The ß(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is an important regulator of airway smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that three functional polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene (Thr164Ile, Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu) are associated with reduced lung function, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We first genotyped 8,971 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for all three polymorphisms. To validate our findings, we genotyped an additional 53,777 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for the Thr164Ile polymorphism. We identified 60,910 Thr164Ile noncarriers, 1,822 heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Thr164Ile genotype was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) % predicted (trend p = 0.01) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.001): Thr164Ile heterozygotes had 3% and 2% reduced FEV(1) % pred and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively, compared with noncarriers. The odds ratio for COPD in Thr164Ile heterozygotes was 1.46 (95% CI 1.05-2.02). In the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Thr164 genotype associated with reduced FEV(1) % pred (p = 0.04) and FEV(1)/FVC (p
BACKGROUND: The M235T and T174M angiotensinogen mutations have been linked to increased risk for ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether angiotensinogen mutations are associated with ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. DESIGN: Six case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and patients from the same hospital with ischemic heart disease (n = 866 and n = 943, respectively), myocardial infarction (n = 519 and n = 493, respectively), or ischemic cerebrovascular disease (n = 489 and n = 434, respectively) and 7975 controls without these conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Genotypes for the M235T and T174M angiotensinogen mutations were compared between controls and Copenhagen City Heart Study participants with ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disease (studies 1a, 1b, and 1c) and patients from Copenhagen University Hospital with the same conditions (studies 2a, 2b, and 2c). RESULTS: Relative allele frequencies of 235T and 174M in the general population were 0.41 and 0.12, respectively. Genotype was not associated with increased risk for ischemic heart or ischemic cerebrovascular disease in studies of either mutation alone or combined in women or men. Among compound heterozygotes (235MT /174TM ), women in case-control study 2a had decreased risk for ischemic heart disease in age-adjusted analysis; however, this decreased risk was not seen in multifactorial-adjusted or matched analyses, in men, or in case-control study 1a. Among double homozygotes (235TT /174MM ), women in case-control study 2b had increased risk for myocardial infarction in matched analysis; however, this increased risk was not seen in age- or multifactorial-adjusted analyses, in men, or in case-control study 1b. Among single homozygotes (235TT /174TT ), men in case-control study 2b had increased risk for myocardial infarction in multifactorial-adjusted and matched analyses. This risk was not present in age-adjusted analysis, in women, or in case-control study 1b. In addition, male single homozygotes had decreased risk for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in case-control study 2c in age- and multifactorial-adjusted analyses, but this finding was not seen in matched analysis, in women, or in case-control study 1c. CONCLUSIONS: In six large case-control studies, the M235T and T174M angiotensinogen mutations were not consistently associated with increased (or decreased) risk for ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, or ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Statistically significant associations may represent chance findings rather than real phenomena.