Previously, this study group found that female childhood cancer survivors could be at risk of early cessation of fertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate reproductive function in the same group of survivors 10 years after the initial study. Of the original cohort of 100, 71 were re-examined. Thirty-six survivors reported regular menstrual cycles. When they were compared with 210 controls, they differed significantly in antral follicle count (AFC) (median 15 versus 18, P=0.047) but not in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (median 13.0 versus 17.8 pmol/l). Survivors cured with minimal gonadotoxic treatment had significantly higher AMH and AFC compared with survivors cured with either potentially gonadotoxic treatment or treatment including alkylating chemotherapy and ovarian irradiation (20.0, 5.8 and
The medical treatment of various cancers may, as long-term sequelae, cause infertility in girls and young women. In order to preserve the fertility of such women, techniques to cryopreserve ovarian tissue have gained considerable interest during recent years. The ovarian tissue is cryopreserved before cancer treatment is commenced, and first replaced when the woman has been cured. Based on the successful results from the use of this technique in test animals, where normal live young have been born, cryopreservation of human ovarian tissue has been initiated in a number of fertility clinics worldwide over the last few years. So far, only two women have experienced transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Menstrual cycles and oestradiol production were restored in both women, but restoration of fertility have not yet been demonstrated. This review describes the technique and its present possibilities and limitations. The legal aspects in Denmark are presented and some ethical aspects described.
The Danish IVF Register was established in 1994 and covers all treatments with in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo replacements (FER) and egg donations (ED). Since data are recorded with personal identification numbers, they provide the starting point for cohort studies of treated women and offspring. It is obligatory for each clinic to report each treatment cycle to the register, by means of special treatment report forms that contain clinical as well as laboratory data. The pregnancy outcome is reported on special forms no later than two months after birth. The personal identification number (CPR) allows cross-linkage of the data from the register, with several other national Danish registers, such as the National Hospital Register the Abortion Register, the Danish Register of Causes of Death, the Cytogenetic Central Register and the Cancer Register. In 1998 a total of 7131 IVF and ICSI cycles were performed in Denmark. This corresponds to around 6500 cycles per 1 million women in the reproductive age, which is among the highest number per capita in the world. The coverage of the register is believed to be very close to 100% for the treatment reports, but less for the pregnancy outcome forms, at least during the first two years after the register was established. The main importance of the register is quality control aspects of assisted reproductive techniques and research in relation to follow-up on maternal and infant health.
This paper reports data from the Danish in-vitro fertilization (IVF) registry from 1994 to 1995 including data on treatments and the results of these (perinatal outcome, cytogenetic findings and fetal malformations) in comparison with a control group matched for maternal age, parity, multiplicity and year of birth. There were 1756 deliveries of 2245 children (24.3% twins, 1.8% triplets). The rate of prematurity among IVF children was 23.8% (NS) [singletons 7. 3% (P
SUBJECT: Data from the compulsory Danish National IVF Registry from 1994 and 1995 regarding treatments, abortions and complications following assisted reproductive technologies. METHODS: Data were generated through registries and compared to pregnancies in Denmark in 1995. Those pregnancies that resulted in a delivery were compared to a matched control group. RESULTS: In 1994 and 1995 5219 women were treated in 9471 initiated cycles. The numbers increased over the period. The overall delivery rate per initiated cycle was 19%, egg donation 24%, IVF 20%, ICSI 16% and frozen egg replacement 10%. The rates increased over the period. The rate of spontaneous abortions was highest for ICSI (25%) and egg donation (27%). For IVF and ICSI the birth rates per transfer of 1 embryo was 13, 1%, 2 embryos 25, 4%, 3 embryos 25, 8% and 4 or more 3, 8%. Transfer of 2 embryos resulted in 75% singleton, 25% twin and 0.2% triplet deliveries. After transfer of 3 embryos the corresponding rates were 68%, 29% and 4%. No quadruplet deliveries occurred. Totally, 1.4% reported complications to the treatment, the most frequent being ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In the study group 5.8% of the women who gave birth were diagnosed with imminent abortion vs. 3.0% in the control group (OR 1.98, CI 1.41-2.78). CONCLUSIONS: Transfer of three embryos did not result in higher pregnancy rates as compared to transfer of two embryos. The first data from the Danish IVF Registry support data from other registries regarding treatment, pregnancy outcome and complications during pregnancy.
Medical indications for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) internationally and in Denmark are reviewed. Reports from large international centres document that tubal infertility, unexplained infertility, endometriosis and male infertility are equally good indications for IVF. Traditionally, tubal infertility has been the only medical indication qualifying for IVF treatment within the National Health Service in Denmark. Thus, in this country, couples with unexplained and male infertility and with endometriosis have to pay up to 25,000 D.Kr. per IVF-ET treatment in private fertility clinics. Since there is no scientific basis for this discrimination, it is urged that the present rules are changed, so that couples with unexplained and male infertility and endometriosis are also allowed IVF treatment free of charge in the public fertility clinics.
Until December 1991, 1171 pregnancies had been established in Denmark after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Thirteen of these pregnancies were heterotopic (1.1%). Three patients were asymptomatic, four patients presented with an acute abdomen, five had abdominal pain and only two patients had vaginal bleeding. In five cases the diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy was made by ultrasound, while eight cases were diagnosed at the time of surgery. Eleven patients were treated in the first trimester, while two patients were treated at 23 and 38 weeks of gestation, respectively. In nine of the thirteen cases the intrauterine pregnancy resulted in term delivery. Heterotopic pregnancy occurred in 1% of pregnancies following IVF-ET. Abdominal pain was the predominant symptom, while vaginal bleeding was absent in the majority of women. In most cases removal of the ectopic gestation allowed the intrauterine pregnancy to proceed until term.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of invasive ovarian cancer among infertile women treated with fertility drugs. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: Nationwide data based on public registers. PATIENT(S): All Danish women (below the age of 60 years) with ovarian cancer during the period from 1989 to 1994 and twice the number of age-matched population controls. Included in the analysis were 684 cases and 1,721 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Influence of parity, infertility, and fertility drugs on the risk of ovarian cancer after multivariate confounder control. Risk measure(s): odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULT(S): Nulliparous women had an increased risk of ovarian cancer compared with parous women: OR 1.5 to 2.0. Infertile, nontreated nulliparous women had an OR of 2.7 (1.3 to 5.5) compared with noninfertile nulliparous women. The OR of ovarian cancer among treated nulliparous women was 0.8 (0.4 to 2.0) and among treated parous 0.6 (0.2 to 1.3), compared with nontreated nulliparous and parous infertile women, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Nulliparity implies a 1.5- to 2-fold increased risk of ovarian cancer. Infertility without medical treatment among these women increased the risk further. Among parous as well as nulliparous women, treatment with fertility drugs did not increase the ovarian cancer risk compared with nontreated infertile women.