A representative population sample was studied to elucidate relationships of arterial pressure (AR) with muscular performance (MP) and arterial hypertension risk factors. Power working capacity (PWCx) was measured by means of exercise tolerance test at rest, under physical loading and after the exercise. The findings were processed using a multivariate step-by-step regression analysis which established independent relations between exercise and postexercise MP and arterial hypertension. In normal and hypertensive males a rise in systolic pressure (SP) after the initial exercise (load 1) was dependent on PWC1 after more intensive exercise (load 2) on relations of MP with heart rate, SP and diastolic pressure (DP). In hypertensive males the SP elevation depended also on the age, B. W. index and heart rate. In normal AP males a DP rise depended on PWC2 and MP, the increment being limited by relationships between MP, DP, heart rate and SP. In hypertensive males the influence of PWC1 is defined through a SP rise after load 1. In normal AP and hypertensive females PWC1 is decisive for a SP rise. In normal AP females growth of DP after load 2 was dependent on PWC2 in relation to heart rate growth after load 2, while in hypertensive females PWC1 resulted in DP elevation after load 1. On comparison of the groups with normal and high AP the degree of AP increment under exercise depended on the relations of MP with heart rate, SP and DP.
The rise in mean blood plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol over a one-year period has been observed in Moscow boys (aged from 12 to 13 years). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) in this period remained unchanged. In the district where preventive therapy was performed we have observed the decrease in mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and SBP over a one-year period in boys of the same age group. Age-dependent increment in Ketle index was significantly lower in this district. This indicates that preventive measures have a positive effect on the formation and development of CHD risk factors in children.
Total cholesterol, triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in a study of 40-59-years-old male populations in Moscow and Kharkov. Hypercholesterolemic individuals were identified, using standard criteria, in both cities. Although mean lipid parameters were similar in individuals with second-type hyperlipoproteinemia from Moscow and Kharkov, the pattern of hypercholesterolemia was different in terms of the lipoprotein spectrum. It is concluded that detailed differentiation of second-type hyperlipoproteinemia is essential for the identification of major mechanisms of the atherogenic potential of hypercholesterolemia in different populations.
The role of lipoproteins in the etiology of atherosclerosis has been proved by the present time and dyslipoproteinemia is considered one of the main risk factors like smoking and arterial hypertension. In 1983-1984 an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of schoolchildren was conducted in one of the Moscow districts and according to a unified program among standardized participants in Novosibirsk. As a result, regional normal limits and mean values of blood plasma lipids were established in the populations of schoolchildren aged 10-11 in Moscow and Novosibirsk, their comparative characteristics and interrelationships between physical development and a degree of puberty were studied. Considerable differences in the TG level of plasma were found. The fact might be due to regional nutrition habits.
To evaluate levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDLP cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), occurrence of hypercholesterolemia (HCE), hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and low HDLP cholesterol in the Tyumen population.
866 men and women aged 25-64 years have been examined in one-stage cardiological screening within a two-stage epidemiological study of serum lipoproteins by WHO criteria.
HCE was registered in 15.6% males and 18.8% females, a low HDLP cholesterol--in 5.3 and 4.2%, HTG--in 5.8 and 4.3% males and females, respectively. A high TC level and HCE occurred more frequently in women over 54 years of age; a low HDLP cholesterol level in insignificant fall in HDLP cholesterol and no age-related changes of this index were found both in males and females; TG were elevated in older males in moderate prevalence of HTG in the population.
It is shown that Tyumen population is at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Further studies are needed to specify targeted preventive programs.
In a longitudinal cohort (prevention group, n=213, comparison group, n=163) of 10-year prospective follow-up we addressed efficacy of 5-year-long multifactor preventive intervention, conducted in a sample of population of 12 year old boys. Preventive intervention was carried out both at populational level and among persons with risk factors of development of cardiovascular diseases with the use of group, individual, and partly family approaches, and was directed at rationalization of nutrition, elevation of physical activity and prevention of harmful habits. During first 3 years of prevention we succeeded to achieve stable statistically significant lowering of mean levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and atherogeneity index, as well as to affect fatty component of body mass (skinfold thickness). Long term effect of 5-year long preventive intervention manifested as significantly lower level of systolic blood pressure, lower prevalence of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smaller increment of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and index of atherogeneity in the prevention group. These results evidence that prevention of main factors of risk of development of cardiovascular diseases (obesity, arterial hypertension, disorders of lipid composition of the blood, and low physical activity) in child and adolescent age in the period of active growth and development is feasible, effective, safe and is able to lead to decrease of levels of these factors in adults, but should last uninterruptedly until formation of stable habits of healthy life style.
Dietary intake was studied in 295 of Moscow's residents by 24-hour recall method. High level of animal fat, sugar and cholesterol (Ch) were found in diet of man and women. Energy intake of men is higher than that of women at the expense of animal fat and protein. Women consume less amount of cholesterol-containing food. The levels of serum Ch, HDLP-Ch, triglycerides are in close relation with blood pressure values. The levels of serum Ch, HDLP-Ch, systolic and diastolic blood pressure are connected with variables of age and body mass index.
A comparative analysis of major blood lipoprotein values in 108 males aged 16-65 years with lower limbs amputations has shown a higher level of triglycerides (TG) and a reduced level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL C) in them than in control males with normal limbs. In the subgroup of patients who had undergone the amputation as a result of obliterative arterial disease, the TG level was the highest while HDL C the lowest; moreover, these values appeared to be the same as in the age-matched subgroup of patients with manifestations of atherosclerosis. In the subgroup of older men with posttraumatic lower limb amputations (aged 40-59 years) the TG and HDL C levels did not differ from the corresponding parameters in age-matched subgroup of healthy subjects, whereas young amputees (17-39 years) had the increased blood TG concentration and reduced level of HDL C and apolipoprotein AI. The conclusion is made: disability following limb amputation accompanied by restricted mobility, inadequate physical static efforts as well as by chronic psychological stress seem especially dangerous for young invalids because of associated lipoprotein profile changes which can be regarded as highly atherogenic.
The trends in prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and risk factors for 1985-1995 have been studied on random representative samples of male population from Moscow. For the decade studied IHD incidence increased, especially in younger males. Changes in IHD risk factors were the following: systolic and diastolic pressures were on the increase. HDLP cholesterol and total cholesterol in the blood lowered, total triglycerides were unchanged, incidence of smoking remained high.