The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012.
The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425).
In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students.
The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.
The significance of the musculoskeletal function of the neck-shoulder region in different headache types in children and adolescents is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between different types of headache and the strength and mobility of the neck-shoulder region in 13-year-old schoolchildren. A structured questionnaire on headache was sent to all 1,409 children in the sixth grade in the city of Turku. Of the 1,135 (81%) children who completed the questionnaire, a sample from different headache groups was randomly selected for clinical examination. The study consisted of 59 children with migraine, 65 with episodic tension-type headache (TTHA), and 59 headache-free controls. Dynamic muscle strength of the upper extremities (UE endurance), mobility of both shoulders (UE mobility), and the cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured. Girls with episodic TTHA had lower UE endurance of both dominant and nondominant sides than girls in the other study groups. Girls with migraine had lower UE endurance of nondominant side than girls in the control group. In boys, no significant differences were observed. An interesting association between the function of the neck-shoulder region and headache complaints in adolescents was ascertained.