BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with endocrine changes (e.g., increased estrogen and decreased testosterone in the blood) that have been implicated in the cause of prostate cancer and, therefore, an association between body weight and the risk of developing prostate cancer would be expected. However, because of bias or low statistical power in previous epidemiologic studies, associations between anthropometric measurements (height and weight), body mass index (BMI), and the risk of prostate cancer may have been inadvertently overlooked. PURPOSE: We performed a large, retrospective cohort study among Swedish construction workers to evaluate possible associations of adult weight, height, BMI, and lean body mass (LBM) by age at entry in the study with the incidence and mortality rate of prostate cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data that had been compiled in a computerized central register on a cohort of approximately 135000 male construction workers. Information on height and weight had been collected with the use of a comprehensive questionnaire filled out by nurses at the time of enrollment in the cohort, from 1971 through 1975. Complete follow-up was achieved through 1991 by means of record linkage to the Swedish National Cancer Register, the Death Register, and the Migration Register. A total of 2368 incident cases and 708 deaths from prostate cancer occurred in the cohort during a follow-up period averaging 18 years. We used only information obtained at the index visit from 1971 through 1975 to determine age-adjusted rate ratios (RRs) in a Poisson-based multiplicative multivariate model with age and the relevant exposure variable (e.g., weight, height, BMI, and LBM) as independent variables. RESULTS: All anthropometric measurements were positively associated with the risk of prostate cancer and were more strongly related to mortality than to incidence. The excess risk of death from prostate cancer was statistically significant in all BMI categories above the reference category: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.81) in the highest category compared with the lowest (P for trend = .04). For height and LBM, the excess risk in the highest compared with the lowest categories was somewhat less pronounced: RR = 1.28 (95% CI = 1.02-1.60) and RR = 1.26 (95% CI = 1.02-1.57), respectively. Statistically significant linear dose-response relationships were also found with the incidence of prostate cancer, with the exception of BMI (P for trend = .10). CONCLUSION: Our large cohort study indicates that various aspects of body size are related to the risk of prostate cancer and that future studies are needed to study the role of body size and prostate cancer.
A new five-component acellular pertussis (AP) vaccine containing 10 micrograms of pertussis toxoid, 5 micrograms of filamentous hemagglutinin, 5 micrograms of combined agglutinogens 2 and 3, and 3 micrograms of pertactin was evaluated in adults and young children. AP vaccine was compared with saline placebo in 31 adults, and AP vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (ADTP) was compared with whole cell DTP in 41 children, ages 16-20 months, who had received whole cell DTP during infancy. AP was mildly to moderately reactogenic in adults, with pain noted within 72 h and 5-8 days after immunization. ADTP was less reactogenic than DTP in children, with significantly decreased pain, redness, irritability, and fever and less use of acetaminophen reported. No late reactions were observed in any child. The multicomponent ADTP was immunogenic, with four-fold or greater antibody rises to at least four pertussis antibody assays in all 15 immunized adults. Pertussis-specific antibody responses in children who received ADTP and DTP were similar. The multicomponent ADTP vaccine is currently being studied in a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored efficacy study in Sweden.
The present study explored the role of genetic factors in the development of neurotic depression. Case studies of 16 monozygotic (MZ) and 14 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins from Robert Shapiro's 1970 study of non-endogenous depression were rediagnosed by two raters blind to the zygosity and identity of each twin. Diagnoses were made using Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and George Winokur's 1985 criteria for neurotic-reactive depression. When neurotic depression was operationally defined using Winokur's criteria plus RDC major or definite minor depression, the concordance rate for MZ twins was significantly greater than that for DZ twins. Our results contrast with Shapiro's negative findings, probably due to our use of formal diagnostic criteria and Shapiro's requirement that cotwins be hospitalized to be considered concordant. The present results suggest that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of at least some forms of neurotic depression.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract illness frequently. No effective antivirals or vaccines for RSV are approved for use in the United States; however, there are at least 50 vaccines and monoclonal antibody products in development, with those targeting older adults and pregnant women (to protect young infants) in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Unanswered questions regarding RSV epidemiology need to be identified and addressed prior to RSV vaccine introduction to guide the measurement of impact and future recommendations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a technical consultation to gather input from external subject matter experts on their individual perspectives regarding evidence gaps in current RSV epidemiology in the United States, potential studies and surveillance platforms needed to fill these gaps, and prioritizing efforts. Participants articulated their individual views, and CDC staff synthesized individuals' input into this report.
This extensive review of morbidity and mortality patterns cites data from Bygghälsan, a Swedish program that has followed a quarter of a million construction workers for two decades. Comparisons are made among different types of workers, and standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios are presented.
The cohort of workers employed in a Swedish vinyl chloride/poly(vinyl chloride) plant since its start in the early 1940's has been followed for mortality and cancer morbidity patterns. Only 21 of the 771 persons could not be traced. Difficulties in establishing exposure levels at different work areas in the past makes an evaluation of dose-effect relationships impossible. A four- to fivefold excess of pancreas/liver tumors was found, including two cases later classified as angiosarcomas of the liver. The number of brain tumors and suicide do not deviate significantly from expected. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, on the other hand, differ significantly from the expected. The discrepancies between previous reports on VCM/PVC workers and this report are discussed. The possible etiology of the cardiovascular deaths is also discussed.
A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 in order to study the connection between nasal and sinonasal cancer and various occupational exposures. All new cases of nasal and sinonasal cancer were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland and Sweden) or from the hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to an interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was made according to standardized forms. Both cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal and sinonasal cancer and exposure to (i) hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14: 2), (ii) softwood dust alone (13:4), (iii) chromium (16: 6), (iv) nickel (12: 5, not significant), (v) welding, flame-cutting and soldering (17: 6), and (vi) lacquers and paints (14: 0). The last finding was probably due to confounding from wood dust exposure. Hardwood dust exposure was associated with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents.
Nasal and sinus paranasal cancers have been associated with several occupational exposures, for example, dust from hardwood, nickel and unspecific agents occurring in the boot and shoe industry. A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 to study further the connection between nasal and sinus paranasal cancers and various occupational exposures. All new cases of these cancers were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland & Sweden) or from hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to the interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age and sex with patients with colonic or rectal cancer. A detailed telephone interview was performed according to a standardized procedure. Both the cases and referents thought that their condition was the one under study. The exposures were coded blindly by an experienced industrial hygienist. The results showed associations between nasal or sinus paranasal cancer and exposure to hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14/2); softwood dust alone (13/4); chromium 16/6); nickel (12/5, not significant); welding, flamecutting, and soldering (17/16); and lacquers and paints (12/0). Hardwood dust exposure showed a connection with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic carcinomas. No associations were found for a number of exposures, including agricultural chemicals, textile dust, asbestos, quartz dust, organic solvents, and leather work. Possible exposure to formaldehyde was evenly distributed between the cases and referents.