An explosion in a Danish supertanker under construction in 1994 caused the death of six workers and injured 15. Six months later 270 workers took part in this study, which analyses the relationships between objective stressors, the workers' own feelings and the reactions of their families after the explosion together with training, attitude to the workplace, general out-look, and received crisis help. Traumatisation, coping style and crisis support was assessed via the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Crisis Support Scale (CSS). Emotionally, workers and their families were strongly affected by the explosion. The IES-score was 17.6 and the invasion score 9.1. The degree of traumatisation was higher in the group who had an 'audience position' than in the group who was directly hit by the explosion. Training in rescue work did not protect against adverse effects. Rescue work had a strong impact on the involved. Social support was a significant factor, that seems to buffer negative effects. High level of social integration, effective leadership in the situation, and professional crisis intervention characterised the disaster situation. All the same, 41 per cent of the workers reached the caseness criteria by Horowitz (IES > or = 19).
Prior research has shown that young refugees may be especially traumatised. The study includes 123 young Bosnian refugees, living at two Bosnian boarding-schools in Denmark who were given a revised version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). The subjects themselves have on average experienced seven traumatic events, and have either witnessed or had a family member experience an additional six events. Three-quarters have been shot at, have lost their homes and private possession and have been exposed to violence in the form of harassment or humiliation. Two-thirds have lost friends. Three-fifths have lived with uncertainty as to whether friends and family were alive or dead. More than half have seen dead and wounded people, have had their lives threatened and have thought that they would die. More than a third have lost close family members, have been wounded and have had their homes destroyed. Just under a third have been exposed to physical violence or have witnessed somebody being killed. A quarter have starved and been ill without being able to receive treatment. About a fifth have experienced captivity, torture and forced labour. 6% have been raped or exposed to other forms of sexual abuse. It is concluded that the young Bosnians examined are a multitraumatised group. Use of the HTQ increased the number of traumatic events quite considerably compared to the case notes.
The purpose of the study was to make a psychological profile of Danish women with Eating Disorders, who were not currently hospitalized. 75 women between the ages of 19 and 46 years participated. 22 participants suffered from a clinical eating disorder (ED). 20 women had previously suffered from a clinical ED, and 33 women had never suffered from ED. The study included sociodemographic data, problems in relation to eating and weight, exposure to stressful life events, and the following questionnaires: The Eating Disorder Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Coping Styles Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Defense Style Questionnaire, and the Trauma Symptom Checklist. Psychologically, women with ED differed significantly from women without ED by using a more primitive defense style, perceiving themselves as being more exposed to stress, using more inefficient methods of coping and having lower self-esteem. Unexpectedly, the study also showed that recovery from an ED was resulting in normalisation of both behavioral and psychological characteristics. The implications of these findings are discussed.
We hypothesised that being diagnosed with gynaecological cancer influences adult attachment and occurrence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The main aim of the study was to assess changes in the attachment dimensions, PTSD and depression from baseline to 5-month post-treatment. Further, we evaluated the association between attachment avoidance/anxiety dimensions and PTSD/depression among women newly diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, or cervical cancer.
Consecutive Danish-speaking women aged 20 to 75 years and treated surgically for primary gynaecological cancer were eligible. All patients were offered a rehabilitation programme consisting of two face-to-face sessions and two phone calls carried out by a nurse. Patients were asked to complete the Revised Adult Attachment Scale, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Major Depression Inventory at baseline and at 5-month follow-up. In all, 151 women consent to participate in the sessions where 51 fulfilled Revised Adult Attachment Scale questionnaire and contribute with socio-demographic data.
We found significant positive changes within the attachment anxiety dimension among women with ovarian cancer, a significant reduction of PTSD among endometrial cancer patients and insignificant changes in depression among all cancer types. The attachment anxiety dimension significantly increased the odds for PTSD and depression.
Increased residential mobility has been proposed as an undesirable consequence for the victims of sexual victimization. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that serious sexual victimization predicted high levels of residential mobility after controlling for previous levels of residential mobility.
A case-control design was used. Data were from the Danish civil registry system.
All females who had visited a centre for rape victims over a 1-year period were identified, and demographic information was collected based on the Danish civil registry number. A control group of 20 women for each rape victim with the same age and living in the same municipality in the year of the rape was also used.
The results indicate that attendance at the centre for rape victims, higher previous levels of residential mobility and being single significantly increase the likelihood of subsequent high residential mobility.
Sexual victimization has a unique and significant role in predicting residential mobility, above and beyond the influence of previous residential mobility.