The aim of the work was to study the association of overweight and obesity with the consumption of basic types of dairy products among the adult population of Russia. Data from the survey of the diet of adult members of 45,000 households, conducted in 2013 by the Federal Service of State Statistics in all regions of the country, have been used. The actual consumption of food among all members of the surveyed households was studied by 24-hour (daily) diet recall in April and September 2013. The body mass index was calculated on the basis of self-esteem by respondents of body weight and height. It was shown that average daily intake of kefir, yogurt and cottage cheese was higher in women, while consumption of drinking milk and cheeses was higher for men. Consumption of drinking milk and kefir in men and women was much higher in groups with overweight and obesity than with normal body weight. Consumption of yogurt, on the contrary, was much less in people of both sexes with overweight and obesity. Consumption of milk, kefir and cottage cheese increased with age, while consumption of yogurt and cheeses, on the contrary, decreased with age. The data of the variation statistics indicated the existence of a relationship between obesity and consumption of individual dairy products. However, the dependence of these same parameters on age reduced the reliability and evidentiary strength of the results of the variation analysis, since the prevalence of obesity increases significantly with age. To study the association of dairy consumption and the spread of obesity, a logistic regression model was used with the calculation of the odd ratio of the risk of obesity in the consumption of dairy products with adjustment for age, education level and per capita family income. The results of the association analysis, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, unambiguously showed a significant reduction in the risk of obesity in persons of both sexes consuming yoghurt (OR mean 0.76; CI 0.71; 0.82; ?
[Development of a method of studying actual nutrition according to analysis of the frequency of consumption of food products: creation of a questionnaire and general evaluation of the reliability of the method].
The method of actual feeding evaluation on frequency of food-stuffs consumption was developed. The method of 24-hour reproduction of a feed and the method of consumed food registration in a diary by testing person himself. The main results of study testified to reliability of data, received by a developed method.
Aim of present study was the getting data on dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in Russian population in 1995-2002. The consumption of food was estimated by 24-hour recall methodology in course of Russian Longitudinal monitoring surveys of economics and health. Mean intake of vitamin A is less than recommended level and 25th procentile is near to zero. Mean and median of vitamin E intake are equal of recommended level. Dietary intake of vitamin A per 1000 kcal is maximal in group of children 0-6 year old and in adults aged 30-60 y. Nutrient density of daly diet in relation to antioxidant vitamins has maximal level in old group of population 60+ and minimal level in 6-18 year old children.
It is known that adequate calcium intake determines formation of skeleton and genetic predisposition of its weight and density peak. Optimal calcium intake in the childhood determines risk reduction of density loss and osteoporosis in the adulthood. This research explored contribution of different food sources, as well as eating occasions on calcium dietary intake among preschool and school children (4-13 years old). Mean daily Calcium intake and dairy products consumption depending on family income have been analyzed. Dietary intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall method. National food composition data tables have been used to estimate mean nutrient intake. Dairy products were classified in accordance with local food grouping system. Percent of children consuming products - sources of calcium, amount per consumer, contribution of eating occasions to Calcium intake, foods consumed at breakfast as well as Calcium intake and dairy products consumption depending on household income has been analysed. Nationally representative sample of preschool and school age children, Russia National Nutritional Survey, was conducted in all regions of Russia in 2013 by state Federal Statistics Service - Rosstat. Sample size was 22 771 children split in four age groups: 4-6 y.o. (n=7303), 7-8 y.o. (n=4391), 9-10 y.o. (n=4691) and 11-13 y.o. (n=6386). The study confirmed the indications in the domestic and foreign literature that calcium intake was insufficient in children aged 4-13 years. Data showed age related particularities in consumption of products-sources of Calcium: percent of children consuming milk and milk-based beverages, milk porridges, cottage cheese declined rapidly in older age groups in comparison to preschoolers. A slight increase of cheese consumption was shown in older age groups. Breakfast is an important eating occasion that provides a significant proportion (23-28%) into calcium daily intake in children. Habit of skipping breakfast puts calcium daily intake at risk as it is not compensated throughout the day at other eating occasions. Our results indicate lower daily Calcium intake in breakfast skippers (11-14% of children) compared with kids of the same age who had breakfast at the day of survey. Sweetened tea and coffee consumption increased in older age groups and contrary, a milk and milk based beverages consumption droped in school age. We found lower Calcium intake and lower accessibility to variety of Calcium food sources in low socio-economic class of the children population, where milk seems to be the main product from milk and dairy food group. The findings can assist in developing food-based recommendations for optimal intake of calcium in children's daily diet. Consumption of dairy products is required to meet adequate intake and to low down prevalence of inadequate intake. There is room for improvement of dairy product consumption in terms of variety and number of serving a day especially, for children in older age groups. More attention to be dedicated to breakfast as it is an important eating occasion that contributes significantly to calcium daily intake. Study findings call for intervention programs aiming to correct the inadequacies of calcium intake in schoolchildren's diets, including nutrition education for families and support for accessibility of the products rich in calcium by low socio-economic population groups; for example, by inclusion of milk and dairy products into the school feeding programs.
Actual nutritional status and dietary intake of different iron forms of the women in Sankt-Peterburg were investigated. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was studied. Signs of deficiency of nutrition of the investigated women were not found both by analysis of foodstuffs and energy intake and by anthropometric estimation of nutritional status.
The epidemiological research of the nutrition and health status of the low-income people was held in five regions of the Russian Federation. The analyze of the nutrients, energy, micronutrients and of the main groups of foods consumption in the families with the different level of income was executed. The estimation of the nutrition status was made with using body mass index. The results of this work showed the need of the development of nutrition support in social service and using the medical criteria for this support in low-income people.
The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.
We studied the actual consumption of specific food groups of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and analyzed the nutritional risk factors for OA in case-control study. Level of consumption of all types of dairy products was significantly lower in the group of patients with OA compared with controls. The relative risk of developing OA in the consumption of less than 573 g (median) of dairy products in terms of milk increases by 5-6 times.
The paper describes the investigation of the actual food consumption in 102 adult residents of both sexes in settlements Harp, Aksarka and Beloyarsk in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District - YNAD. The dietary intake of individuals were studied by 24-hour recall methodology adopted for Russian features in the Institute of Nutrition of RAMS. An assessment of differences of the actual consumption of energy and nutrients for newcomers and indigenous populations were performed.
The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI > 30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005-2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20-30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20-60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000-2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000-2005 and the 2005-2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000-2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.