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Circumpolar status of Arctic ptarmigan: Population dynamics and trends.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309515
Source
Ambio. 2020 Mar; 49(3):749-761
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2020
Author
Eva Fuglei
John-André Henden
Chris T Callahan
Olivier Gilg
Jannik Hansen
Rolf A Ims
Arkady P Isaev
Johannes Lang
Carol L McIntyre
Richard A Merizon
Oleg Y Mineev
Yuri N Mineev
Dave Mossop
Olafur K Nielsen
Erlend B Nilsen
Åshild Ønvik Pedersen
Niels Martin Schmidt
Benoît Sittler
Maria Hørnell Willebrand
Kathy Martin
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Postbox 6606, Langnes, 9296, Tromsø, Norway. eva.fuglei@npolar.no.
Source
Ambio. 2020 Mar; 49(3):749-761
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Arctic Regions
Galliformes
Greenland
North America
Population Dynamics
Russia
Svalbard
Sweden
Abstract
Rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and willow ptarmigan (L. lagopus) are Arctic birds with a circumpolar distribution but there is limited knowledge about their status and trends across their circumpolar distribution. Here, we compiled information from 90 ptarmigan study sites from 7 Arctic countries, where almost half of the sites are still monitored. Rock ptarmigan showed an overall negative trend on Iceland and Greenland, while Svalbard and Newfoundland had positive trends, and no significant trends in Alaska. For willow ptarmigan, there was a negative trend in mid-Sweden and eastern Russia, while northern Fennoscandia, North America and Newfoundland had no significant trends. Both species displayed some periods with population cycles (short 3-6 years and long 9-12 years), but cyclicity changed through time for both species. We propose that simple, cost-efficient systematic surveys that capture the main feature of ptarmigan population dynamics can form the basis for citizen science efforts in order to fill knowledge gaps for the many regions that lack systematic ptarmigan monitoring programs.
PubMed ID
31073984 View in PubMed
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Circumpolar status of Arctic ptarmigan: Population dynamics and trends.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299777
Source
Ambio. 2019 May 09; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-09-2019
Author
Eva Fuglei
John-André Henden
Chris T Callahan
Olivier Gilg
Jannik Hansen
Rolf A Ims
Arkady P Isaev
Johannes Lang
Carol L McIntyre
Richard A Merizon
Oleg Y Mineev
Yuri N Mineev
Dave Mossop
Olafur K Nielsen
Erlend B Nilsen
Åshild Ønvik Pedersen
Niels Martin Schmidt
Benoît Sittler
Maria Hørnell Willebrand
Kathy Martin
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Postbox 6606, Langnes, 9296, Tromsø, Norway. eva.fuglei@npolar.no.
Source
Ambio. 2019 May 09; :
Date
May-09-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) and willow ptarmigan (L. lagopus) are Arctic birds with a circumpolar distribution but there is limited knowledge about their status and trends across their circumpolar distribution. Here, we compiled information from 90 ptarmigan study sites from 7 Arctic countries, where almost half of the sites are still monitored. Rock ptarmigan showed an overall negative trend on Iceland and Greenland, while Svalbard and Newfoundland had positive trends, and no significant trends in Alaska. For willow ptarmigan, there was a negative trend in mid-Sweden and eastern Russia, while northern Fennoscandia, North America and Newfoundland had no significant trends. Both species displayed some periods with population cycles (short 3-6 years and long 9-12 years), but cyclicity changed through time for both species. We propose that simple, cost-efficient systematic surveys that capture the main feature of ptarmigan population dynamics can form the basis for citizen science efforts in order to fill knowledge gaps for the many regions that lack systematic ptarmigan monitoring programs.
PubMed ID
31073984 View in PubMed
Less detail

Correction to: Status and trends of circumpolar peregrine falcon and gyrfalcon populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307220
Source
Ambio. 2020 03; 49(3):784-785
Publication Type
Journal Article
Published Erratum
Date
03-2020
Author
Alastair Franke
Knud Falk
Kevin Hawkshaw
Skip Ambrose
David L Anderson
Peter J Bente
Travis Booms
Kurt K Burnham
Suzanne Carrière
Johan Ekenstedt
Ivan Fufachev
Sergey Ganusevich
Kenneth Johansen
Jeff A Johnson
Sergey Kharitonov
Pertti Koskimies
Olga Kulikova
Peter Lindberg
Berth-Ove Lindström
William G Mattox
Carol L McIntyre
Svetlana Mechnikova
Dave Mossop
Søren Møller
Ólafur K Nielsen
Tuomo Ollila
Arve Østlyngen
Ivan Pokrovsky
Kim Poole
Marco Restani
Bryce W Robinson
Robert Rosenfield
Aleksandr Sokolov
Vasiliy Sokolov
Ted Swem
Katrin Vorkamp
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, CW 405, Biological Sciences Bldg., Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada.
Source
Ambio. 2020 03; 49(3):784-785
Date
03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Published Erratum
Abstract
While collating contributions and comments from 36 researchers, the coordinating authors accidentally omitted Dr. Suzanne Carrière from the list of contributing co-authors. Dr. Carrière's data are described in Tables 1 and 3, Figure 2 and several places in the narrative.The new author list is thus updated in this article.
Notes
ErratumFor: Ambio. 2020 Mar;49(3):762-783 PMID 31858488
PubMed ID
31965558 View in PubMed
Less detail

Host-Parasite Interactions and Population Dynamics of Rock Ptarmigan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283669
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0165293
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Ute Stenkewitz
Ólafur K Nielsen
Karl Skírnisson
Gunnar Stefánsson
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0165293
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Body constitution
Eimeria - physiology
Fertility
Galliformes - parasitology - physiology
Host-Parasite Interactions
Iceland
Mites - physiology
Nematoda - physiology
Phthiraptera - physiology
Population Dynamics
Prevalence
Abstract
Populations of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland fluctuate in multiannual cycles with peak numbers c. every 10 years. We studied the ptarmigan-parasite community and how parasites relate to ptarmigan age, body condition, and population density. We collected 632 ptarmigan in northeast Iceland in early October from 2006 to 2012; 630 (99.7%) were infected with at least one parasite species, 616 (98%) with ectoparasites, and 536 (85%) with endoparasites. We analysed indices for the combined parasite community (16 species) and known pathogenic parasites, two coccidian protozoans Eimeria muta and Eimeria rjupa, two nematodes Capillaria caudinflata and Trichostrongylus tenuis, one chewing louse Amyrsidea lagopi, and one skin mite Metamicrolichus islandicus. Juveniles overall had more ectoparasites than adults, but endoparasite levels were similar in both groups. Ptarmigan population density was associated with endoparasites, and in particular prevalence of the coccidian parasite Eimeria muta. Annual aggregation level of this eimerid fluctuated inversely with prevalence, with lows at prevalence peak and vice versa. Both prevalence and aggregation of E. muta tracked ptarmigan population density with a 1.5 year time lag. The time lag could be explained by the host specificity of this eimerid, host density dependent shedding of oocysts, and their persistence in the environment from one year to the next. Ptarmigan body condition was negatively associated with E. muta prevalence, an indication of their pathogenicity, and this eimerid was also positively associated with ptarmigan mortality and marginally inversely with fecundity. There were also significant associations between fecundity and chewing louse Amyrsidea lagopi prevalence (negative), excess juvenile mortality and nematode Capillaria caudinflata prevalence (positive), and adult mortality and skin mite Metamicrolichus islandicus prevalence (negative). Though this study is correlational, it provides strong evidence that E. muta through time-lag in prevalence with respect to host population size and by showing significant relations with host body condition, mortality, and fecundity could destabilize ptarmigan population dynamics in Iceland.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27870855 View in PubMed
Less detail

Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides canislagopodis (Krabbe 1865) tetrathyridia found in rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283065
Source
Parasitol Res. 2016 Aug;115(8):3099-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Karl Skirnisson
Ólöf G Sigurðardóttir
Ólafur K Nielsen
Source
Parasitol Res. 2016 Aug;115(8):3099-106
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bird Diseases - parasitology
Cestode Infections - veterinary
Galliformes - parasitology
Iceland
Liver - parasitology
Mesocestoides - anatomy & histology - classification - pathogenicity
Abstract
Necropsies of 1010 rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta) sampled in autumn 2006-2015 in northeast Iceland revealed Mesocestoides canislagopodis tetrathyridia infections in six birds (0.6 %), two juvenile birds (3 month old), and four adult birds (15 months or older). Four birds had tetrathyridia in the body cavity, one bird in the liver, and one bird both in the body cavity and the liver. There were more tetrathyridia in the body cavity of the two juveniles (c. 50 in each) than in three adults (10-40), possibly indicating a host-age-related tetrathyridia mortality. Approximately, half of tetrathyridia in the body cavity were free or loosely attached to the serosa, the other half were encapsulated in a thin, loose connective tissue stroma, frequently attached to the lungs and the liver. Tetrathyridia in the liver parenchyma incited variably intense inflammation. Tetrathyridia from the juvenile hosts were whitish, heart-shaped, and flattened, with unsegmented bodies with a slightly pointed posterior end. In the adult hosts, tetrathyridia were sometimes almost rectangular-shaped, slightly wider compared to those in the juveniles, but more than twice as long as the younger-aged tetrathyridia. Tetrathyridia infections are most likely acquired during the brief insectivorous feeding phase of ptarmigan chicks, and the tetrathyridia persist throughout the lifespan of the birds.
PubMed ID
27117162 View in PubMed
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Occurrence of Mesocestoides canislagopodis (Rudolphi, 1810) (Krabbe, 1865) in mammals and birds in Iceland and its molecular discrimination within the Mesocestoides species complex.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270916
Source
Parasitol Res. 2016 Mar 17;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-17-2016
Author
Karl Skirnisson
Damien Jouet
Hubert Ferté
Ólafur K Nielsen
Source
Parasitol Res. 2016 Mar 17;
Date
Mar-17-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The life cycle of Mesocestoides tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Mesocestoididae) requires three hosts. The first intermediate host is unknown but believed to be an arthropod. The second intermediate host is a vertebrate. The primary definitive host is a carnivore mammal, or a bird of prey, that eats the tetrathyridium-infected second intermediate host. One representative of the genus, Mesocestoides canislagopodis, has been reported from Iceland. It is common in the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) and has also been detected in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis domestica). Recently, scolices of a non-maturing Mesocestoides sp. have also been detected in gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) intestines, and tetrathyridia in the body cavity of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta). We examined the taxonomic relationship of Mesocestoides from arctic fox, gyrfalcon, and rock ptarmigan using molecular methods, both at the generic level (D1 domain LSU ribosomal DNA) and at the specific level (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 12S mitochondrial DNA). All stages belonged to Mesocestoides canislagopodis. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined 12S-COI at the specific level confirmed that M. canislagopodis forms a distinct clade, well separated from three other recognized representatives of the genus, M. litteratus, M. lineatus, and M. corti/vogae. This is the first molecular description of this species. The rock ptarmigan is a new second intermediate host record, and the gyrfalcon a new primary definitive host record. However, the adult stage seemed not to be able to mature in the gyrfalcon, and successful development is probably restricted to mammalian hosts.
PubMed ID
26984208 View in PubMed
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The Parasite Fauna of the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274848
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2015 Oct;51(4):929-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Nanna D Christensen
Karl Skirnisson
Ólafur K Nielsen
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2015 Oct;51(4):929-33
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology
Falconiformes - parasitology
Iceland - epidemiology
Parasitic Diseases, Animal - epidemiology - parasitology
Abstract
We examined 46 Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) carcasses from Iceland for parasites, including 29 first-year birds and 17 second-year birds and older. Endoparasites observed were the trematodes Cryptocotyle lingua (prevalence 8%), Cryptocotyle concavum (4%), and Strigea sp. (8%); the cestode Mesocestoides sp. (27%); and the nematodes Eucoleus contortus (76%) and Serratospiculum guttatum (7%). Ectoparasites included the astigmatan mite Dubininia accipitrina (47%), a mesostigmatan rhynonyssid mite (4%), the tick Ixodes caledonicus (20%), the mallophagans Degeeriella rufa (90%) and Nosopon lucidum (7%), the flea Ceratophyllus vagabundus (7%), and the louse fly Ornithomya chloropus (7%). Cryptocotyle lingua, C. concavum, S. guttatum, D. accipitrina, I. caledonicus, and N. lucidum are new host records. Of the five most common parasites (prevalence = 20%) only Mesocestoides sp. showed a significant age relationship, being more prevalent in adult falcons (P = 0.021). Eucoleus contortus was also more prevalent in adults with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.058). Frounce, caused by E. contortus (possibly also by Trichomonas gallinae, which was not searched for in the survey) was highly prevalent (43%), but did not show a relationship with host age (P = 0.210). Birds with frounce were in poorer body condition than healthy birds (P = 0.015).
PubMed ID
26280881 View in PubMed
Less detail

Population limitation in a non-cyclic arctic fox population in a changing climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268873
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Dec 29;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-29-2015
Author
Snæbjörn Pálsson
Páll Hersteinsson
Ester R Unnsteinsdóttir
Ólafur K Nielsen
Source
Oecologia. 2015 Dec 29;
Date
Dec-29-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus (L.) display a sharp 3- to 5-year fluctuation in population size where lemmings are their main prey. In areas devoid of lemmings, such as Iceland, they do not experience short-term fluctuations. This study focusses on the population dynamics of the arctic fox in Iceland and how it is shaped by its main prey populations. Hunting statistics from 1958-2003 show that the population size of the arctic fox was at a maximum in the 1950s, declined to a minimum in the 1970s, and increased steadily until 2003. Analysis of the arctic fox population size and their prey populations suggests that fox numbers were limited by rock ptarmigan numbers during the decline period. The recovery of the arctic fox population was traced mostly to an increase in goose populations, and favourable climatic conditions as reflected by the Subpolar Gyre. These results underscore the flexibility of a generalist predator and its responses to shifting food resources and climate changes.
PubMed ID
26714829 View in PubMed
Less detail

Status and trends of circumpolar peregrine falcon and gyrfalcon populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307596
Source
Ambio. 2020 03; 49(3):762-783
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
03-2020
Author
Alastair Franke
Knud Falk
Kevin Hawkshaw
Skip Ambrose
David L Anderson
Peter J Bente
Travis Booms
Kurt K Burnham
Johan Ekenstedt
Ivan Fufachev
Sergey Ganusevich
Kenneth Johansen
Jeff A Johnson
Sergey Kharitonov
Pertti Koskimies
Olga Kulikova
Peter Lindberg
Berth-Ove Lindström
William G Mattox
Carol L McIntyre
Svetlana Mechnikova
Dave Mossop
Søren Møller
Ólafur K Nielsen
Tuomo Ollila
Arve Østlyngen
Ivan Pokrovsky
Kim Poole
Marco Restani
Bryce W Robinson
Robert Rosenfield
Aleksandr Sokolov
Vasiliy Sokolov
Ted Swem
Katrin Vorkamp
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, CW 405, Biological Sciences Bldg., Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E9, Canada.
Source
Ambio. 2020 03; 49(3):762-783
Date
03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Ecosystem
Falconiformes
Greenland
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Abstract
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) are top avian predators of Arctic ecosystems. Although existing monitoring efforts are well established for both species, collaboration of activities among Arctic scientists actively involved in research of large falcons in the Nearctic and Palearctic has been poorly coordinated. Here we provide the first overview of Arctic falcon monitoring sites, present trends for long-term occupancy and productivity, and summarize information describing abundance, distribution, phenology, and health of the two species. We summarize data for 24 falcon monitoring sites across the Arctic, and identify gaps in coverage for eastern Russia, the Arctic Archipelago of Canada, and East Greenland. Our results indicate that peregrine falcon and gyrfalcon populations are generally stable, and assuming that these patterns hold beyond the temporal and spatial extents of the monitoring sites, it is reasonable to suggest that breeding populations at broader scales are similarly stable. We have highlighted several challenges that preclude direct comparisons of Focal Ecosystem Components (FEC) attributes among monitoring sites, and we acknowledge that methodological problems cannot be corrected retrospectively, but could be accounted for in future monitoring. Despite these drawbacks, ample opportunity exists to establish a coordinated monitoring program for Arctic-nesting raptor species that supports CBMP goals.
Notes
ErratumIn: Ambio. 2020 Jan 21;: PMID 31965558
PubMed ID
31858488 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.