The aim of the study was to investigate which factors are associated with age at onset in bipolar disorder with a specific focus on excessive alcohol and cannabis use, and the sequence of the onsets of excessive substance use and bipolar disorder. We investigated a naturalistic sample of 151 patients with bipolar I and II disorder receiving psychiatric treatment. Whether the presence of excessive substance use prior to bipolar disorder onset or the type of substance used (alcohol or cannabis) was associated with differences in age at onset was investigated using hierarchical and multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for potential confounders. Patients with excessive alcohol use had a significantly later onset compared with patients with excessive cannabis use. Excessive general substance use prior to bipolar disorder onset was associated with a later onset. However, excessive cannabis use was associated with an earlier onset whether it preceded or followed bipolar disorder onset, also after adjusting for possible confounders. Excessive use of alcohol or other substances was not independently associated with age at onset in multivariate analyses. Alcohol use was associated with a later onset compared with cannabis use, suggesting different relationships to the onset of bipolar disorder. Lifetime use of cannabis predicted an earlier onset, independent of the sequence of onsets. This indicates that an early onset may increase the risk of cannabis use and that cannabis use may trigger bipolar disorder in vulnerable individuals.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;163(9):1633-616946191
BACKGROUND: There is a strong association between bipolar disorder (BD) and substance use disorder (SUD). The clinical and functional correlates of SUD in BD are still unclear and little is known about the role of excessive substance use that does not meet SUD criteria. Thus, the aims of the current study were to investigate lifetime rates of illicit substance use in BD relative to the normal population and if there are differences in clinical and functional features between BD patients with and without excessive substance use. METHODS: 125 consecutively recruited BD in- and outpatients from the Oslo University Hospitals and 327 persons randomly drawn from the population in Oslo, Norway participated. Clinical and functional variables were assessed. Excessive substance use was defined as DSM-IV SUD and/or excessive use according to predefined criteria. RESULTS: The rate of lifetime illicit substance use was significantly higher among patients compared to the reference population (OR = 3.03, CI = 1.9-4.8, p
Our aim was to study if the Birchwood Insight Scale has acceptable psychometric properties when used for patients with bipolar disorders. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 101), bipolar I (n = 57), and bipolar II disorder (n = 37) completed the self-report scale. The items form 3 subscales, awareness of illness, relabeling of symptoms, and need for treatment. The total scale had good internal consistency for patients with schizophrenia, fairly good for bipolar I, but poor for bipolar II disorder. On subscale level the internal consistency was mostly marginal to poor for all patient groups. The level of insight was similar in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. The psychometric properties for the insight scale were poorer in bipolar disorders than in schizophrenia, and the scale did not work for patients with bipolar II disorder. This suggests a cautious use of the scale across different diagnostic groups.
To investigate potential risk factors for medication non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
A total of 255 patients underwent clinical assessments, neurocognitive testing and blood sampling. The patients were divided into groups of 'No', 'Partial' or 'Full' adherence. Relationships to different risk factors were analyzed.
In schizophrenia, use of illicit substances, alcohol and poor insight were related to worse adherence. Schizophrenia patients with No adherence did better on tests of executive functioning, verbal learning and memory and had higher IQ than patients with better adherence. There were higher levels of autonomic side effects in the non-adherence group, but body mass index was lower in the Partial adherence group than in the Full adherence group. In the bipolar disorder patients, there was an association between the use of illicit substances and alcohol and poor adherence. We found no relationship between adherence behavior and neurocognition in the bipolar disorder group.
Substance use is an important risk factor for non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poor insight is also a risk factor in schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive dysfunction is not a risk factor for non-adherence in these diagnostic groups.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the symptoms delusions and hallucinations measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and cognitive insight as assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) in patients with schizophrenia. The BCIS is based on 2 subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty, measuring objectivity, reflectiveness and openness to feedback, and mental flexibility. Overall cognitive insight was defined as the difference between self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. This cross-sectional study of 143 patients showed that the occurrence of delusions is associated with low self-reflectiveness and high self-certainty, reflecting low cognitive insight. Hallucinations in the absence of delusions were associated with high self-reflectiveness and low self-certainty, possibly reflecting more open-mindedness and higher cognitive insight. The present findings suggest that delusions are associated with low cognitive insight, whereas solitary hallucinations may be associated with high cognitive insight.
Impaired emotion perception is documented for schizophrenia, but findings have been mixed for bipolar disorder. In healthy samples females perform better than males. This study compared emotion perception in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and investigated the effects of gender.
Visual (facial pictures) and auditory (sentences) emotional stimuli were presented for identification and discrimination in groups of participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls.
Visual emotion perception was unimpaired in both clinical groups, but the schizophrenia sample showed reduced auditory emotion perception. Healthy males and male schizophrenia subjects performed worse than their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences within the bipolar group.
A disease-specific auditory emotion processing deficit was confirmed in schizophrenia, especially for males. Participants with bipolar disorder performed unimpaired.
Previous studies of bipolar disorders indicate that childhood abuse and substance abuse are associated with the disorder. Whether both influence the clinical picture, or if one is mediating the association of the other, has not previously been investigated.
A total of 587 patients with bipolar disorders were recruited from Norway and France. A history of childhood abuse was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Diagnosis and clinical variables, including substance abuse, were based on structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders or French version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies).
Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with childhood abuse, specifically emotional and sexual abuse (? 2 = 8.63, p = 0.003 and ? 2 = 7.55, p = 0.006, respectively). Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with earlier onset of the illness (z = -4.17, p