Involuntary psychiatric admissions are widespread among patients with an immigrant background. According to a study in Norway, involuntary admissions are about 75% of admissions among immigrants compared to roughly 50% among ethnic Norwegians. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of immigrant patients with involuntary or voluntary admissions to two acute psychiatric units. A 3-year prospective study of 94 immigrant patients involuntarily and voluntarily admitted to acute psychiatric units was carried out. Sixty-two patients (66.0%) were voluntarily and 30 (31.9%) involuntarily admitted. Involuntary admissions were significantly higher among men (22, 73.3%) compared to women (8, 26.7%; ?(2) = 4.507, d.f. = 1, P= 0.03). The mean length of stay for voluntary and involuntary patients were 7.8 (SD = 6.6) and 21.6 (SD = 27.3; t=-2.7, d.f. = 88, P= 0.01). Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and psychotic disorder were more often admitted involuntarily (63.0%; ?(2) = 17.83, P= 0.001). This study confirms that immigrant patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders are more often involuntarily than voluntarily admitted. Comparing the clinical and demographic characteristics of immigrants helps identify the reasons behind involuntary admissions and might improve efforts towards reducing such admissions in the future.
Psychiatric acute units use different levels of segregation to satisfy needs for containment and decrease in sensory input for behaviourally disturbed patients. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of the procedure are lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare effects in acutely admitted patients with the use of a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and not in a psychiatric acute department. In a naturalistic study, one group of consecutively referred patients had access only to the PICU, the other group to the whole acute unit. Data were obtained for 56 and 62 patients using several scales. There were significant differences in reduction of behaviour associated with imminent, threatening incidents (Broset Violence Checklist), and actual number of such incidents (Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised) in favour of the group that was treated in a PICU. The principles of patient segregation in PICUs have favourable effects on behaviours associated with and the actual numbers of violent and threatening incidents.
Comment In: Nord J Psychiatry. 2006;60(2):7716635924
To identify risk factors associated with cycle acceleration (CA), that is, progressive decrease in duration of syndrome-free intervals between affective episodes, in acutely admitted patients with bipolar disorder (BD).
All patients (n = 210) with BD I (67%) and BD II (33%) (DSM-IV) acutely admitted to a hospital serving a catchment area were compared in retrospect with regard to a positive or negative history of CA. Putative risk factors of CA with a P-value
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Aug;152(8):1130-87625459
Sleep problems in bipolar disorder (BD) are common, but reported rates vary from 10% to 80%, depending on definitions, methodologies and management of potential confounding factors. This multicenter study seeks to address these issues and also compares BD cases with Hypersomnia as well as the more commonly investigated Insomnia and No Sleep Problem groups.
A cross-sectional comparison of sleep profiles in 563 BD I and II individuals who participated in a structured assessment of demographic, clinical, illness history and treatment variables.
Over 40% cases met criteria for Insomnia and 29% for Hypersomnia. In univariate analysis, Insomnia was associated with BD II depression whilst Hypersomnia was associated with BD I depression or euthymia. After controlling for confounders and covariates, it was demonstrated that Hypersomnia cases were significantly more likely to be younger, have BD I and be prescribed antidepressants whilst Insomnia cases had longer illness durations and were more likely to be prescribed benzodiazepines and hypnotics.
Whilst Insomnia symptoms are common in BD, Hypersomnia is a significant, frequently underexplored problem. Detailed analyses of large representative clinical samples are critical to extending our knowledge of differences between subgroups defined by sleep profile.