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Antibody levels and protection after hepatitis B vaccination: results of a 15-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5632
Source
Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 1;142(5):333-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2005
Author
Brian J McMahon
Dana L Bruden
Kenneth M Petersen
Lisa R Bulkow
Alan J Parkinson
Omana Nainan
Marina Khristova
Carolyn Zanis
Helen Peters
Harold S Margolis
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Alaska Native Medical Center, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA. bdm9@cdc.gov
Source
Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 1;142(5):333-41
Date
Mar-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alaska - epidemiology
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Child
Child, Preschool
DNA, Viral - blood
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hepatitis B - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - immunology
Hepatitis B Vaccines - immunology
Hepatitis B virus - genetics - immunology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Vaccination
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The duration of protection afforded by hepatitis B vaccination is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine antibody persistence and protection from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 15 villages in southwest Alaska. PARTICIPANTS: 1578 Alaska Natives vaccinated at age 6 months or older. INTERVENTION: During 1981-1982, participants received 3 doses of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. This cohort was followed annually over the first 11 years, and 841 (53%) persons were tested at 15 years. MEASUREMENTS: Antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), markers of HBV infection, and testing to identify HBV variants. RESULTS: Levels of anti-HBs in the cohort decreased from a geometric mean concentration of 822 mIU/mL after vaccination to 27 mIU/mL at 15 years. Initial anti-HBs level, older age at vaccination, and male sex were associated with persistence of higher anti-HBs levels at 15 years when analyzed by a longitudinal linear mixed model. After adjustment for initial anti-HBs level and sex, those vaccinated at age 6 months to 4 years had the lowest anti-HBs level at 15 years. Asymptomatic breakthrough infections were detected in 16 participants and occurred more frequently in persons who did not respond to vaccination than those who responded (P = 0.01). Among infected persons with viremia, 2 were infected with wild-type HBV and 4 had HBV surface glycoprotein variants, generally accompanied by wild-type HBV. LIMITATIONS: The loss of participants to follow-up at 15 years was 47%. However, characteristics of persons tested were similar to those of persons lost to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B vaccination strongly protected against infection for at least 15 years in all age groups. Antibody levels decreased the most among persons immunized at 4 years of age or younger.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 1;142(5):384-515738458
Comment In: Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 1;142(5):I3415738447
PubMed ID
15738452 View in PubMed
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The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007-2009.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107822
Source
Pages 69-86 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):69-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
FEATURED PRESENTATIONS The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007- 2009 Alan J. Parkinson* Arctic Investigations Program, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, USA Background. The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008
  1 document  
Author
Alan J Parkinson
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. ajp1@cdc.gov
Source
Pages 69-86 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):69-86
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Awareness
Communicable diseases - ethnology
Cooperative Behavior
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health education
Health promotion
Humans
Life Style
Mental Health - ethnology
Population Surveillance
Research
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
World Health
Abstract
The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report.
The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health promotion; and promoting synergy and strategic direction of Arctic human health research and health promotion.
As of 31 March, 2009, the official end of the IPY, AHHI represented a total of 38 proposals, including 21 individual Expressions of Intent (EoI), and 9 full proposals (FP), submitted to the IPY Joint Committee for review and approval from lead investigators from the US, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Finland, Sweden and the Russian Federation. In addition, there were 10 National Initiatives (NI-projects undertaken during IPY beyond the IPY Joint Committee review process). Individual project details can be viewed at www.arctichealth.org. The AHHI currently monitors the progress of 28 individual active human health projects in the following thematic areas: health network expansion (5 projects), infectious disease research (7 projects), environmental health research (7 projects), behavioral and mental health research (4 projects), and outreach education and communication (5 projects).
While some projects have been completed, others will continue well beyond the IPY. The IPY 2007-2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23971017 View in PubMed
Documents
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Asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori Infection and Iron Deficiency are Not Associated With Decreased Growth Among Alaska Native Children Aged 7-11 Years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76172
Source
Helicobacter. 2006 Jun;11(3):159-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Marc-Andre R Chimonas
Henry C Baggett
Alan J Parkinson
Pam T Muth
Eitel Dunaway
Bradford D Gessner
Author Affiliation
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Alaska Division of Public Health, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
Source
Helicobacter. 2006 Jun;11(3):159-67
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Abstract Introduction: Alaska Native children have high Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency prevalences, and their average height-for-age is lower than US reference populations. During a clinical trial to determine the impact of H. pylori treatment on iron deficiency, we evaluated the effects of H. pylori infection and treatment on growth. Materials and Methods: We measured height and weight for children aged 7-11 years in western Alaska using village-based measuring devices. H. pylori infection was determined by urea breath test and iron deficiency using serum ferritin. Children with H. pylori infection and iron deficiency entered the treatment phase and received iron alone or iron plus triple therapy for H. pylori. Follow-up evaluations occurred at 2, 8, and 14 months. We evaluated the association between baseline H. pylori infection and growth; among children in the treatment phase, we also assessed the effect of H. pylori resolution on growth. Results: At baseline, 566 (87.1%) of 650 children were infected with H. pylori. Neither height and weight, nor body mass index differed by H. pylori infection status. Of 189 children in the treatment phase, 20 (10.6%) were uninfected at all three follow-up periods, and 54 (28.6%) were uninfected for one or two periods. Compared with continuously infected children, children in these two groups had little evidence of improvements in any of the measured growth outcomes. Conclusions: H. pylori infection is not related to growth among Alaska Native children aged 7-11 years. Growth deficiency should not be considered an indication for H. pylori therapy.
PubMed ID
16684263 View in PubMed
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Changes in antibiotic-prescribing practices and carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: A controlled intervention trial in rural Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190037
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;34(12):1543-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2002
Author
Thomas W Hennessy
Kenneth M Petersen
Dana Bruden
Alan J Parkinson
Debby Hurlburt
Marilyn Getty
Benjamin Schwartz
Jay C Butler
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, 99508, USA. thennessy@cdc.gov
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;34(12):1543-50
Date
Jun-15-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Drug Prescriptions
Drug Utilization
Humans
Intervention Studies
Patient Education as Topic
Penicillin resistance
Physician's Practice Patterns
Pneumococcal Vaccines - immunology - pharmacology
Prospective Studies
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - classification - drug effects - immunology
Abstract
From 1998 to 2000, 13 rural Alaskan villages (population, 3326) were surveyed annually by nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage. Data regarding antibiotic use for the entire population was abstracted from clinic records. In 1999, education of medical providers and the community about appropriate antibiotic use began in 4 villages; this program was expanded to include all villages in 2000. Antibiotic courses per person decreased by 31% in the initial intervention villages and by 35% in the remaining villages after education (P
PubMed ID
12032887 View in PubMed
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Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257279
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Alan J Parkinson
Birgitta Evengard
Jan C Semenza
Nicholas Ogden
Malene L Børresen
Jim Berner
Michael Brubaker
Anders Sjöstedt
Magnus Evander
David M Hondula
Bettina Menne
Natalia Pshenichnaya
Prabhu Gounder
Tricia Larose
Boris Revich
Karsten Hueffer
Ann Albihn
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Anchorage, AK, USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25317383 View in PubMed
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Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121895
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18792
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
  1 website  
Author
Boris Revich
Nikolai Tokarevich
Alan J Parkinson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. revich@ecfor.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18792
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Climate change
Humans
Russia - epidemiology
Zoonoses - epidemiology
Abstract
Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22868189 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Climate Change in the North American Arctic: A One Health Perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263661
Source
Ecohealth. 2015 Jun 13;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-13-2015
Author
Joseph P Dudley
Eric P Hoberg
Emily J Jenkins
Alan J Parkinson
Source
Ecohealth. 2015 Jun 13;
Date
Jun-13-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change is expected to increase the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases among human and animal populations within the Arctic and subarctic latitudes of North America. Warmer temperatures are expected to increase disease risks from food-borne pathogens, water-borne diseases, and vector-borne zoonoses in human and animal populations of Arctic landscapes. Existing high levels of mercury and persistent organic pollutant chemicals circulating within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Arctic latitudes are a major concern for the reproductive health of humans and other mammals, and climate warming will accelerate the mobilization and biological amplification of toxic environmental contaminants. The adverse health impacts of Arctic warming will be especially important for wildlife populations and indigenous peoples dependent upon subsistence food resources from wild plants and animals. Additional research is needed to identify and monitor changes in the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans, domestic dogs, and wildlife species of critical subsistence, cultural, and economic importance to Arctic peoples. The long-term effects of climate warming in the Arctic cannot be adequately predicted or mitigated without a comprehensive understanding of the interactive and synergistic effects between environmental contaminants and pathogens in the health of wildlife and human communities in Arctic ecosystems. The complexity and magnitude of the documented impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems, and the intimacy of connections between their human and wildlife communities, makes this region an appropriate area for development of One Health approaches to identify and mitigate the effects of climate warming at the community, ecosystem, and landscape scales.
PubMed ID
26070525 View in PubMed
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A controlled, household-randomized, open-label trial of the effect that treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection has on iron deficiency in children in rural Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29244
Source
J Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 15;193(4):537-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2006
Author
Bradford D Gessner
Henry C Baggett
Pam T Muth
Eitel Dunaway
Benjamin D Gold
Ziding Feng
Alan J Parkinson
Author Affiliation
Section of Epidemiology, Alaska Division of Public Health, National Center for Infectious Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, 99524, USA. Brad_Gessner@health.state.ak.us
Source
J Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 15;193(4):537-46
Date
Feb-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency are prevalent in disadvantaged populations worldwide. Previous small or uncontrolled studies have reported that successful treatment of H. pylori infection may resolve iron deficiency or anemia. METHODS: We screened 68% of children 7-11 years old living in 10 western Alaska villages. The 219 children with iron deficiency (serum ferritin level,
PubMed ID
16425133 View in PubMed
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Diagnostic accuracy of tests for Helicobacter pylori in an Alaska Native population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128673
Source
World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov 14;17(42):4682-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-14-2011
Author
Dana L Bruden
Michael G Bruce
Karen M Miernyk
Julie Morris
Debby Hurlburt
Thomas W Hennessy
Helen Peters
Frank Sacco
Alan J Parkinson
Brian J McMahon
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging Zoonoses and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK 99508, United States. dbruden@cdc.gov
Source
World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov 14;17(42):4682-8
Date
Nov-14-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - epidemiology
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Breath Tests - methods
Diagnostic Tests, Routine - standards
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
Female
Helicobacter Infections - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Helicobacter pylori - immunology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Population Groups
Predictive value of tests
Sensitivity and specificity
Stomach Neoplasms - diagnosis - etiology
Urea - metabolism
Urease - metabolism
Young Adult
Abstract
To evaluate the accuracy of two non-invasive tests in a population of Alaska Native persons. High rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, H. pylori treatment failure, and gastric cancer in this population necessitate documentation of infection status at multiple time points over a patient's life.
In 280 patients undergoing endoscopy, H. pylori was diagnosed by culture, histology, rapid urease test, (13)C urea breath test (UBT), and immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori in serum. The performances of (13)C-UBT and antibody test were compared to a gold standard defined by a positive H. pylori test by culture or, in case of a negative culture result, by positive histology and a positive rapid urease test.
The sensitivity and specificity of the (13)C-UBT were 93% and 88%, respectively, relative to the gold standard. The antibody test had an equivalent sensitivity of 93% with a reduced specificity of 68%. The false positive results for the antibody test were associated with previous treatment for an H. pylori infection [relative risk (RR) = 2.8]. High levels of antibodies to H. pylori were associated with chronic gastritis and male gender, while high scores in the (13)C-UBT test were associated with older age and with the H. pylori bacteria load on histological examination (RR = 4.4).
The (13)C-UBT outperformed the antibody test for H. pylori and could be used when a non-invasive test is clinically necessary to document treatment outcome or when monitoring for reinfection.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22180710 View in PubMed
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Duration of hepatitis B immunity in low risk children receiving hepatitis B vaccinations from birth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5641
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul;23(7):650-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Kenneth M Petersen
Lisa R Bulkow
Brian J McMahon
Carolyn Zanis
Marilyn Getty
Helen Peters
Alan J Parkinson
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA.
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004 Jul;23(7):650-5
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hepatitis B - prevention & control
Hepatitis B Antibodies - immunology
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - immunology
Hepatitis B Vaccines - immunology
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination of infants is unknown. METHODS: We determined antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) at 4-13 years of age in 363 low risk children who had been vaccinated starting at birth with hepatitis B vaccine. Those with nonprotective titers ( or = 10 mIU/mL) of anti-HBs at 9 and 13 years, respectively. Of those who did not have protective antibody titers, 61% (33 of 54) and 67% (8 of 12), respectively, responded to a booster dose. In children of HBsAg-positive mothers, 31% retained protective anti-HBs at 12 years, and 90% (9 of 10) with nonprotective titers responded to a booster. In low risk children initially receiving a recombinant vaccine, 12.5% (26 of 208) and none (0 of 36) retained protective anti-HBs titers at 5 and 7 years of age, respectively. Of those who did not have protective titers, 90% (120 of 134) and 91% (32 of 35), respectively, responded to a booster. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HBs disappeared by 5 years of age in most children who were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine from birth. Although most children showed immunologic memory, one-third failed to demonstrate an anamnestic response to a booster dose. Additional long term studies of low risk infants are needed to determine duration of protection and the necessity for or timing of booster doses.
PubMed ID
15247604 View in PubMed
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