the north-easternmost coast of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were copied from personal death certificates. There were a total of 219 cancer deaths during the study period. The average annual number of cases, percent, crude, and age-standardized cancer mortality rates (ASMR) per 100,000 among men and women for all sites combined and selected sites were calculated. Data were aggregated into six 5-year periods to assess temporal trends. Direct age-standardization was performed with the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
The indigenous Chukchi and Eskimo people living in Chukotsky district were at higher risk of death from cancer during the 30-year period between 1961 and 1990, with ASMR among men twice that of Russia, and among women 3.5 times higher. The excess can be attributed to the extremely high mortality from oesophageal cancer and lung cancer.
The indigenous people of coastal Chukotka were at very high risk of death from cancer relative to the Russian population nationally. The mortality data from this study correspond to the pattern of incidence reported among other indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Little information is available since 1990, and the feasibility of ethnic-specific health data is now severely limited.
Notes
Cites: Arctic Med Res. 1996;55 Suppl 1:32-48871684
Cites: Acta Oncol. 1996;35(5):617-98813070
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1993 Jul 30;54(6):889-948335395
PubMed ID
23519821 View in PubMed
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Occupational diseases in Murmansk Oblast: 1980-2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115325
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20468
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Liudmila V Talykova
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Hygiene Department, Northwest Public Health Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20468
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Industry - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mandatory Reporting
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupations
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
Official statistics tend to underestimate the incidence of occupational disease (OD) nationally and regionally in Russia.
The general aim was to obtain an accurate estimate of ODs in Murmansk Oblast in 1980-2010 and to determine the rate of specific types of ODs among cohorts of workers who had been exposed to the hazardous factors causing the disease.
Data were retrieved from the Murmansk Oblast ODs database for the oblast and 2 enterprises--Apatite JSC and Kolskaya MSC--which contributed to more than half of the ODs in the oblast in 1980-2010. The total number of ODs and 5 specific categories (musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease) were analysed.
THE TOTAL RATE OF ODS AMONG WORKERS OF MAIN SHOPS IN BOTH ENTERPRISES WHO WERE ACTUALLY EXPOSED TO HARMFUL FACTORS WERE EXTREMELY HIGH: the rate for Apatite JSC was 25 times higher than in Russia and 15 times higher than in Murmansk Oblast, while the rate for Kolskaya MSC was about 30 and 20 times greater than in Russia and in Murmansk Oblast, respectively; in the 2000s the difference reached 100-150 times. The rise in reported ODs in both enterprises corresponded to the time when intensive medical examinations were conducted by the Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health (KRLOH) in Kirovsk. A similar pattern was also observed for the sub-categories of musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease. It is likely that the true burden of OD is even higher due to misdiagnosis, reluctance of workers concerned about job security to present for care and the lack of reliable information on working conditions needed to establish a causal link between disease and occupational exposure.
As with many other regions across Russia, ODs in Murmansk Oblast are grossly underestimated. Serious problems exist in the Russian occupational health care system and the collection of occupational health statistics that require urgent, fundamental reform.
PubMed ID
23519738 View in PubMed
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Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115326
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20458
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Igor P Karnachev
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Hygiene Department, Northwest Public Health Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20458
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational - statistics & numerical data - trends
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Humans
Occupational Health - trends
Russia - epidemiology
Safety Management - trends
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly.
This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980-2010.
The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers' rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices--violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3-6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher.
Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.
PubMed ID
23519652 View in PubMed
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Health and society in Chukotka: an overview.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115335
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20469
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Valery S Chupakhin
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20469
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Climate
Delivery of Health Care
Economic development
Health status
Humans
Industry
Mortality
Population Dynamics
Research
Russia - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This study provides a historical overview of the changes in the socio-economic and health status of the population of Chukotka, from the Soviet to the post-Soviet period, with special attention paid to the circumstances of indigenous people. Past health studies in Chukotka are reviewed and key demographic and health indicator data presented. Since the 1990s, Chukotka's population has shrunk to a third of its former size due to emigration of non-indigenous and mostly younger people, with a corresponding increase in the mortality rate due to aging of the population. However, the indigenous population has remained stable. Among the most important causes of mortality are injuries. The living conditions of indigenous people continue to be a cause of concern, beset by high rates of poverty, unemployment, alcoholism, suicide and a variety of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and sexually transmitted infections. The economy, general infrastructure and health care system of Chukotka have been considerably improved by the Abramovich administration in the 2000s.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):584-9322152597
Cites: Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1996 Jan-Mar;(1):52-48700016
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 Sep;63(3):235-4215526927
Cites: Probl Tuberk. 2002;(3):3-612066530
Cites: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Jan;83(1):58-6914678087
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1992 Aug;21(4):730-61521978
Cites: BMC Cancer. 2005;5:8216029510
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Suppl 1:325-810093300
PubMed ID
23518623 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence and mortality in Chukotka, 1997-2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115336
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20470
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Valery S Chupakhin
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Hygiene Department, Northwest Public Health Research Centre, St. Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:20470
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
File Size
160974
Keywords
Age Distribution
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms - classification - ethnology - mortality
Russia - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The general aim was to assess cancer incidence and mortality among the general population of Chukotka in 1997-2010 and to compare it with the population of Russia.
Cancer data were abstracted from the annual statistical reports of the P.A. Hertzen Research Institute of Oncology in Moscow. The annual number and percent of cases, crude and age-standardized cancer incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 among men and women in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug were determined for the period 1997-2010 for incidence and 1999-2010 for mortality. Two years' data were aggregated to generate temporal trends during the period. In age-standardization, the Segi-Doll world standard population used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer was used.
The higher incidence and mortality rate of cancer (all sites combined) among men compared to women, which was observed in Russia nationally, was reflected also in Chukotka, although the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. Overall, the patterns of cancer sites are similar between Chukotka and Russia, with cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchus and stomach occupying the top ranks among men. Oesophageal cancer is common in Chukotka but not in Russia, whereas prostate cancer is common in Russia but not in Chukotka. Among women, breast cancer is either the commonest or second commonest cancer in terms of incidence or mortality in both Chukotka and Russia. Cancer of the lung/trachea/bronchi ranks higher in Chukotka than in Russia. The rate of cancer incidence and mortality for all sites combined during the 13-year period was relatively stable in Russia. Dividing the period into two halves, an increase among both men and women was observed in Chukotka for all sites combined, and also for colorectal cancer.
This paper presents previously unavailable cancer epidemiological data on Chukotka. They provide a basis for comparative studies across circumpolar regions and countries. With its small population, cancer rates in Chukotka tend to be highly unstable and fluctuate widely from year to year. Even when aggregated over a decade or more, only broad conclusions regarding patterns and trends can be made regarding some of the commonest cancer sites, or with all sites combined. Chukotka experienced substantial social and economic dislocations during the period under study, which could conceivably affect risk factor distribution and the quality of medical care.
PubMed ID
23518507 View in PubMed
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Traditional Diet and Environmental Contaminants in Coastal Chukotka I: Study Design and Dietary Patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298383
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Feb 27; 16(5):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-27-2019
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Sveta Yamin-Pasternak
Igor Pasternak
Valery S Chupakhin
Author Affiliation
Department of Arctic Environmental Health, Northwest Public Health Research Center, St-Petersburg 191036, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Feb 27; 16(5):
Date
Feb-27-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The article is the first in the series of four that present the results of a study on environmental contaminants in coastal Chukotka, conducted in the context of a multi-disciplinary investigation of indigenous foodways in the region of the Bering Strait. We provide an overview of the contemporary foodways in our study region and present the results of the survey on the consumption of locally harvested foods, carried out in 2016 in the Chukotkan communities of Enmelen, Nunligran, and Sireniki. The present results are evaluated in comparison to those of the analyses carried out in 2001?2002 in the village of Uelen, located further north. Where appropriate, we also draw comparative insight from the Alaskan side of the Bering Strait. The article sets the stage for the analyses of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals to which the residents become exposed through diet and other practices embedded in the local foodways, and for the discussion of the Recommended Food Daily Intake Limits (RFDILs) of the food that has been sampled and analyzed in the current study.
PubMed ID
30818776 View in PubMed
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Traditional Diet and Environmental Contaminants in Coastal Chukotka IV: Recommended Intake Criteria.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298385
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Feb 27; 16(5):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-27-2019
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Sveta Yamin-Pasternak
Igor Pasternak
Valery S Chupakhin
Author Affiliation
Department of Arctic Environmental Health, Northwest Public Health Research Center, 191036 St-Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Feb 27; 16(5):
Date
Feb-27-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The article is the last in the series of four that present the results of a study on environmental contaminants in coastal Chukotka, conducted in the context of a multi-disciplinary investigation of Indigenous foodways in the region. The article presents the Recommended Food Daily Intake Limit (RFDIL) guidelines of the locally harvested foods in coastal Chukotka. The guidelines were developed based on the results of the analysis of the legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals found in the samples of locally harvested food, which was collected in 2016 in the villages of Enmelen, Nunligran, and Sireniki on the south coast of the Chukchi Peninsula, Russian Arctic. The overall aim of the article is to expand the toolset for dealing with the challenges of: (1) setting the dietary recommendations when we assess multiple contaminants in a variety of foods (and our method of RFDILs calculation is an example of a possible approach), and (2) managing the real-life circumstances when many types of foods are mixed in many dishes regularly and the concentrations of contaminants in these mixed dishes become uncertain. Drawing on perspectives from the fields of environmental health sciences, humanities, social sciences, and visual art, the authors consider the RFDILs of the examined foods in the context of the culinary practices and aesthetics values (those that relate to the culturally held ideas of beauty ascribed to a dish or the processes of its preparation and consumption) of the Indigenous Arctic cuisine in the region of the Bering Strait, and in the broader dynamics of food and culture.
PubMed ID
30818752 View in PubMed
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18 records – page 1 of 2.