Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interferon-gamma (IFNg) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are known as participants of inflammation and play an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Based on literature data about influence of SNPs G(-308)A of TNF gene, A(+874)T of IFNG gene and G(-174)C of IL-6 gene on production of these cytokines, we investigated association of these polymorphic sites with MS. Linkage and association of alleles of these genes with MS was analyzed by transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). In investigated group of 104 nuclear families of Russian ethnicity it was found that TNF* (-308)A allele transmitted from healthy heterozygous parents to affected children more frequently (p = 0.01). Linkage/association of IFNG and IL-6 alleles with MS was not revealed. Thus, data obtained indicate the participation of TNF gene in MS susceptibility in Russians.
[Analysis of two segments of biallelic polymorphism at the tumor necrosis factor in patients with multiple sclerosis from the Russian population: connection with NcoI-PDGF in the first intron of the lymphotoxin alpha gene].
The authors studied the possible association between the presence of a 32-base pair deletion allele in CC chemokine receptor 5 gene [3p21] (CCR5 Delta 32 allele) and the occurrence of MS. The presence of CCR5 Delta 32 homozygotes among patients with MS indicates that the absence of CCR5 did not protect against MS. Moreover, the CCR5 Delta 32 mutation was associated with MS in HLA-DR4-positive Russians (p(corr)
Descriptive and analytical study of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been first-ever carried out in population of Volgograd city, South region of Russian Federation. At the period of the study (1996-2000) the population was estimated as 814 100 adult persons. An average age-adjusted level of MS prevalence was 31.9 per 100,000, MS incidence--9.8, mortality 1,8. Thus, the city is at a moderate risk for MS, however the incidence of the disease appeared to be rather high that indicates a further increase of MS patients number in this population. The highest level of MS prevalence was registered in two districts with poor ecological characteristics and numerous industries: Krasnoarmeysky (52.4 per 100,000 persons) and Krasnooktiabrsky (46.4). An analytical case-control study included data collected from 178 pairs (73.6% female) of MS patients and controls matched for age, sex and ethnic origin. Significant differences between patients and controls were detected as follows: patients more often had blue eyes as compared to dark ones; in the patient group mother's age at birth was above 30 years; patients more often lived near chemical and/or oil factories at age before 15 years; they more often reported a presence of stress factors in the family and chronic tonsillitis. Association with other factors, including infections, nutrition, acute and chronic diseases, poisoning, traumas, family history of different diseases, contact with animals etc, has not been found. A possible association between environmental factors and features of MS course were analyzed. Living near chemical factories at age before 15 was associated with more active MS course, i.e. high frequency of progressive course, short period from MS onset to confirmed EDSS=3, short duration of first remission. The same, though less significant, influence may exert the presence of herpes infection and chronic tonsillitis at age under 15.
The epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been done in the population (927 400 people) of the North-Western Administrative District (SZAO) of Moscow for the period of 2008-2012. In average for the 5 years the prevalence of MS was amounted to 53.38 cases per 100 000 population, incidence was 2.16 cases per 100 000 population and the mortality rate was 0.23 cases per 100 000 population. Thus, the population of SZAO belongs to high-incidence area. An increase in the prevalence of MS as well as a reduction of incidence and mortality were observed during a comparative analysis with the epidemiological indicators of MS in Moscow in the period of 1991-1996. Such dynamics of epidemiological indicators is due to the accumulation of patients in population that, in the first place, is related with the quality improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic-rehabilitative measures which increased the frequency of early diagnosis and patient's life expectancy together with the implementation of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) and modern methods of symptomatic treatment.
The frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS) with clinical onset before 16 years of age in different regions of Russia fluctuates from 2 to 10% of all MS patients. One of the most frequent signs of MS manifestation and/or exacerbation at this age is optic neuritis (ON). Forty-seven children with MS were observed in Moscow. Diagnosis of MS in every case was clinically definite and proved by serial MRI. Clinico-tomographic dissociation was noticed: numerous large lesions, typical for MS on T2 images were often seen in children with mild or moderate residual neurological symptoms. All patients had relapsing/remitting MS course, mean EDSS was 2.24+/-0.26. Thirty-eight children (80%) had ON at least once, ten (21.3%) - twice or more times. In several cases ON had subclinical course or might be missed and the damage of the optic nerve with partial atrophy was found only after complex ophthalmological investigation including visual evoked potentials. Thus, the clinical course of MS and ON have some peculiarities in children and may be genetically based. Analyses of allelic polymorphisms of HLA-DR and TNF loci on chromosome 6 was performed. Data from children with MS were compared with data from their parents, healthy controls and other MS patients from the same ethnic group. Children with MS had increased frequency of DR2(15) and TNF-a11, but not TNF-a9 as adult MS patients from the same ethnic group. The presence of TNF-a7, rare in adult patients, could be proposed as a marker of early MS onset.
Prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in two populations of the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic (Nalchik and Prokhladnensky region) was studied. In Nalchik, the prevalence of MS was 13.0 cases per 100 000 in 2006 and 13.7 cases - in 2010. It was lower among Circassians (8.0) compared to Slavs (31.3). The 5-year morbidity was low (0.15 per 100 000 population). In 2010, the prevalence of MS in Nalchik was 34.3 per 100 000. In the rural Prokhladnensky region with mainly Slav population, the prevalence was 11.0 cases per 100 000 in 2006 and 19.8 (all patients were Slavs) - in 2010. The morbidity was 1.76 for the period analyzed. At the same time, the prevalence of MS in the Slav population in 2010 was lower by a factor of 1.73 in the rural region compared to Nalchik (19.8 and 34.3, respectively). The higher prevalence of MS in Nalchik may be explained by adverse environmental factors increasing the risk of MS. A case-control study revealed the higher risk for people under 15 years old living very close to chemical and biological plants.
The first results of a clinical and epidemiological survey on prevalence, incidence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and medical assistance to patients in Primosky Krai, Vladivostok and the Far East regions (Sakhalin, Magadan oblasts and Kamchatka Krai) during 2005-2010 are presented. The prevalence of MS was 1.12 cases per 100000 population in the Primosky Krai in whole and from 1.61 cases in 2005 in Vladivostok to 11.45 and 16.2 cases in Primosky Krai and Vladivostok in 2010, respectively. The incidence of MS was maximal in the Primosky Krai (2.61 cases per 100 000 population in 2007 and 3.95 cases in 2008). The increase in the prevalence may be explained by the improvement of MS diagnosis, introduction of neuroimaging methods for brain structure visualization (MRI etc) and the organization of a regional MS center. The relative decrease in the MS incidence to 2.49 cases per 100 000 in 2010 was noted. Epidemiological characteristics of MS in separate oblasts of the Far East are presented. In whole, all indices indicate the moderate risk for MS in the region studied.