This study piloted a knowledge translation (KT) intervention promoting evidence-based home care through social interaction. A total of 33 providers organized into 5 heterogeneous, geographically defined action groups participated in 5 researcher-facilitated meetings based on the participatory action model. The KT evidence reflects an empowering partnership approach to service delivery. Exploratory investigation included quantitative pre-post measurement of outcomes and qualitative description of data, presented herein. The critical reflections of the groups reveal macro-, meso-, and micro-level barriers to and facilitators of KT as well as recommendations for achieving KT. Insights gleaned from the findings have informed the evolution of the KT intervention to engage all 3 levels in addressing barriers and facilitators, with a conscious effort to transcend "push" and "pull" tendencies and enact transformative leadership. The findings suggest the merit of a more prolonged longitudinal investigation with expanded participation.
To elicit an in-depth understanding of the sources of power and how power is exercised within client-nurse relationships in home-based palliative care.
As in all social relations, power is present within client-nurse relationships. Although much research has focused on interpersonal relationships in nursing, the concept of power within the client-nurse relationship in palliative care settings has not been extensively investigated.
Applying a critical lens, secondary qualitative data analysis was conducted. Seventeen nurse and 16 client transcripts from a primary study were selected for secondary data analysis. These 33 transcripts afforded theme saturation, which allowed for both commonalities and differences to be identified. Data analysis involved analytic coding.
Study findings help make explicit the underlying power present in the context of home-based palliative care and how this power is used and potentially abused. In analysing the sources and exercise of power, the linkage between macro and micro levels of power is made explicit, as nurses functioned within a hierarchy of power. The findings suggest that educational/occupational status continues to be a source of power for nurses within the relationship. However, nurses also experience powerlessness within the home care context. For clients, being able to control one's own life is a source of power, but this power is over-shadowed by the powerlessness experienced in relationships with nurses. The exercise of power by clients and nurses creates experiences of both liberation and domination.
Nurses who are willing to reflect on and change those disempowering aspects of the client-nurse relationship, including a harmful hierarchy, will ultimately be successful in the health promotion of clients in home-based palliative care. Additionally, it should be recognized that nurses work within a specific health system context and, therefore, their practice is influenced by policies and funding models implemented at various levels of the health care system.
The insights gained through this investigation may assist nurses and other health professionals in reflecting on and improving practices and policies within home-based palliative care and within home care in general.
Across practice settings, most nursing care is provided to older adults. Yet most nurses receive limited education to care for older adults, especially those with complex needs. A Knowledge Exchange Institute for Geriatric Nursing Education brought together 31 Canadian nursing faculty members and nursing doctoral students and provided them with tools and resources to enhance teaching and curriculum in baccalaureate nursing programs. Guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Process model, participants received usable summaries of the best research evidence about care for older adults and tools to increase the likelihood of successful integration of these resources in their teaching and curriculum. Feedback from participants indicates that their personal goals and the goals of the Knowledge Exchange were met. Through a public interactive wiki, participants and others will continue the process of knowledge exchange to improve nursing education and nursing care for older persons.
Providing palliative care in the home presents a variety of challenges for nurses and other care providers. As part of a focused ethnographic study examining client/caregiver/care-provider relationships within the socio-cultural context of home-based palliative care, this paper describes the provision of palliative care to Canadian seniors with advanced cancer from the perspective of nurses. Data were collected through in-depth interviews (n=19) with three palliative care nurses and participant observations in four households over a six-to-eight-month period. Home-based palliative care nursing was depicted in this study as a dialectical experience, revealing three relational practice patterns: making time-forfeiting time, connecting-withdrawing, and enabling-disabling. Nurses attempted to negotiate the tensions between these opposing approaches to palliative care. Study findings suggest that the sociocultural context of palliative care is not conducive to high-quality palliative care and provide several insights related to future directions for practice, policy, and research.
The caregiving experience within Alzheimer disease is fairly well documented. However, little research has been conducted from the perspective of the person living with dementia. The purpose of this study, part of a larger qualitative investigation of mother-daughter relationships within the care process of dementia, was to elicit the perceptions and experiences of mothers receiving care from their adult daughters. Guided by feminist and life-course perspectives, the researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a diverse sample of 10 community-dwelling women with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. In general, the health perceptions and experiences of the women were shaped by gender and how its meaning is constructed. While mothers reported mostly positive relationships with their daughters, cultural ideologies of individualism and familism manifested in feelings of "grateful guilt." Participants managed their contradictory experiences of receiving care from their daughters by doing care, undemanding care, determining care, and accepting care. The authors recommend changes in practice, policy, and research, with the aim of addressing relevant social determinants of health such as gender and social support, thereby promoting the health and well-being of women with dementia.