This study investigated how English and Canadian families with preschool children used strategies to impose varying levels of order to manage day-to-day activities. This grounded theory study is a secondary analysis of 55 hours of participant observation and interviews with 58 individuals and 29 couples. Constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling were used to construct categories. To attempt to impose order, strategies used by families included organizing and planning, establishing routines, setting limits, setting standards, purchasing services and technology, and delegating tasks. Most families used these strategies successfully; costs outweighed benefits where families concentrated inflexibly on a few strategies in particular spheres of activity or had difficulty using strategies. Families using a variety of strategies flexibly were better at balancing personal and family goals, promoting fulfillment, health, and happiness for each family member, and fostering family development and commitment. Imposing order links everyday family dynamics and concerns to long-term goals.
In general, the nursing literature neglects healthy families and depictions of families are dominated by systems and developmental theory. The preponderance of dual-earner families has changed the meaning of family, however, nurses have given minimal attention to how women and men attend to work and home. Balancing personal and family trajectories is a substantive theory that accounts for how Canadian and English couples with pre-school children managed work and family life. The theory describes their efforts to maximize personal and family development, by using processes that attempted to support and sustain individual and family health, happiness, and fulfillment.
Little is known about how preterm infants make the transition from breast-feeding and bottle feeding to exclusive breast-feeding in the weeks following hospital discharge. This study examined the breastfeeding patterns of preterm infants born at 30 to 35 weeks' gestation over a 4-week period following hospitalization.
Daily feeding diaries were completed by 53 mothers. These diaries were used to describe the proportion of breast milk feeds and feeds directly at breast.
Infants received a high proportion of breast milk feeds, with 60% receiving breast milk exclusively for the first week, and 56% receiving breast milk exclusively for the 4-week period. The proportion of feeds at breast increased steadily over the 4 weeks, with 50% primarily breastfeeding in week 4. Infants who received breast milk exclusively in week 1 were significantly more likely to be primarily fed directly at breast in week 4.
Adequacy of the milk supply was a key factor in the successful transition from primarily bottle feeding at hospital discharge to primarily breast-feeding at home. The study provides some insight about this complex and poorly understood transition.
In this article, we explain how children managed their experiences of living with a parent with a mental illness. Symbolic interactionism served as the theoretical framework. The sample comprised 22 children between 6 and 16 years of age, who were living part- or full-time with a parent with depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar illness. Data collection included interviews, participant observation, and drawing. Concurrent data collection and constant comparative analysis were undertaken to generate two core variables: finding the rhythm and maintaining the frame. Finding a rhythm with their parents required children to monitor and adjust to their parents' behaviors so they could maintain connections with parents and family stability. Maintaining the frame allowed children to create safe distances between themselves and their parents so they could preserve themselves while trying to stay connected. The children were managing their lives and identities to avoid being engulfed by their parents' mental illnesses.
We examined constructions of labor and birth for 461 Canadian women who attended the University of British Columbia (Canada) and participated in an online survey about pregnancy and birth, using a combination of Likert items and open-ended questions. We performed a content analysis of women's open-ended responses about their feelings toward birth and analyzed comments of women with high and low fear of childbirth separately. Students with high fear of birth described childbirth as a frightening and painful ordeal and viewed obstetric interventions as a means to make labor and birth more manageable. Students with low fear constructed birth as a natural event and regarded interventions more critically. Students in both groups supported women's autonomous maternity care decisions. Our findings contribute to care providers' and educators' knowledge about preferences and fears expressed by the next generation of maternity care consumers and potential strategies to reduce their fear of childbirth.
This study proposes, tests, and supports the perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE), a model aimed at explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. According to this model, socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) confers risk for binge eating by generating exposure to 4 triggers of binge episodes: interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. In testing the PMOBE, a daily diary was completed by 566 women for 7 days. Predictions derived from the PMOBE were supported, with tests of mediation suggesting that the indirect effect of SPP on binge eating through triggers of binge episodes was significant. Reciprocal relations were also observed, with certain triggers of binge episodes predicting binge eating (and vice versa). Results supported the incremental validity of the PMOBE over and above self-oriented perfectionism and neuroticism and the generalizability of this model across Asian and European Canadian participants. The PMOBE offers a novel view of individuals with high levels of SPP as active agents who raise their risk of binge eating by generating conditions in their daily lives that are conducive to binge episodes.
Data gathered by Boas in the 1890s from 1749 adult males and 1056 adult females were subjected to anthropometric analyses to investigate possible effects of climatic adaptation. The subjects were native people from California, Oregon, Washington, the panhandle of Alaska, and British Columbia. They were categorized by their tribe's latitude and longitude (the center point of tribal distribution) and by habitat (characterized as coastal, western lowlands, and interior). Multiple R regressions were used to determine complex relationships between age, habitat, latitude, rainfall, mean January temperature, mean July temperature, and blood quantum, all of which affected some anthropometric variables to statistically significant degrees in both the male and the female samples. Body size and proportional differences support other studies of Bergmann's and Allen's rules, and variation in the nasal index supports prior studies of selection of longer, narrower noses in cold and dry climates and broader noses in warmer, moister ones. Recent disruption in the central portion of the study area was detectable in reduced size of subjects in these regions. Other complicating factors, such as ethnicity and the possibility of prior migrations and intermarriage between populations, are discussed.
Until 1955, the Saskatchewan Hospital, North Battleford, was the only facility designated for in-patient psychiatric treatment of the northern half of Saskatchewan's population. In that year the University Hospital's 39-bed psychiatric unit was opened in Saskatoon, but the number of Saskatoon patients referred to North Battleford have continued to increase.A statistical study of changes in the annual admission rates (patients/1000 population) to the Saskatchewan Hospital shows that the opening of the University Hospital unit has reduced the rate of intake of Saskatoon residents to the Saskatchewan Hospital. This decrease is related to specific diagnostic groups. There have also been changes in methods of referral.
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1963 Feb 16;88:360-413993159