To clarify the role of perceived job insecurity and perceived employability in relation to psychological symptoms among permanent and temporary employees in two samples. Sample 1 was representative of the Finnish working population in 2008 (n = 4,330; Study 1). Sample 2 was collected among Finnish university personnel and in two waves (n = 1,212; Study 2).
Perceived job insecurity, perceived employability, and psychological symptoms were measured by questionnaires in both studies. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses.
The pattern of results was similar in the two samples. Perceived job insecurity was positively associated with psychological symptoms among permanent workers but not among temporary workers. No such differential relationships were observed for perceived employability, instead perceived employability was negatively associated with psychological symptoms among all respondents. Furthermore, perceived employability did not buffer the positive relation between perceived job insecurity and psychological symptoms.
Knowledge about the relationship between contract type and workers' well-being can be enhanced when the combined effects of contract type and job conditions are accounted for.
In order to develop policymaking, evaluation is required. The research project studied national health promotion policies concentrating on mental health promotion policy. In this paper the focus is on the position of evaluation.
To explore the position of evaluation in the development of the national public health strategies of England and Finland and particularly with regard to mental health promotion policies. The evaluation phase of the policymaking process is also scrutinised through multiple streams of policy change.
Meta-evaluative approach applying a conceptual framework of policy analysis.
Evaluations of national health strategies were executed in both countries. These evaluations entailed multiple tasks; not only to monitor the progress of the targets but to learn for the future in a wider perspective. Aims of mental health policy are not easily turned into quantitative targets and therefore outcome evaluation was not felt to be satisfactory as it lacks focus on process as well as null, perverse, and unintended consequences.
While the position of evaluation is almost always more complicated than is assumed in so-called rational policymaking theory, mental health appears to be even more challenging in this respect. Possibilities for alternative evaluation strategies should be studied further.
Mental disorders are serious public health problems and mental disorders have an impact on individuals' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate for differences in psychological distress and HRQoL outcomes between long-term social assistance recipients (LTRs) and the general population in Norway. In addition, differences in HRQoL outcomes were evaluated in LTRs and general population who reported clinically meaningful levels of psychological distress.
In this cross-sectional study, which is part of a larger study that evaluated the health and functional abilities of LTRs in Norway, 393 LTRs were compared to a similar aged group (n = 3919) from the general population. Psychological distress was measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist.
LTRs were significantly younger (p 1.85 reported lower mental component scores on the SF-12 than general population.
In the total sample, LTRs experienced more psychological distress and reported poorer HRQoL than the general population. Clinically meaningful levels of psychological distress occurred more frequently in LTRs than general population. The LTRs and the general population with psychological distress rated both the physical and mental components of HRQoL lower than LTRs and general population without psychological distress.
Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors.
Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558) completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis.
Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (ß = 0.25). Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (ß = 0.11), somatic disease (ß = 0.11), work related stress (ß = 0.10) and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (ß = 0.09). Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P
Cites: Res Nurs Health. 1989 Oct;12(5):281-72798948
To examine the incidence rates of antipsychotic (AP) and antidepressant (AD) drug treatment in Norway and the proportions initiated in general practice and specialist care respectively.
Data on all prescriptions of APs and ADs dispensed to the general population in Norway from 1 January 2004 until 31 August 2009 were extracted from the Norwegian Prescription Database. This information was merged with data about general practitioners (GPs) from the Norwegian Regular General Practitioner Scheme.
One-year incidence rates per 1000 inhabitants were 3.4 for APs and 8.6 for ADs. GPs initiated 58% of APs and 73% of ADs, while psychiatrists initiated 15% and 6% respectively. Psychiatrists initiated treatment more often among younger patients, and they prescribed relatively newer drugs more commonly than GPs. A large share of incident users did not refill their prescriptions for APs (57%) or ADs (33%).
GPs have a key role as regards initiating treatment with APs and ADs in Norway, while psychiatrists' influence seems limited, particularly among older patients. Efforts for quality improvement of mental health care need to involve primary health care. In addition, an increased focus from psychiatrists towards the increasingly ageing part of the population seems requisite.
Specific phobias have received little attention among older adults. This study is aimed at determining the 12-month prevalence rates of fear subtypes in older adults with a full or subthreshold DSM diagnosis of specific phobia as well as to examine differences among these conditions according to health and health behavior characteristics potentially associated with the severity of anxious symptoms.
Data came from a representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 2784). Diagnoses were established by in-home semi-structured interviews. DSM-IV criteria for specific phobia were slightly modified in line with recommendations for DSM-V.
The 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobias and subthreshold fears were, respectively, 2.0 and 8.7%. More than half of the respondents with a specific phobia did not recognize the "excessiveness" of their fears. Situational and natural environment fears were the most frequent subtypes. Compared to respondents with no symptoms of anxiety, older adults with a full- or subthreshold-specific phobia reported more chronic physical health problems, more comorbid depressive disorders and a higher use of benzodiazepines. However, older adults with specific phobia reported more comorbid anxiety disorders than respondents with subthreshold fears.
The present study provides evidence for the fact that subthreshold fears have a high prevalence among older adults. Since several older people with specific phobia do not recognize the "excessiveness" of their fears, it is recommended that DSM-V criteria allow clinicians to rely on their own judgment to assess whether the perceived danger is out of proportion.
The prevalence of diabetes in Canada is increasing. Multiple factors have been identified in the development of disability in diabetic patients, but the interaction of those risk factors is not clear.
The purpose of this paper was to assess the association between diabetes severity, health behavior, socioeconomic status, social support, depression, and disability simultaneously in a population-based study of individuals with diabetes in Quebec, Canada.
Random digit dialing was used to select a sample of 2,003 adults with self-reported diabetes in Quebec. Health status was assessed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the CDC Healthy Days Measures. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression. Potential risk factors included diabetes severity, social support, socioeconomic status, and health behavior factors. Structural equation models were used to identify risk factors that contributed to both depressive symptoms and disability.
The prevalence of major and minor depression was 8.7% and 10.9%, respectively, while the prevalence of severe disability was 6.7%. Diabetes severity and health behavior factors were associated with both depression and disability. Social support was associated with depression for women but not for men.
Our results suggest a complex interaction between health behavior factors, diabetes severity, social support, depression, and disability. Behavioral factors and diabetes-specific factors might have a direct effect on both depression and physical functioning.
Internet has become increasingly common in adolescents' daily lives and also in health care. However, there is still need to explore how nurses perceive its use as a part of adolescents' treatment. This explorative qualitative study aim was to explore how nurses perceive the usefulness of Internet in adolescents' outpatient care in mental health. The data were collected among nurses (n=12) working in two psychiatric adolescent outpatient clinics in university central hospitals in Finland. The data were collected in focus group interviews and analysed using inductive content analysis. The analysis showed that Internet use could promote the care process of adolescents with depression by supporting their self-reflection and self-management, enhancing nurses' understanding of adolescents' daily lives and facilitating nurse-adolescent interaction. Disadvantages identified among nurses were fear of role changes in the nurse-adolescent interaction, changes in the intervention, when Internet might be a third party in the face-to-face interaction and negative effects of Internet on adolescents. Facilitators in the use of Internet were nurses' positive attitude to Internet, knowledge and experiences of Internet usage. Nurses' negative attitude to Internet and lack of training and instructions were seen as barriers in promoting the successful utilization of Internet among adolescents with depression in outpatient care.
The purpose of this discussion paper is to explore the existing literature from Canada on transitioning from military to civilian life for veterans of recent deployments. A number of topics relating to the transition experience emerged: interpersonal readjustment, emotional including mental health needs, school needs, and social needs. Implications for nursing will be discussed in terms of veterans as a cultural group and culturally competent nursing care. Recommendations for future nursing research include how well current services are meeting the needs of the younger, more recent veterans transitioning to civilian life; conducting longitudinal studies on the impact of transitioning to civilian life for veterans and their families; comparing the transition experience at an international level; developing a transition model that situates the veteran culture as the overarching framework for testing and understanding the experience of transitioning to civilian life.
The Danish OPUS I trial randomized 547 patients with first-episode psychosis to a two-year early-specialised assertive treatment programme (OPUS) versus standard treatment. The two years OPUS treatment had significant positive effects on psychotic and negative symptoms, secondary substance abuse, treatment adherence, lower dosage of antipsychotic medication, and a higher treatment satisfaction. However, three years after end of the OPUS treatment, the positive clinical effects were not sustained, except that OPUS-treated patients were significantly less likely to be institutionalised compared with standard-treated patients. The major objective of the OPUS II trial is to evaluate the effects of five years of OPUS treatment versus two years of OPUS treatment.
The OPUS II trial is designed as a randomized, open label, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessment. Based on our sample size estimation, 400 patients treated in OPUS for two years will be randomized to further three years of OPUS treatment versus standard treatment. The specialized assertive OPUS treatment consists of three core elements: assertive community treatment, psycho-educational family treatment, and social skills training.
It has been hypothesized that there is a critical period from onset up to five years, which represents a window of opportunity where a long-term course can be influenced. Extending the specialized assertive OPUS treatment up to five years may allow the beneficial effects to continue beyond the high-risk period, through consolidation of improved social and functional outcome.
To study the efficacy and tolerability of atomoxetine in high-functioning boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).
Fourteen boys (age 7-17) participated in a 10-week open-label study. Atomoxetine doses were 0.5 mg/kg/day in week 1 and 1.2-1.4 mg/kg/day in weeks 2-10. Changes in AD/HD symptoms were measured by the AD/HD Rating Scale, and global improvements by the Clinical Global Improvement Scale. Both measures were used to assess drug response. Assessments were done at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 10. Teacher ratings were done at baseline and 10 weeks.
There were significant reductions in AD/HD symptoms rated by parents (p
The psychosocial impacts of various types of childhood maltreatment on vulnerable illicit drug-using populations remain unclear. We examined the prevalence and correlates of antecedent emotional, physical and sexual abuse among a community-recruited cohort of adult HIV-seropositive illicit drug users.
We estimated the prevalence of childhood abuse at baseline using data from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item validated instrument used to retrospectively assess childhood maltreatment. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships between sub-types of childhood maltreatment with various social-demographic, drug-using and clinical characteristics.
Overall, 233 HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) were included in the analysis, including 83 (35.6%) women. Of these, moderate or severe emotional childhood abuse was reported by 51.9% of participants, emotional neglect by 36.9%, physical abuse by 51.1%, physical neglect by 46.8% and sexual abuse by 41.6%. In multivariate analyses, emotional, physical and sexual abuses were independently associated with greater odds of recent incarceration. Emotional abuse and neglect were independently associated with a score of =16 on the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There was no association between any form of childhood maltreatment and clinical HIV variables, including viral load, CD4+ count and history of antiretroviral therapy use.
These findings underscore the negative impact of childhood maltreatment on social functioning and mental health in later life. Given the substantial prevalence of childhood maltreatment among this population, there is a need for evidence-based resources to address the deleterious effect it has on the health and social functioning of HIV-positive IDU.
To assess the outcome of rehabilitation of older patients in a district rehabilitation centre.
Prospective observational study.
A total of 202 patients aged = 65 years rehabilitated at a Norwegian district inpatient rehabilitation centre, referred from district hospital, nursing homes or their own homes. Diagnoses were: stroke, arthrosis, hip fracture and other chronic diseases.
Admission: according to rehabilitation potential.
multidisciplinary team including an experienced general practitioner.
Sunnaas Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index (SI).
Umea Life Satisfaction Checklist (LSC). Cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)), emotional (Symptom Check List-10) and marital status, residence, length of stay and hours/week private and home care services were recorded.
SI increased significantly during the mean 3.1 weeks stay (mean 4.2, 95% confidence interval 3.5, 4.8), p
The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption or intensification on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in advanced HIV patients is unknown.
To assess the impact of temporary treatment interruption and intensification of ART on HRQoL.
A 2 x 2 factorial open label randomized controlled trial.
Hospitals in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
Multidrug resistant (MDR) HIV patients.
Patients were randomized to receive a 12-wk interruption or not, and ART intensification or standard ART.
The Health Utilities Index (HUI3), EQ-5D, standard gamble (SG), time tradeoff (TTO), visual analog scale (VAS), and the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV).
There were no significant differences in HRQoL among the four groups during follow-up; however, there was a temporary significant decline in HRQoL on some measures within the interruption group during interruption (HUI3 -0.05, P = 0.03; VAS -5.9, P = 0.002; physical health summary -2.9, P = 0.001; mental health summary -1.9, P = 0.02). Scores declined slightly overall during follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed significantly lower HRQoL associated with some clinical events. Limitations. The results may not apply to HIV patients who have not experienced multiple treatment failures or who have not developed MDR HIV.
Temporary ART interruption and ART intensification provided neither superior nor inferior HRQoL compared with no interruption and standard ART. Among surviving patients, HRQoL scores declined only slightly over years of follow-up in this advanced HIV cohort; however, approximately one-third of patients died during the trial follow up. Lower HRQoL was associated with adverse clinical events.
Research often fails to ascertain whether men and women are equally hit by the health consequences of unemployment. The aim of this study was to analyze whether men's self-reported health and health behaviour were hit more by unemployment than women's in a follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.
A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a middle-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1,006) participated during the whole period. A sample was made of participants in the labour force and living in Sweden (n = 916). Register data were used to assess the length of unemployment from age 40 to 42, while questionnaire data were used for the other variables.
In multivariate logistic regression analyses significant relations between unemployment and mental health/smoking were found among both women and men, even after control for unemployment at the time of the investigation and indicators of health-related selection. Significant relations between unemployment and alcohol consumption were found among women, while few visits to a dentist was significant among men.
Men are not hit more by the health consequences of unemployment in a Swedish context, with a high participation rate of women in the labour market. The public health relevance is that the study indicates the need to take gendered contexts into account in public health research.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of identifying and treating infections on functional outcomes and length of stay (LOS). Our retrospective naturalistic study reviewed all new admissions to a tertiary geriatric psychiatry teaching hospital from 2003 to 2007. Over this four-year period, 390 patients were admitted and discharged with 21% (85) of patients identified as having infections on admission. Those with infections were compared to the group without to determine and compare clinical characteristics. Factors included in analysis were: age, gender, diagnoses, medical comorbidity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, functional outcomes, medications and LOS. Both groups were similar in gender, psychiatric diagnoses and severity of dementia. Those requiring antibiotics for treatment of infections on admission, were older (p=0.003), had poorer baseline function (p=0.005) and higher medical comorbidity (p
Previous studies of neighborhood deprivation and mental disorders have yielded mixed results, possibly because they were based on different substrata of the population. We conducted a national multilevel study to determine whether neighborhood deprivation is independently associated with psychiatric medication prescription in a national population.
Nationwide outpatient and inpatient psychiatric medication data were analyzed for all Swedish adults (N = 6,998,075) after 2.5 years of follow-up. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation (index of education, income, unemployment, and welfare assistance) and prescription of psychiatric medications (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics/sedatives), after adjusting for broadly measured individual-level sociodemographic characteristics.
For each psychiatric medication class, a monotonic trend of increasing prescription was observed by increasing level of neighborhood deprivation. The strongest associations were found for antipsychotics and anxiolytics, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.44) and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.22-1.27), respectively, comparing the highest- to the lowest-deprivation neighborhood quintiles.
These findings suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with psychiatric medication prescription independent of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation may affect mental health and to identify the most susceptible groups in the population.
Cites: Health Place. 2006 Dec;12(4):594-60216168700
To investigate how nurses and physicians in the Child and School Health Services view the documentation and transfer of health information. Another aim concerns their perceptions of a nationally standardized electronic health record.
Problems of mental health among children and adolescents currently pose one of the greatest challenges facing all European countries. The continuity of health work demands that all health information follow the child's development, disregarding the organizational arrangement.
The study was descriptive and comprised 484 questionnaires to nurses and physicians in the Child and School Health Services in Sweden.
More information about children's health was transferred than documented in the health record when children started school. This additional health information concerned psychosocial health and foremost family function. There was a consensus concerning the usefulness of a nationally standardized electronic health record, although there were group differences between nurses and physicians.
All information about children's health is not documented although the professional's positive perceptions to electronic health records may provide a basis to improve documentation.
The results indicate challenges to develop a common language to document psychosocial issues necessary for providing a holistic view of children's health.