OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal development and peripheral concentrations of gonadotrophins and sex hormones in children with shunted hydrocephalus compared with healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: 114 patients (52 females, 62 males) and 73 healthy controls (35 females, 38 males) aged 5 to 20 years were analysed for stage of puberty, age at menarche, testicular volume, basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone and oestradiol concentrations, and free androgen index. RESULTS: Male gonadal and male and female pubic hair development occurred significantly earlier in the patients than in the controls. The mean age at menarche was significantly lower in the female patients than in their controls (11.7 v 13.2 years; p
To evaluate ovarian and adrenal steroid secretion in women with severe hyperandrogenism.
A prospective study.
The Gynecological Endocrine Research Unit of the University Central Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
Thirteen obese, hirsute women with severe hyperandrogenism.
Adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests and selective catheterizations of the left ovarian and adrenal veins were performed.
The concentrations of insulin, P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (A), T, DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol were measured.
The secretory gradients of T and its precursors, P, 17-OHP, A, and DHEA in the selective catheterizations showed the adrenal to be the main source of excessive steroid production in these patients. The concentrations of P (r = 0.82), 17-OHP (r = 0.89), A (r = 0.84), T (r = 0.86), and cortisol (r = 0.87) in the adrenal vein showed a strong correlation with insulin measured from the same samples.
Excessive androgens were secreted mainly by the adrenals in these obese hyperinsulinemic women. Correlation analyses suggested that insulin stimulates adrenal androgen and cortisol secretion, which may constitute an important component of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hyperandrogenism and the polycystic ovary syndrome.
Can serum anti-M?llerian hormone (AMH) levels measured in female adolescents predict polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated features in adolescence and early adulthood?
AMH levels associated well with PCOS-associated features (such as testosterone levels and oligoamenorrhoea) in adolescence, but was not an ideal marker to predict PCOS-associated features in early adulthood.
Several studies have reported that there is a strong correlation between antral follicle count and serum AMH levels and that women with PCOS/PCO have significantly higher serum AMH levels than women with normal ovaries. Other studies have reported an association between AMH serum levels and hyperandrogenism in adolescence, but none has prospectively assessed AMH as a risk predictor for developing features of PCOS during adulthood.
A subset of 400 girls was selected from the prospective population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 4567 at age 16 and n = 4503 at age 26). The population has been followed from 1986 to the present.
At age 16, 400 girls (100 from each testosterone quartile: 50 with oligo- or amenorrhoea and 50 with a normal menstrual cycle) were selected at random from the cohort for AMH measurement. Metabolic parameters were also assessed at age 16 in all participants. Postal questionnaires enquired about oligo- or amenorrhoea, hirsutism, contraceptive use and reproductive health at ages 16 and 26.
There was a significant correlation between AMH and testosterone at age 16 (r = 0.36, P
Cites: Ann Clin Biochem. 2011 Jul;48(Pt 4):370-321628625
The association of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio with Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG antibodies and high-sensitive C-reactive protein at 31 years of age in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.
Viruses and bacteria like Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori have been suggested to have a role in pathogenesis of overweight and obesity.
We studied whether C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibodies are associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and/or waist-hip ratio (WHR), and whether the risk is more pronounced in the simultaneous presence of an ongoing inflammation as measured by elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels.
Our study population was derived from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), a general population sample of 12,058 live-born children. This cross-sectional study consisted of 5044 persons at 31 years of age. Serum C. pneumoniae IgG titers were measured by microimmunofluorescence test, and hsCRP levels by immunoenzymometric assay.
C. pneumoniae IgG positivity (titer = 32), both alone and jointly with elevated hsCRP (= 1.64?mg?l(-1), an upper quartile), was found to significantly associate with elevated BMI in the whole study population and with elevated hip and waist circumference in women, yet no association with WHR was seen. The analyses were adjusted for sex (when appropriate), smoking, socioeconomic position, glucose, insulin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, triglycerides, leukocytes and pulse pressure.
These findings suggest that especially in women, persistent C. pneumoniae infection may be associated with overweight/obesity, independently of more traditional risk factors.
Variants in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) influence susceptibility to type 2 diabetes via an effect on adiposity/obesity. Given the important role of obesity in the aetiology of both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, our aim was to establish whether FTO variants are also implicated in PCOS susceptibility.
We performed a genetic association study of FTO variant rs9939609 using case-control analyses, conducted in 463 PCOS patients (geometric mean BMI 27.5 kg/m(2)) and 1,336 female controls (geometric mean BMI 25.3 kg/m(2)) of UK British/Irish origin. We also sought evidence for associations between FTO variation and circulating testosterone levels in 324 UK PCOS patients and 1,000 women from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966. Outcome measures included FTO rs9939609 genotype frequencies by participant group and androgen measures (testosterone, free androgen index) by genotype.
There was a significant association between FTO genotype and PCOS status in the UK case-control analysis, which was attenuated by adjustment for BMI (Cochran-Armitage test, odds ratio [per minor allele copy] 1.30 [95% CI 1.12, 1.51], p = 7.2 x 10(-4) [unadjusted], p = 2.9 x 10(-3) [adjusted]). This association was most evident in obese PCOS patients (PCOS patients below median BMI vs UK controls, p = 0.11; above median BMI vs controls, p = 2.9 x 10(-4)). No relationship between FTO genotype and androgen levels was seen.
We provide the first evidence that variants that predispose to common obesity also result in altered susceptibility to PCOS, confirming the mechanistic link between these conditions. The predominant effect of FTO variants on PCOS susceptibility is probably mediated through adiposity.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between body size from birth to adulthood and self-reported symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), particularly hirsutism and menstrual disturbances. DESIGN: Longitudinal, population-based study of a cohort of women born in 1966 in northern Finland. The study population included 2007 women who were not pregnant and did not use hormonal contraception. Of these 528 (26%) had self-reported symptoms of PCOS. RESULTS: Weight at birth, gestational age, being small for gestational age or growth retardation at birth were not associated with PCOS symptoms at 31 y. An increased risk of PCOS symptoms was observed among women with abdominal obesity (waist/hip ratio >85th percentile) at 31 y who had normal weight in adolescence and were overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI>30.0 kg/m(2)) at 31 y (relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.44(1.10-1.89)), and among women with abdominal obesity who were overweight or obese at both 14 and 31 y (1.71 (1.30-2.24)). A total of 30% and 41% of the women with PCOS symptoms in these groups could be attributed, respectively, to overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity at 31 y. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that obesity in adolescence and in adulthood, and also weight gain after adolescence, particularly in the presence of abdominal obesity, are associated with self-reported PCOS symptoms in adulthood. Thus, based on the results from intervention studies treating PCOS and the results of this study, the prevention of obesity and abdominal obesity is important among young women.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of combinations of cervical interleukin-6 (IL-6), cervical interleukin-8 (IL-8), the phosphorylated isoform of insulin-like growth-factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and cervical ultrasonography in the prediction of preterm birth. DESIGN: Prospective follow up. SETTING: Oulu University Hospital maternity clinic from February 1997 to July 1998. POPULATION: Women with singleton pregnancies (n = 77), referred from outpatient clinics at 22-32 weeks of gestation with symptoms (uterine contractions) or signs (cervical change) of threatened preterm birth. Symptomless women (n = 78) matched for gestational age, parity and maternal age at recruitment were studied as a reference group. METHODS: A urine sample for bacterial culture was collected, and cervical swab samples for assays of interleukin-6 and -8 and phoshorylated IGFBP-1 were taken before digital cervical examination. A Pap smear for analysis of bacterial vaginosis and samples for analysis of chlamydia and streptococci were also obtained. Cervical measurements were made by transvaginal ultrasonography. The same sampling and cervical measurement were repeated twice at two-week intervals. The cutoff values of the markers were determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Preterm birth ( 0.36 at recruitment predicted preterm birth in 25% (5/20) of the study group compared with 9% (5/54); LR+ 2.2 (95% CI 1.03-4.7). Cervical phosphorylated IGFBP-1 > 6.4 microg/L [LR+ 1.8 (95% CI 0.7-2.9)], interleukin-8 > 3739 ng/L [LR+ 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.4)], and ultrasonograpic cervical length 21.0 microg/L), 36% (4/11) compared with 4.6% (3/65), LR+ 6.7 (95% CI 2.7-17), the sensitivity being 67% (4/6) and the specificity 90% (63/70). Elevated phosphorylated IGFBP-1 concentrations (> 21.6 microg/L) were also associated with an increased risk of neonatal infections; LR+ 8.0 (95% CI 3.5-18). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in cervical IL-6 concentration and the ultrasonographically measured cervical index appear to be associated with preterm birth. A combination of these markers with measurement of cervical IL-8 appears to be the best predictor of preterm birth. Neither the sensitivity nor specificity of the tests used in this study are good enough to predict preterm birth for clinical decision making. Cervical phosphorylated IGFBP-1 seems to be a marker of puerperal and neonatal infectious morbidity in cases of threatened preterm delivery, suggesting early tissue degradation at the choriodecidual interface.
Previous studies have suggested that metformin is clinically useful in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the improvement of ovarian function achieved by metformin therapy is associated with changes in leptin concentrations. Twenty-six obese women with PCOS were treated with 500 mg metformin, x 3 daily, for 2 months; and 12 women continued the therapy for 4-6 months. A significant decrease in the serum leptin level was observed after 2 months of treatment in the whole study group (29.2 +/- 12.7 ng/mL vs. 25.7 +/- 10.9 ng/mL, P = 0.03). In the 12 women treated for 4-6 months, the mean serum leptin concentration decreased after 2 months (38.6 +/- 9.3 ng/mL vs. 30.2 +/- 8.1 ng/mL; P = 0.004) but slightly increased after 4-6 months of treatment (33.4 +/- 15.7 ng/mL; not significant). These results indicate that insulin sensitizing therapy with metformin decreases the leptin concentrations in obese PCOS women.
OBJECTIVE: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Insulin sensitizers, especially metformin, have been shown to improve these metabolic disturbances, but there are only a few studies on their effects on serum lipids in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: Thirty-five women with PCOS (18 obese and 17 non-obese) were randomized to 6-month treatments with metformin or ethinyl estradiol-cyproterone acetate oral contraceptive pills. RESULTS: In the whole-study population (non-obese and obese women) serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 1.4+/-0.2 to 1.6+/-0.1 mmol/l (means +/-S.E. throughout) at 3 and 6 months (P
We describe a patient with dysgerminoma who had elevated serum inhibin, tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI), and CA 125 concentrations, which increased progressively during follow-up of the advancing disease. Inhibin levels correlated closely with disease behavior. In contrast to inhibin, serum TATI and CA 125 failed to reveal the presence of silent disease.