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Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137896
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10(1):3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
María M Morales-Suárez-Varela
Gunnar V Toft
Morten S Jensen
Cecilia Ramlau-Hansen
Linda Kaerlev
Ane-Marie Thulstrup
Agustín Llopis-González
Jørn Olsen
Jens P Bonde
Author Affiliation
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10(1):3
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Cryptorchidism - chemically induced
Denmark - epidemiology
Endocrine Disruptors - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypospadias - chemically induced
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Interviews as Topic
Male
Maternal Exposure
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Abstract
Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce.
We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals.
We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were obtained from Cox regression models.
Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed). The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases), and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases). The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6)] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4). Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4)] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7)]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance.
The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of hypospadias.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21235764 View in PubMed
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Risk of infection and adverse outcomes among pregnant working women in selected occupational groups: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139302
Source
Environ Health. 2010;9:70
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela
Linda Kaerlev
Jin Liang Zhu
Agustín Llopis-González
Natalia Gimeno-Clemente
Ellen A Nohr
Jens P Bonde
Jorn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Environ Health. 2010;9:70
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Care - manpower
Cohort Studies
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Food Industry - manpower
Health Personnel
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - microbiology
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Pregnant Women
Risk factors
Teaching - manpower
Abstract
Exposure to infectious pathogens is a frequent occupational hazard for women who work with patients, children, animals or animal products. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if women working in occupations where exposure to infections agents is common have a high risk of infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a population-based cohort study and studied the risk of Infection and adverse outcomes in pregnant women working with patients, with children, with food products or with animals. The regression analysis were adjusted for the following covariates: maternal age, parity, history of miscarriage, socio-occupational status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption.
Pregnant women who worked with patients or children or food products had an excess risk of sick leave during pregnancy for more than three days. Most of negative reproductive outcomes were not increased in these occupations but the prevalence of congenital anomalies (CAs) was slightly higher in children of women who worked with patients. The prevalence of small for gestational age infants was higher among women who worked with food products. There was no association between occupation infections during pregnancy and the risk of reproductive failures in the exposed groups. However, the prevalence of CAs was slightly higher among children of women who suffered some infection during pregnancy but the numbers were small.
Despite preventive strategies, working in specific jobs during pregnancy may impose a higher risk of infections, and working in some of these occupations may impose a slightly higher risk of CAs in their offspring. Most other reproductive failures were not increased in these occupations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21078155 View in PubMed
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Unemployment and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134627
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela
Linda Kaerlev
Jin Liang Zhu
Jens P Bonde
Ellen A Nohr
Agustín Llopis-González
Natalia Gimeno-Clemente
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - etiology
Pregnancy outcome
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the relation between employment status, type of unemployment and pregnancy outcomes.
A cohort study of 7,282 pregnancies of unemployed women and 56,014 pregnancies among women in paid jobs was performed within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained and information about lifestyle, occupational, medical, and obstetric factors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for fetal loss, congenital anomalies, multiple births, sex ratio, preterm and very preterm birth and small for gestational age status, adjusting for lifestyle, medical and obstetric factors.
There were no differences in pregnancy outcomes between employed and unemployed women but women receiving unemployment benefit had an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.31) and having a small for gestational age child (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.19) compared with employed women. Women receiving sickness or maternity benefit had an increased risk of multiple birth (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.43-2.04), preterm (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.77) and very preterm birth (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.22-2.89), while those receiving an unreported type of support had an increased risk of preterm birth (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93).
We found no indication that being unemployed during pregnancy benefits or endangers the health of the child. Within the subgroups of unemployed women, we observed that women receiving unemployment and sickness or maternity benefits were at higher risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
PubMed ID
21558297 View in PubMed
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