We studied complications after hysterectomy among all women in the Danish population who had a simple hysterectomy in the period 1978-81 based on data obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry. Among patients, with neither diagnosed cancer nor major co-surgery (n = 23,386), we identified all the complications which occurred during hospital admission from the time of surgery up to six years from that point. Within 30 days of hysterectomy 2.6% of the patients had been diagnosed in hospitals as having complications according to our definition. The corresponding figures at 90 days and two years after the operation were 3.7% and 9.4%. The most frequently observed complications were post operative wound infections and bleeding, each affecting about 2% of all operated women. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to identify prognostic indicators of readmission with complications. The probability of readmission with complications within six years after hysterectomy was estimated at 8% among low risk patients. The most pronounced increase in risk of readmission with complication occurred among women who had been admitted to psychiatric or somatic hospitals 0-12 months before they had their uterus removed (OR in the range 1.59 to 1.83). We discuss the prevailing difficulties of comparing observational evidence from different clinical settings reported in the literature, and emphasize the importance of developing a coordinated international strategy for non-experimental assessment of medical technology.
This article examines some of the key research and policy issues that are emerging as a result of recent analyses of regional variations in health care. The article presents a historical background to this important new field of health services' research, and indicates, using some Danish examples of research on hysterectomy, cholecystectomy, and prostatectomy, the relevance of this research to management and policy planning. Regional variations are not yet fully explained in terms of what causes them. What is clear and what is the primary focus of this article is that their very existence, whatever their explanation, creates a major challenge for the management and planning of future health services.
This national cohort study included all clinical pregnancies obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) registered in Denmark between January 1994 and July 1997 at five public and eight private fertility clinics. Laboratory and clinical data were obtained from the fertility clinics. The couples answered a questionnaire regarding the pregnancy and the health of the child (response rate 94%). Data validation was carried out through discharge charts. The mean age of the women was 32.1 years. In 84.2% of couples, male factor was the main reason for performing ICSI, and in 4.8% epididymal spermatozoa were used. The mean number of embryos replaced was 2.3 (range 1-3) and in 95% of cases fresh embryos were transferred. Only 183 women (28.5%) underwent prenatal diagnosis, resulting in 209 karyotypes with seven (3.3%) chromosome aberrations. Six major chromosomal abnormalities (2.9%) and one inherited structural chromosome aberration (0.5%) were found, but no sex chromosome aberrations. The frequency of multiple birth, Caesarean section rate, gestational age, preterm birth, and birth weight were comparable with previous studies. The perinatal mortality rate was 13.7 per 1000 children born with a gestational age of 24 weeks or more. In 2.2% (n = 16) of the liveborn infants, and in 2.7% (n = 20) of all infants, major birth defects were reported by the parents. Minor birth defects were found in nine liveborn infants (1.2%). In conclusion, the results of this study on outcome of ICSI pregnancies are in line with earlier reports, except that no sex chromosome abnormalities were found.
This paper assesses the risk of dying within 30 days of admission among 13,854 women who had a cholecystectomy performed as the principal operation from 1977 to 1981. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.2%. Women who had a simple elective cholecystectomy performed had a mortality rate similar to women who had a simple hysterectomy. The mortality was significantly higher than in the general female population (p less than 0.05). Increased age, acute admission, admissions to hospital within 3 months prior to the index admission, the number of discharge diagnoses, and the geographical region were significantly associated with increased mortality. Exploration of the common bile duct was associated with higher mortality in the bivariate analysis, but the association disappeared when the number of discharge diagnoses was taken into account. Type of hospital and the population based cholecystectomy rate of the patient's residential area was not associated with mortality. As regards early mortality, it is concluded that simple elective cholecystectomy is a safe procedure before the age of 50 to 60 years. Acute admissions and more than one diagnosis at discharge were associated with an increased mortality, whereas exploration of the common bile duct may not be as important an independent factor as previously assumed.
The main objective of this cohort study was to analyse the early postoperative mortality after 'simple' hysterectomy for benign indications and to compare it with that of a randomly selected reference group of women matched for age. Registry data covering the entire Danish female population were used. Included in the study were all patients operated in the period 1977-1981. Patients were only included if no cancer was diagnosed and if no major co-surgery was performed (29,192 patients). Cancer patients were also excluded in the reference group (16,182 women). Mortality was studied according to characteristics of patients, their residential area, the surgical approach and operating hospital. Overall 47 patients died within 30 days of admission for hysterectomy (overall mortality 16.1 per 10,000). Only seven deaths were expected on the basis of the population sample, and adjusted for age, the relative risk (RR) for hysterectomy patients was 6.38 (95% CI 4.33-9.39). Early postoperative mortality increased with age, and the risk was elevated among emergency patients (RR = 3.22; 1.72-6.04). Patients with more than one diagnosis at discharge (RR = 4.53; 2.12-9.70) were at high risk, but early postoperative mortality was independent of surgical approach. Causes of death are discussed. Compared to the general population, patients who undergo 'simple' hysterectomy are faced with a sixfold risk of dying within 30 days, but a complete assessment of the risks and benefits of hysterectomy requires prospective studies of survival and morbidity, including quality of life for longer periods of time following operations.
BACKGROUND: A dose of 150 IU/day of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) is commonly used as a "standard" dose for "standard" patients in the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle. In the second cycle, the starting dose is adjusted in those patients who had an inappropriate response during the first cycle. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of dose adjustments on ovarian response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study including 567 first IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using the long agonist protocol in "standard" patients. In the second cycle 385 patients who had failed to achieve an ongoing pregnancy were included. The starting dose in the second cycle was adjusted according to the response in the first cycle. RESULTS: A total of 215 patients (55.8%) had altered starting dose in the second cycle: 193 (50.1%) received >150 IU/day, whereas 22 (5.7%) had 150 IU/day, significantly more follicles (9.8 vs. 8.3, p = 0.002) and oocytes (8.4 vs. 6.7, p
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of developing ovarian cancer after abdominal (total or subtotal) hysterectomy on benign indication. DESIGN: Prospective historical cohort study with 12.5 years of follow up. SETTING: Denmark, nationwide. POPULATION: All Danish women (aged 0 to 99 years) having undergone hysterectomy with conservation of at least one ovary for a benign indication from 1977 to 1981 (n = 22,135). Follow up was conducted from 1977 to 1991. The reference group included all Danish women who had not undergone hysterectomy, age-standardised according to the hysterectomy group (n = 2,554,872). METHODS: Registry data derived from the Danish National Register of Patients (diagnoses and operation codes) and the Civil Registration System (information about general population, including time of death). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rate of ovarian cancer, lifetime risk of ovarian cancer, relative risk of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Seventy-one women developed ovarian cancer on average 7.0 years after hysterectomy and 10,659 women in the reference group had ovarian cancer diagnosed after on average 6.4 years. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer was 0.27 per 1000 person-years in the group that had undergone hysterectomy and 0.34 per 1000 person-years in the general population (age-standardised). The extrapolated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer was 2.1% after hysterectomy and 2.7% in the general population (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.60-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of ovarian cancer is lower among women who have undergone hysterectomy compared with those who have not. The protection seems to decrease with time.
Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility?
Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile patients aged 20-39 years compared with a control group of the same age with no history of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The management of patients with a low ovarian reserve and a poor response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) remains a challenge in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Both AMH levels and AFC reflect the ovarian reserve and are valuable predictors of the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins. However, there is a large inter-individual variation in the age-related depletion of the ovarian reserve and a broad variability in the levels of AMH and AFC compatible with conception. Women with an early depletion of the ovarian reserve may experience infertility as a consequence of postponement of childbearing. Thus, low ovarian reserve is considered to be overrepresented among infertile patients.
A prospective cohort study including 382 women with a male partner referred to fertility treatment at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark during 2011-2013 compared with a control group of 350 non-users of hormonal contraception with no history of infertility recruited during 2008-2010.
Included patients and controls were aged 20-39 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome were excluded. On Cycle Days 2-5, AFC and ovarian volume were measured by transvaginal sonography, and serum levels of AMH, FSH and LH were assessed.
Infertile patients had similar AMH levels (11%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1;24%) and AFC (1%, 95% CI: -7;8%) compared with controls with no history of infertility in an age-adjusted linear regression analysis. The prevalence of very low AMH levels (
In this retrospective case control study we analysed the causes and treatments of infertility in 100 ethnic couples consecutively discharged from the Fertility Clinic in the period October 1995 to March 1999. The mean age at referral was 28 years (19-37) for ethnic women and 31 years (24-39) for Danish women. Male infertility was the most frequent cause in ethnic couples compared to Danish couples (24% vs. 16%; NS). Tubal infertility was less frequent in ethnic than in Danish couples (19% vs. 45%; p
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Oct 9;162(41):552211068537
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 2000 Oct 9;162(41):552211068536