Consecutive female admissions to the Winnipeg Remand Centre were studied and data concerning personal history, family background, psychological factors and mental health were recorded. An effort was made to determine a typical profile of female offenders and relate this to the alleged offences. Our data failed to identify what has been described by others as the "new female criminal".
A study was made of health problems reported by data entry clerks working in two large data pools within the Québec Public Service Administration. In order to collect the data, 350 clerks answered a questionnaire, representing a return rate of 92%. The results indicate that, in comparison with women in other occupations, the data entry clerks have a high rate of occurrence of psychiatric symptoms (measured by the Ilfeld index) as well as a high degree of use of over-the-counter and prescription drugs. In addition, these two problems are more prevalent in full-time clerks than in part-time clerks. The psychiatric symptoms appear related to the combined influence of two main factors: work overload and the monotony of work specialization. A third factor, the quality of the relationships among workers in the pool, also seemed to affect the regular full-time clerks.
A number of women experience difficulties during the climacteric related to the major change they are undergoing (i.e. physical, psychological, social and familial). These difficulties are often linked to negative attitudes and misunderstanding concerning the phenomena involved. This article describes a holistic prevention and health promotion program aimed at women aged 40 to 55. The program, in the form of an awareness-raising group, addresses the physical and psychological aspects of this period in a women's life, and presents participants with avenues to greater autonomy and better overall health. The organizational and evaluation aspects of the program are also presented.
Four hundred and twenty-two adolescent suicide attempts were examined. The intent to die was weaker than in adult persons. Within lethality no difference was found. Adolescents came mostly from the lowest social classes and their educational status was low. Their mental health was often unsatisfactory. The psychiatric treatment, which was arranged after the suicide attempt, was not more intensive than that arranged for adult suicide attempters.
The 20-year history of community psychology is considered with respect to activities on behalf of ethnic minority participation in psychotherapy, increasing cultural diversity, and to a considerably lesser extent, enhancing community systems. A discrepancy was found between community psychology in principle and community psychology in practice. For the future, community psychologists are advised to identify and seek to strengthen (a) indigenous resources for solving personal and community problems; and (b) pathways of help seeking followed by community members. Community psychology is encouraged to reclaim and enact more vigorously its own legacy. To do otherwise, it is argued, forfeits development of potentially significant research and practice and risks continued ambivalence and dissatisfaction despite worthwhile contribution--suffering the peculiar successes of community psychology.
Childhood poverty is common in Canada: 1,114,000 children under 16 years of age live below the poverty line. The incidence is highest among children of single mothers, unemployed parents, Canadian native peoples and recent immigrants, particularly refugees. Compared with the national average, the infant mortality rate is twice as high, deaths from infectious diseases are 2.5 times more common and accidental deaths are twice as common among children of low-income families. Other problems associated with poverty are iron deficiency anemia, dental caries, chronic ear infections, mental retardation, learning disabilities, poor school performance and increased suicide rates. Health care professionals can help address the poor physical and mental health associated with poverty in children by promoting a broad range of public policies.
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We developed the methodology for a community survey to determine the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders among children 4 to 16 years of age in Ontario, Canada. Our discussion includes the objectives of the survey, the measurement of disorder, sampling methods and survey design, and a description of the data collected and instrumentation. Among 2052 households with eligible children, 1869 (91%) participated in the survey. The results can be used to help plan the future allocation of mental health resources in Ontario.
We carried out a seroepidemiologic study to evaluate the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from students to staff in a day school for mentally retarded students. Of 505 students tested, 37 (7.3 per cent) had HBsAg; 74 per cent of HBsAg-positive sera tested were HBeAg-positive. Of 162 staff members tested, 21 (13.0 per cent) were HBV marker positive and two (1.2 per cent) had HBsAg; specialized educators and teachers showed the highest HBV marker prevalence (22.2 per cent and 21.3 per cent, respectively). The prevalence of HBV markers among staff was independently associated with classroom contact with a HBsAg-positive student, duration of employment at the school, and previous work with mentally retarded individuals. The incidence of HBV infection among teaching staff with regular classroom contact, estimated by logistic regression analysis, was 2.6 per cent per year. This observation indicates that teaching staff in schools for mentally retarded students with direct classroom contact may carry an occupational risk of HBV infection.
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We studied the six-month prevalence of four child psychiatric disorders (conduct disorder, hyperactivity, emotional disorder, and somatization) and patterns of service utilization for mental health and social services, ambulatory medical care and special education by different regions of Ontario, urban-rural residence, and age and sex groupings. Among children 4 to 16 years of age, the overall six-month prevalence rate of one or more of these disorders was 18.1%. The prevalences of hyperactivity and one or more disorders were significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas. The utilization data indicated that children with these psychiatric disorders, compared with children without these disorders, were almost four times more likely to have received mental health or social services in the six months preceding this study. However, five of six of these children had not received these specialized services in the previous six-month period. Over 50% of the children in the province had received ambulatory medical care in the last six months. Over 15% of the children in the province had received special education services at some time thus far in their school careers. Implications of these findings, especially for the provision of child mental health services, are discussed.
The purpose of this research was to study the epidemiology of psychotropic drug use among the general population and to draw comparisons to drug use among clients of medical, mental health, and social services in the same jurisdiction. Results showed considerably higher percentages of users for all drug categories among agency clientele. Age and sex differences in drug use replicated previous research in the general population but were noticeably absent among the clients of local services. Notably, the proportion of long-term daily users of minor tranquilizers in the agency population was about three times that of the general population. However, tranquilizer users in the two populations were similar in many respects. Results of the study are discussed in terms of the need for screening for persons with psychotropic drug problems in health and social services.
This article reports on a study which reviewed the utilization of six adult psychiatric day hospitals in a Canadian urban region. The study looks at the utilization of services through the examination of clinical service staffing patterns, accessibility, and gaps in service. It is hoped that this comprehensive overview will promote the establishment of standards and guidelines for psychiatric day-hospital services and further enhance the overall planning for psychiatric services in the region.
The present study aimed to identify the needs and describe the use of twenty mental health services in a population of chronic schizophrenic patients living in two regions in Quebec (Estrie and Centre-Sud). An attempt was also made to determine the principal reasons for which some services were not being used when they were identified as clinically required. The population considered was composed of the patients (N = 88) who had been discharged from the psychiatric care units of five general hospitals over a period of five months in 1982, and for whom the attending psychiatrist could confirm with certainty a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia in accordance with the criteria of DSM-III. Medical files of these patients were reviewed, and the patients and psychiatrists themselves were interviewed separately regarding the patients' needs and use of twenty mental health services over the period from the seventh to the twelfth month after discharge from hospital. Results of the study show that services which were most often identified as clinically required were: 1) taking of neuroleptics, 2) organization of leisure activities, 3) case management, and 4) individual supportive therapy. At the same time, results indicate a poor fit between needs and use for most of rehabilitation and psychosocial services. The main reasons for non-use of services which were identified as clinically required are also presented. The implications of these results for the organization of mental health services for persons suffering from chronic schizophrenia are discussed, especially the importance of case management services.
The organization of a psychiatric specialist service integrated in primary care is described. One of the aims was to replace admissions to the mental hospital with consultation and treatment within primary care. An 18% reduction of admissions was achieved over a 2-year period. The staff at the local mental hospital to a large extent controlled the number of admissions. Lack of cooperation from part of the staff made a greater reduction of admissions difficult. It is argued that in order to achieve a true shift from institutional to community psychiatry, the use of the hospital beds should be monitored from the community level.
A controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of superimposing an interdisciplinary geriatric consultation team upon the conventional patterns of care in medical wards of an acute care hospital. Two hundred and twenty-two patients, aged 69 years of age or older, admitted from the emergency room to two trial wards and 182 similar patients admitted to two control wards where the team did not work, were followed. Evaluations at admission, two and four weeks, and three and six months postadmission by independent evaluators allowed comparisons between the care groups with reference to survival, length of stay, disposition, physical, mental, and social functional levels, and use of services after discharge. Data from charts and treatment logs allowed the care processes to be compared. Findings determined that patients in the two groups were alike on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at entry. Results demonstrated that patients in the trial and control groups fared similarly on the outcome measures at each evaluation point, although a trend toward better survival among team patients was noted. It was concluded that the addition of a consultative geriatric team to the medical wards failed to show a significant impact on patient outcomes.