Individual biological dosimetry covering chromosomal analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometry has been performed in 1300 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Cumulative radiation doses above 40 ImC were registered in 5%, about 100 ImC in 1% of the examinees. In 1% of cytogenetic investigations there appeared multiaberrant cells indicative of hot particle incorporation. Regional epidemiologists do not record changes in the incidence of hematological diseases. This may be explained by a small percent of the dose carriers, rare occurrence of hematological disorders and the time of radiation-induced oncogenic effects. The above representative group exposed to definite radiation doses may serve the subject of epidemiological surveys on the role of low-dose and low-rate radiation in pathogenesis of human diseases.
to evaluate the efficiency of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with further autologous blood stem cell transplantation (auto-BSCT) in the first-line therapy of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and poor prognostic factors.
In 2000 to 2015, the National Research Center for Hematology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, performed therapy in 39 patients with FL and poor prognostic factors (a total of 215 patients with FL). The R-CHOP treatment was done as induction therapy. Sequential HCT and further auto-BSCT were performed in 29 (74%) of the 39 patients, who had shown a partial tumor response to the induction therapy or achieved partial remission after 4-6 cycles of CT, but had poor prognostic factors. 22 of the 29 patients underwent auto-BSCT in first-line therapy after induction R-CHOP regimens. Among them, there were 17 men with a median age of 46 years (31-68 years). 21 of the 22 patients were recorded to have Stage IV by the Ann Arbor staging classification. Bulky peritoneal and retroperitoneal tumors larger than 7 cm were detectable at disease onset in 14 of the 22 cases. Two patients were noted to have phenomena of leukemization. 16 patients had bone marrow (BM) involvement. According to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index-1 (FLIPI-1), the patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) a low risk (n=5); 2) an intermediate risk (n=3); a high risk (n=14). B-symptoms were observed in 16 cases. 16 patients were diagnosed with cytological grade I-II FL and 6 had grade IIIA. According to the tumor proliferative pattern, the distribution turned out to be as follows: nodular (n=6), nodular-diffuse (n=13), and diffuse (n=3). The proliferative activity index averaged 30% (8-90%). Serum and urine proteins were immmunochemically assayed in 18 cases, out of them 8 patients were diagnosed as having serum ?2-microglobulin concentrations above normal as a poor prognostic factor. In 14 of the 22 patients, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was greater than normal (266-7806 U/l).
Out of the 22 patients, 20 who have undergone auto-BSCT in first-line therapy are survivors and have remission of the underlying disease: 18 and 2 patients achieved complete and partial remission, respectively. The follow-up period was 7 to 178 months (median, 32 months). After auto-BSCT in the first remission, 2 patients developed disease recurrences: an early recurrence after 9 months in one case and a late recurrence 6 years after completion of therapy in the other.
The first prospective study of intensive therapy for FL in Russia has demonstrated that HDCT with further auto-BSCT in first-line therapy allows complete remission in patients with poor prognostic factors and higher overall and progression-free survival rates.
To evaluate the late cardiotoxicity (CT) of high-dose chemotherapy (CT) according to the modified NHL-BFM-90 (mNHL-BFM-90) protocol in adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
The results of electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography (echoCG) were analyzed in 40 DLBCL patients treated according to the mNHL-BFM-90 program in the Hematology Research Center (HRC), Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMS), in 2002 to 2009. A study group consisted of 20 men and 20 women whose age was 31 to 76 years; median age was 56.5 years at the time of their examination and the median follow-up time after therapy was 6 years. The individual cumulative dose of doxorubicin was 150-300 mg/M2. A comparison group included 19 patients receiving CHOP/R-CHOP CT in HRC, RAMS, in 2002 to 2009. Out of them, there were 8 men and 11 women whose age was 39 to 78 years median age was 70 years at the time of their examination. The individual cumulative dose of doxorubicin was 200-400 mg/M2. ECG and echoCG were carried out before and 5 years or more after CT.
Out of the 40 patients with DLBCL, the signs of subclinical cardiomyopathy (CMP) were detected in 24 (60%) patients; no clinical manifestations of congestive heart failure (CHF) were found in any patient. In the comparison group of 19 patients receiving CHOP/R-CHOP CT, 14 (74%) patients were found to have signs of subclinical CMP and no clinical signs of CHF. The summary toxicity index significantly depended on age (p=0.03) and a history of heart disease (p=0.3); it was significantly higher after CHOP/R-CHOP CT (p=0.05). There was a statistically significant relationship of the risk of subclinical CMP to the history of heart diseases (p=0.05).
Late cardiotoxicity of the mNHL-BFM-90 program does not exceed the toxicity of standard CHOP/R-CHOP therapy. Post-CT Echo-CG and ECG findings showed that the patients with the most marked subclinical signs of CMP in both groups had cardiotoxicity risk factors, such as coronary heart disease, hypertensive disease, or diabetes in their history. No clinically significant CHF was identified in any patient.
Evidence is provided for that it is urgent to elaborate a problem of hemoblastosis and hemopoietic depressions within the framework of a special federal research and technological programme. Priorities of research lines in this areas, trends of their development till 2005 are presented.
A case of radiation-induced leukemia has been described in a woman living in the area exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl NPS. Radiation-induced leukemia was diagnosed basing on the cytogenetic changes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cytogenetic changes in the peripheral blood lymphocytes have been recorded in 60 subjects who were evacuated from areas contaminated with isotopes as a result of the disaster.