BACKGROUND: The incidence of peptic ulcer disease was expected to decrease following the introduction of acid inhibitors and Helicobacter pylori eradication. AIM: To analyse possible changes in the incidence of bleeding peptic ulcer, treatment and mortality over time. METHODS: Residents of Malmö hospitalized for bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcer disease during 1987-2004 were identified in hospital databases (n = 1610). The material was divided into 6-year periods to identify changes over time. All patients who had been submitted to emergency surgery (n = 137) were reviewed. RESULTS: The incidence rate for bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers decreased by one half in males and by one-third in females and emergency operations decreased significantly (9.2%, 7.5% and 5.7% during the three time periods, respectively (P
During recent years new concepts and methods have been introduced in the management of acute pancreatitis. Severity and risk of complications show wide variation. Outcome is also dependent on the physician's experience and on his local resources. In this light the Swedish Society of Upper Abdominal Surgery has elaborated national guidelines for management. Attention is paid to diagnosis, severity assessment and etiology. Furthermore, guidelines are offered for treatment of mild and severe pancreatitis, as well as for the management of pseudocysts. The role of multidisciplinary intensive care specialist teams in the management of severe disease is emphasized. The guidelines are supported by the Swedish Society of Gastroenterology, the Swedish Society of Gastroenterology, the Swedish Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care and by experts from other Nordic countries.
To evaluate the exocrine pancreatic function at the time of diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we determined immunoreactive anodal and cathodal trypsin(ogen) levels in sera from almost all children (n = 375) 0-14 years of age in Sweden in whom diabetes developed during 1 year, and in sex-, age-, and geographically matched control subjects (n = 312). The median level of anodal trypsin(ogen) was 5 (quartile range, 3-7) micrograms/L in children with newly diagnosed diabetes, compared with a median level of 7 (quartile range, 4-8) micrograms/L in control subjects (p less than 0.0001). Similarly, the median level of cathodal trypsin(ogen) was 8 (quartile range, 4-10) micrograms/L in children with diabetes, compared with a median level of 11 (quartile range, 7-15) micrograms/L in control subjects (p less than 0.0001). The median of the individual ratios between cathodal and anodal trypsin(ogen) was 1.4 in the diabetic patients and 1.7 in the control children (p less than 0.001). In a multivariate test, however, only the decrease in cathodal trypsin(ogen) concentration was associated with diabetes. The levels of trypsin(ogen)s did not correlate with levels of islet cell antibodies, present in 81% of the diabetic children. Several mechanisms may explain our findings, for example, similar pathogenetic factors may affect both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas simultaneously, a failing local trophic stimulation by insulin on the exocrine cells may decrease the trypsinogen production, and there may be an increased elimination of trypsin(ogen) because of higher filtration through the kidneys in the hyperglycemic state.
BACKGROUND: There is a wide range (5-50 per 100 000) in the reported annual incidence of acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, the predominant aetiology varies in different reports. This study was undertaken to establish the current incidence, aetiology and associated mortality rate in a defined population. METHODS: A retrospective study of all cases of acute pancreatitis admitted over a 10-year period to a single institution was performed. In addition the autopsy and forensic materials were reviewed. RESULTS: Altogether 883 attacks of acute pancreatitis were recorded, of which 547 were first attacks. The annual incidence of first attacks was 23.4 per 100 000. Including relapses, the incidence was 38.2 per 100 000. Biliary disease was the main aetiological factor in first attacks whereas alcohol was the predominant factor when relapses were included. The mean annual mortality rate for acute pancreatitis in the population was 1.3 per 100 000. Of 31 patients who died from acute pancreatitis only 15 were diagnosed before death. For recurrent disease the mortality rate was 0.3 per cent. In 12 patients the pancreatitis was associated with pancreatic carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is important to differentiate between first attacks and relapses, since both incidence and aetiology figures are influenced by this, and it is important to include autopsy and forensic material in population-based mortality studies.
The city of Malmö (population 230 000), situated in the south of Sweden, is in an area which has the highest incidence of pancreatic cancer in the country. The present study was designed to assess time trends of the incidence of pancreatic cancer 1961-90. The 1314 incident cases, 651 men and 663 women, were retrieved from the Regional Tumour Register and the National Cause-of-Death Register. In 75% of cases diagnosis was based on autopsy. Twenty per cent of the these cases were first found at autopsy, being undiagnosed. The average age-standardised incidence was 20.4 per 10(5) person-years for men and 13.7 for women. The incidence was higher for men than for women in all age groups above 44 years. No change in incidence over time was observed for men. In older and middle-aged women there was however a statistically significant increase. The average relative change in women above age 64 was 1.7% per year after age adjustment and in women aged 55-64 years 2.6% per year. We have found no results indicating that this increasing incidence could be caused by detection bias as a result of changing autopsy rates during the study period and hence conclude that the observed increase is explained by a growing number of women being exposed to factors with a potential tumour-promoting or -initiating effect.
CONCLUSION: The increased risk of pancreatic carcinoma in smokers is enhanced by weight gain. Possible explanations are proposed and discussed. BACKGROUND: Between 1974 and 1992, 35,000 men and women below 55 yr of age participated in a general health examination at the Department of Preventive Medicine in Malmö, Sweden. Mortality and incidence of cancer have been updated by record linkage with the Cause of Death Register and the National Cancer Register. METHODS: The present study deals with the incidence of pancreatic carcinoma during 365,500 person years of follow-up. The 43 cases corresponded to an incidence per 100,000 person years of 13.4 in men and 6.1 in women. RESULTS: Nonsmokers, exsmokers, and smokers had an incidence of 1.5, 24.5, and 15.3/100,000 person years, respectively. The case-control approach used to assess risk factors for pancreatic carcinoma showed that the odds for smoking (odds ratio [O.R] 8.6; 95% confidence intervals [C.I.] 2.0-37.5), for weight gain more than 10 kg since the age of 30 (O.R. 1.8; 95% C.I. 0.9-3.6), and for epigastric pain (O.R. 3.2; 95% C.I. 1.4-7.2) were higher in cases than in controls. These odds ratios were all statistically significant in the logistic regression analysis.
OBJECTIVE: Between 1985 and 1994, 883 cases of acute pancreatitis were treated in Malmö, Sweden (population 233,000). The purpose of this study was to report the short- and long-term outcome of the 79 cases that were severe, according to the Atlanta classification. DESIGN: Retrospective and follow-up study a median time of 7 years since the attack. SETTING: University hospital, Sweden. SUBJECTS: 79 patients with severe acute pancreatitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, cause of death, organ failure, local complications, surgical procedures, mortality since the attack, and endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients died from their attack. Organ failure was the predominant cause of death in the 13 patients who died during the first 10 days after admission, whereas infection was the most common cause of death in patients who died later. Mortality was low under the age of 60 and increased with age. Organ failure developed in 72 patients. Twenty-four patients developed pancreatic necrosis or abscesses and 18 patients were treated by necrosectomy and open or closed drainage. At follow-up, 13 patients had died, 2 from pancreatic carcinoma. 35 patients were included in the follow-up survey. 15 of these had diabetes and an additional 4 had impaired glucose tolerance. 9 patients had signs of severe exocrine dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high incidence of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction together with, in many patients, ongoing social problems related to chronic alcoholism several years after an attack of severe acute pancreatitis.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this follow-up study was to assess whether there has been any increase in the percentage of patients offered attempted curative surgery for pancreatic carcinoma and whether the overall survival rate has improved, during the time period 1977-1991. METHODS: Details of new cases of pancreatic carcinoma arising in the population of Malmö during the study period were retrieved from the Local Tumour Register in Lund, Sweden. In all, 740 patients were found; 575 of these were diagnosed before death. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival rates, and Cox regression analysis was used to assess survival in relation to year of diagnosis after adjustment for sex, age at diagnosis and stage of disease. RESULTS: Cytological or histopathological evidence of the disease was given in 95 per cent of cases. The overall 5-year survival rate was 0.5 per cent (three of 575). Curative surgery was attempted in 24 patients (4.2 per cent); the proportion undergoing curative surgery increased in the last part of the study. Two of the 24 patients in this group survived for 5 years. CONCLUSION: The prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma remains dismal. Attempted curative surgery still is the only hope for cure, but the group of patients that can be offered this possibility is very limited. In this study, an increase was found in the proportion of patients who were offered attempted curative surgery, but there was no statistically significant increase in the 5-year survival rate following surgery.