A continuous record of postoperative surgical infections was carried out by electronic data processing of 9,181 orthopaedic and general operations. The overall infection rate was 5.7%, ranging from 2.0% (clean wounds) to 22.1% (dirty wounds). The corresponding deep infection rates were 1.7%, 0.4% and 5.4%, respectively. Employing a multiple logistic regression analysis, ten risk factors were evaluated. Factors found to be significant for both departments were: wound contamination, duration of operation and age. In addition, in the department of orthopaedic surgery: date of operation and surgeon, and in the department of general surgery: planning of operation, length of preoperative stay and anatomic groups. Sex had no influence on postoperative infection. Significant factors altered during the four years. Postoperative stay was, on an average, 13.9 days longer in infected patients.
A continuous record of postoperative surgical infections was carried out by electronic data processing (EDP) of 4340 orthopaedic and general operations. The overall infection rate was 6.3%, ranging from 2.3% (clean wounds) to 27.1% (dirty wounds). The corresponding deep infection rates were 1.6%, 0.4% and 4.6%. Employing a multiple logistic regression analysis, 10 risk factors were evaluated. Factors found to be significant were: wound contamination, department, duration of operation, date of operation and age, and in addition for the department of general surgery: surgeon, planning of operation, length of preoperative stay and anatomic groups. A statistical model for identification of risk patients is described. Postoperative stay was on average 20.5 days longer in infected patients. We find that EDP-recording may result in an annual cost reduction of at least 175,000 pounds for our hospital.
A cohort of 4515 surgical patients in ten selected intervention groups was followed. Three hundred and seventeen developed postoperative wound infections, and 291 of these cases were matched 1:1 to controls by operation, sex and age. In comparison to the controls the cases stayed longer in hospital after the intervention and had more contact after discharge with the social security system. Using data from a national sentinel reference database of the incidence of postoperative wound infections, and using national activity data, we established an empirical cost model based on the estimated marginal costs of hospital resources and social sick pay. It showed that the hospital resources spent on the ten groups, which represent half of the postoperative wound infections in Denmark, amounted to approximately 0.5% of the annual national hospital budget. This stratified model creates a better basis for selecting groups of operations which need priority in terms of preventive measures.
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between various microorganisms isolated from the genital tract in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based study among pregnant women addressed at their first antenatal visit before 24 full gestational weeks from the referring area of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, from November 1992 to February 1994. The main outcome measures were prevalence of various microorganisms and statistical estimates of interactions (crude, adjusted, and relative odds ratios) between the microorganisms isolated from the lower genital tract in pregnant women with and without clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred ninety-six (3596) pregnant women were asked to participate. Of the 3596 pregnant women 3174 (88.4%) agreed to participate before 24 full gestational weeks. After controlling for the presence of other microorganisms, strong associations between Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, Mycoplasma hominis, and present bacterial vaginosis were found. Similarly Lactobacillus spp. were found to be associated with the absence of bacterial vaginosis. The combination of G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria and/or M. hominis was found in 59.6% of the cases with bacterial vaginosis and in 3.9% of the cases without bacterial vaginosis (odds ratio 36.4, 95% confidence interval 27.8 to 47.8). The crude odds ratio was found to be as high as 74.8 (95% confidence interval 32.3 to 174.1) when the combination of G. vaginalis, M. hominis, anaerobic bacteria, and no Lactobacillus spp. was associated with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSION: There is a microbial foundation for bacterial vaginosis, and it is possibly due to an intermicrobial interaction in which the microorganisms G. vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and M. hominis are dominating, indicating that these constitute the pathologic core of bacterial vaginosis.
The first case of melioidosis reported in Denmark was in a 64-year-old man 2 weeks after his return from a 3-week visit to Kenya. The clinical course was characterized by septicaemia and Pseudomonas pseudomallei was isolated from repeated blood cultures, urine and sputum. Transient impairment of cellular immunity was observed. During the convalescence a cell-mediated immune response against the pathogen was detected by the lymphocyte blast transformation test. Two precipitins against P. pseudomallei were detected by crossed immunoelectrophoresis; the most pronounced was directed against the common antigen of P. aeruginosa. The patient was treated with a combination of oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for one month, followed by sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for another month. The clinical response to the treatment was good. The patient had previously had recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. The relationship of melioidosis to tuberculosis is briefly discussed.
In connection with screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease in Bispebjerg Hospital, we have assessed three different models for calculation of the risk, employed on our own material. A total of 462 persons participated in the screening and 275 of these were under the age of 65 years. Out of these 275, 92 had plasma cholesterol values over or equal to 7.0 mmol/l and or smoked over 20 gram tobacco daily. On comparison between three models for calculation of the risk: one American, one British and one Swedish, moderate agreement was observed: the correlation coefficients varied between 0.75 and 0.89. The reason for this may be that the models for calculation of the risk are constructed on the basis of statistics already described from epidemiological investigations in which coincidence is demonstrated between selected observable factors and ischaemic heart disease. It is thus possible that the factors which we measure and possibly attempt to influence are not pathogenetic. We consider, therefore, that risk scoring should be employed with caution. As causal connection between ischaemic heart disease and cholesterol and smoking, respectively, have been demonstrated with reasonable certainty, we consider that it is reasonable to screen and intervene for these factors alone.
The surgical team is potentially at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the patient. Assuming that the probability of an accidental injury during surgery is 0.01 (P2), the prevalence of HIV is 0.01 (P3) and the seroconversion rate is 0.01 (P1), we have estimated the risk (actuarial model) for a surgeon as 0.2% per year, and 5.82% for 30 years of surgery. In view of this we have made changes in surgical technique to reduce the risk to the surgical team from splash or injury. The surgeon must handle tissue with instruments only and minimize the use of fingers. Whenever possible, sharp instruments should be replaced by a blunt type. The surgical nurse loads needles to the needle carrier using forceps. Sharp instruments are placed in a neutral zone on the nurse's stand so that the surgeon and the nurse never touch the same sharp instrument at the same time. Movements should be controlled, and instrument handling accompanied by eye contact. We consider that these changes will reduce the risk of accidental injuries and thereby the transmission of HIV during operations to a greater degree than knowledge of the patient's HIV status.
The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacteria collected consecutively from medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) and from hematology/oncology units in nine hospitals in Denmark were determined and compared to data collected simultaneously in 12 other European countries. Bacterial isolates from 794 Danish patients were tested and compared to 8,625 isolates from European patients. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of eight different antibiotics were determined using a microdilution plate. Similar to findings in European countries, the most common source of bacterial isolates in Danish units was the respiratory tract (49%), followed by blood (18%), urinary tract (14%) and surgical wounds (10%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent respiratory organism in Danish units, whereas Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa dominated in other countries. In blood, Escherichia coli was most prevalent in Denmark while coagulase-negative staphylococci were predominant in other countries. Urinary tract isolates were dominated by Escherichia coli in both Denmark and the other countries, but Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were more frequently isolated in the other countries. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent wound isolate in Denmark, while Enterobacteriaceae other than Escherichia coli dominated in other European countries. Thus, in Denmark Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. (from ICUs) or Enterococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. (from hematology/oncology units), are the most prominent pathogens in these units today. Indicator organisms of antibiotic consumption (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus) were more frequent in other European countries than Denmark. In general the Danish isolates were more sensitive to antibiotics than the European isolates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)