High alcohol consumption is one of the major risk indicators for premature death in middle-aged men. An indicator of alcohol abuse--registration with the social authorities for alcoholic problems--was used to evaluate the role of alcohol in relation to general and cause-specific mortality in a general population sample. Altogether 1,116 men (11%) out of a total population of 10,004 men were registered for alcoholic problems. Total mortality during 11.8 years' follow-up was 10.4% among the non-registered men, compared to 20.5% among men with occasional convictions for drunkenness and 29.6% among heavy abusers. Fatal cancer as a whole was not independently associated with alcohol abuse, but oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers together were seven times more common in the alcohol-registered groups. Total coronary heart disease (CHD) was significantly and independently associated with alcohol abuse, but nearly all the excess CHD mortality among the alcohol-registered men could be attributed to sudden coronary death. Cases with definite recent myocardial infarction were not more common in the alcoholic population. A combined effect of coronary arteriosclerosis and heart muscle damage secondary to alcohol abuse is suggested. Other causes of death strongly associated with registration for alcohol abuse include pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and peptic ulcer, as well as death from liver cirrhosis and alcoholism. Of the excess mortality among alcohol-registered subjects, 20.1% could be attributed to CHD, 18.1% to violent death, 13.6% to alcoholism without another diagnosis and 11.1% to liver cirrhosis.
The consequences of alcoholic intemperance and economic problems on CHD mortality and morbidity were studied among the participants in a large primary preventive trial. Official register data were used. Subjects registered with the Board of Social Welfare were categorised with respect to increasing load of alcoholic intemperance. Non-fatal CHD was not related to alcoholic problems. Fatal CHD, on the other hand, was strongly associated with registration for intemperance. This was especially pronounced for cases dying suddenly from CHD. A multivariate analysis was performed, controlling for smoking, systolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol, which showed that the association between intemperance and fatal CHD was independent of these factors.
The aim was to To study the relationship between BMI and hospitalization for heart failure in people with Type 2 diabetes.
We identified 83 021 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry during 1998-2003, who were followed until hospitalization for heart failure, death or end of follow-up on 31 December 2009. Cox regression analyses were performed, adjusting for age, sex, HbA(1c), blood pressure, diabetes duration, smoking, microalbuminuria, cardiac co-morbidities, glucose-lowering and anti-hypertensive medications.
During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, 10 969 patients (13.2%) were hospitalized with heart failure. By categories of BMI, with BMI 20 to
AIMS: To assess the risk of death from coronary disease, and all causes associated with body mass index and weight gain from age 20 to middle age. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 6874 men aged 47 to 55 years at baseline and free of a history of myocardial infarction were followed with respect to mortality from coronary disease and from all causes over an average follow-up of 19.7 years, and with respect to non-fatal myocardial infarction for 11.8 years. High body mass index predicted death from coronary disease, but only at levels above 27.5 m.kg-2. Men with stable weight (defined as +/- 4% change from age 20) had the lowest death rate from coronary disease and the lowest risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction. Relative risk of coronary death increased with increasing weight gain, from 1.57 (1.14-2.15) (after adjustment for age, physical activity, and smoking) in the group who gained 4 to 10%, to 2.76 (1.97-3.85) in men with a weight gain of more than 35% (P for trend 0.0001), compared to men who remained stable. After further adjustment for serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes, relative risks were reduced but still significantly elevated in all weight gain groups (P for trend 0.004). Data concerning non-fatal myocardial infarction were available for the first 11.8 years and showed a relative risk of 3.35 (2.05-5.47) after adjustment for age, physical activity, and smoking in men with a weight gain of more than 35%. CONCLUSION: Weight gain from age 20, even a very moderate increase, is strongly associated with an increased risk of coronary death and non-fatal myocardial infarction.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 1999 Feb;20(4):246-810099915
AIM: To present reference values and correlations with body composition, blood variables and lifestyle factors. SUBJECTS: Two random population samples from Göteborg, Sweden, one comprising 184 men and 455 women aged 25-64 years (MONICA) and the other 860 women aged 55-82 years (BEDA) were studied. METHODS: Calcaneal ultrasound measurement (LUNAR Achilles) and bioimpedance were measured. Smoking habits, coffee consumption, physical activity, psychological stress, education and marital status, as well as blood lipids, blood pressure, and fractures were studied. RESULTS: Broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness were higher in men than in women (P
Cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of depression. Relationships with other mental disorders need elucidation. This study investigated whether fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of serious non-affective mental disorders. Further, we examined how having an affected brother might impact the relationship.
Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1 109 786 Swedish male conscripts with no history of mental illness, who underwent conscription examinations at age 18 between 1968 and 2005. Cardiovascular fitness was objectively measured at conscription using a bicycle ergometer test. During the follow-up (3-42 years), incident cases of serious non-affective mental disorders (schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders, other psychotic disorders and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders) were identified through the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the influence of cardiovascular fitness at conscription and risk of serious non-affective mental disorders later in life.
Low fitness was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.61], other psychotic disorders (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.27-1.56), and neurotic or stress-related and somatoform disorders (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.37-1.54). Relationships persisted in models that included illness in brothers.
Lower fitness in late adolescent males is associated with increased risk of serious non-affective mental disorders in adulthood.
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in sex ratios for different manifestations of coronary disease. DESIGN: National Swedish registers on hospital discharges and cause-specific deaths were used to calculate age- and sex-specific trends and sex ratios for coronary admissions and deaths. SETTING: Nineteen Swedish counties, average population 4.8-5.1 million in the investigated age groups. SUBJECTS: All patients aged 25-84 years with first hospital admissions or deaths as a result of coronary heart disease in 1984-99, in total 432,871 cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ratio men/women and rates (per 100,000) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute admissions for angina and total of all acute admissions for any coronary disease. RESULTS: Below age of 65 years AMI incidence decreased more for men than for women and rates of acute admissions for angina increased more in women than in men. In men and women above 65 years trends were almost identical. In 1984-87 the ratio men/women with respect to myocardial infarction was 5.6 at age 25-44 years, but decreased to 3.7 in 1996-99. Corresponding sex ratios for angina decreased from 3.2 to 1.8 and for total coronary heart disease from 4.7 to 2.8. Amongst men and women aged 45-54 years, the sex ratio with respect to myocardial infarction decreased from 5.6 to 4.1, for angina from 2.4 to 1.7 and for total acute coronary disease from 4.2 to 2.7. Ratios men/women decreased less at higher ages and remained unchanged throughout the period in the oldest age group. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found decreasing sex ratios at ages below 65, but above age 65 years trends in men and women were similar. These developments could be due to changing criteria for admission and diagnosis, but true differences in the clinical manifestation of coronary disease, possibly in response to secular trends in risk factor levels, cannot be excluded.