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Doping control from a global and national perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179411
Source
Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Apr;26(2):171-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Albert D Fraser
Author Affiliation
Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. adfraser@dal.ca
Source
Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Apr;26(2):171-4
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Doping in Sports - history - prevention & control
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
International Cooperation
Pharmaceutical Preparations - blood - history
Policy Making
Sports - history - standards - trends
Substance Abuse Detection - history - methods
Abstract
The practice of enhancing athletic performance through foreign substances was known from the earliest Olympic games. In 1967, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) established a Medical Commission responsible for developing a list of prohibited substances and methods. Drug tests were first introduced at the Olympic winter games in Grenoble and at the summer games in Mexico City in 1968. In February 1999, the IOC convened the World Conference on Doping in Sport in Lausanne, Switzerland. The Lausanne Declaration on Doping in Sport recommended creation of an International Anti-Doping Agency. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was formed in Lausanne, Switzerland on the basis of equal representation from the Olympic movement and public authorities. One of the mandates of WADA was to harmonize the Olympic antidoping code and develop a single code applicable and acceptable for all stakeholders. The world antidoping code developed by WADA included creation of several international standards (IS). The purpose of each IS was harmonization among antidoping organizations. The ISs were developed for laboratories, testing, the prohibited list, and for therapeutic use exemptions (TUE). The objective of this manuscript is to present a brief history of doping in sport and describe creation of WADA in 1999. The components of the World Anti-Doping code (in particular, the Therapeutic Use Exclusion program or TUE) is described. The WADA code defines a TUE as "permission to use, for therapeutic purposes, a drug or drugs which are otherwise prohibited in sporting competition." Experiences of the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport Doping Control Review Board are presented because this national TUE committee has been operational for over 12 years. The challenge of developing a rigorous global antidoping program requires acceptance of doping as a problem by sport organizations, athletes, and public authorities. Individual stakeholders must be prepared to preserve the values of sport, which means free from doping. This will require vigilance by all interested parties for the benefit of elite athletes and society overall.
PubMed ID
15228160 View in PubMed
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Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid during the first week after renal transplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173599
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;61(7):507-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Christine E Staatz
Stephen B Duffull
Bryce Kiberd
Albert D Fraser
Susan E Tett
Author Affiliation
School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. chris@pharmacy.uq.edu.au
Source
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;61(7):507-16
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Female
Humans
Immunosuppressive Agents - pharmacokinetics
Kidney Transplantation
Male
Middle Aged
Mycophenolic Acid - pharmacokinetics
Nova Scotia
Population Surveillance
Abstract
To investigate the population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in adult kidney transplant recipients during the crucial first week after transplantation.
Data were collected from 117 patients. MPA plasma concentrations were determined at t=0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after mycophenolate mofetil dosing on days 3, 5 and 7. Population analysis was performed using NONMEM. Covariates screened were sex, age, body weight, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum albumin, days of therapy, diabetes mellitus, organ source (live or cadaveric) and co-therapy (tacrolimus or cyclosporine). Final model validity was evaluated using 200 boot strapped samples from the original data. Bias and precision were determined through comparison of observed and predicted concentrations.
Individual concentration-time profiles showed evidence of an absorption lag time and enterohepatic recirculation of MPA in some patients on some occasions. The best base model had bi-exponential elimination with a typical population (SE%) apparent clearance (CL/F) of 29 l/h (5%) and apparent volume of the central compartment of 65 l (7%). CL/F decreased significantly with increasing serum albumin (1.42 l/h reduction in total plasma CL/F with each 1 g/l increase in albumin) and was 27% greater in patients receiving cyclosporine than in those receiving tacrolimus. Evaluation of the final model showed close agreement between pairs of boot strapped and final model parameter estimates (all differences
PubMed ID
16049701 View in PubMed
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Substance abuse monitoring by the Correctional Service of Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191860
Source
Ther Drug Monit. 2002 Feb;24(1):187-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Albert D Fraser
Jiri Zamecnik
Author Affiliation
Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center and Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. adfraser@is.dal.ca
Source
Ther Drug Monit. 2002 Feb;24(1):187-91
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Prisons
Questionnaires
Substance Abuse Detection - methods
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Urine - chemistry
Abstract
The Correctional Service of Canada implemented a urine drug-testing program over a decade ago. Offenders residing in federal correctional institutions and living in the community on conditional release were subject to urine drug testing. The objective of this study is to describe this testing program and the extent of drug use by conditional release offenders in 2000. Urine specimens were tested for drugs of abuse and prescription drugs including amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite, opiates, phencyclidine, benzodiazepines, methyl phenidate, meperidine, pentazocine and fluoxetine by immunoassay screening followed by GC-MS confirmation. Ethyl alcohol was analyzed when specifically requested. Alternative screening and confirmation methods with lower cut-off values were used whenever urine specimens were dilute (creatinine
PubMed ID
11805743 View in PubMed
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