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Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185126
Source
J Environ Manage. 2003 Jun;68(2):141-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
Aleg Cherp
Irina Kopteva
Ruben Mnatsakanian
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, Budapest H-1051, Hungary. cherpa@ceu.hu
Source
J Environ Manage. 2003 Jun;68(2):141-51
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - economics - prevention & control
Commerce
Energy-Generating Resources
Humans
Industry
Models, Economic
Russia
Social Conditions
Transportation
Vehicle Emissions
Abstract
Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be explained by a rising proportion of private motorcars used for transportation of people and goods instead of traditional rail and other public transport. The findings of the paper demonstrate that shifts towards more pollution-, resource- and energy-intensive industries as a result of economic liberalization emerges as a significant negative factor of the process of economic transition threatening sustainability of emerging market economies. A research agenda to further investigate these impacts is proposed.
PubMed ID
12781754 View in PubMed
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The long-term management of nuclear emergencies: the principles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17621
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;109(1-2):3-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Keith Baverstock
Aleg Cherp
Patrick Gray
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland. keith.baverstock@baverstock.org
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;109(1-2):3-5
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
Decision Support Systems, Management - organization & administration - trends
Disaster Planning - methods - organization & administration - trends
Emergencies
Europe
Power Plants
Radiation Protection - methods
Safety Management - methods - organization & administration - trends
Abstract
The long-term impact of the Chernobyl accident on the most affected populations in Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation is still evident in terms of a continuing elevated level of thyroid cancer, prominent psychosocial effects, a depressed economy and a low level of well being. Some of these impacts are directly and primarily attributable to exposure to ionising radiation, while others have more complex origins and have evolved over the period since the accident. It is argued that although these latter impacts were largely unpredictable at the time of the accident, they could have been minimised had an appropriate management plan been in force. The principles underlying such a management plan for use in future accidents are enumerated. An essential component in further developing such a plan would be a thorough review of the experience of the Chernobyl accident in order to 'learn the lessons' that accident holds.
PubMed ID
15238648 View in PubMed
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