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Is retirement beneficial for mental health?: antidepressant use before and after retirement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135187
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 Jul;22(4):553-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Tuula Oksanen
Jussi Vahtera
Hugo Westerlund
Jaana Pentti
Noora Sjösten
Marianna Virtanen
Ichiro Kawachi
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. tuula.oksanen@ttl.fi
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 Jul;22(4):553-9
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Retirement - psychology
Abstract
Recent studies based on self-reported data suggest that retirement may have beneficial effects on mental health, but studies using objective endpoints remain scarce. This study examines longitudinally the changes in antidepressant medication use across the 9 years spanning the transition to retirement.
Participants were Finnish public-sector employees: 7138 retired at statutory retirement age (76% women; mean age, 61.2 years), 1238 retired early due to mental health issues (78% women; mean age, 52.0 years), and 2643 retired due to physical health issues (72% women; mean age, 55.4 years). Information on purchase of antidepressant medication 4 years before and 4 years after retirement year was based on comprehensive national pharmacy records in 1994-2005.
One year before retirement, the use of antidepressants was 4% among those who would retire at statutory age, 61% among those who would retire due to mental health issues, and 14% among those who would retire due to physical health issues. Retirement-related changes in antidepressant use depended on the reason for retirement. Among old-age retirees, antidepressant medication use decreased during the transition period (age- and calendar-year-adjusted prevalence ratio for antidepressant use 1 year after versus 1 year before retirement = 0.77 [95% confidence interval = 0.68 to 0.88]). Among those whose main reason for disability pension was mental health issues or physical health issues, there was an increasing trend in antidepressant use prior to retirement and, for mental health retirements, a decrease after retirement.
Trajectories of recorded purchases of antidepressant medication are consistent with the hypothesis that retirement is beneficial for mental health.
Notes
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Comment In: Epidemiology. 2011 Jul;22(4):560-221642778
PubMed ID
21502864 View in PubMed
Less detail

Current mental health in women with childhood sexual abuse who had outpatient psychotherapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29677
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2005 May;20(3):260-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
Dawn E Peleikis
Arnstein Mykletun
Alv A Dahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Aker University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 21, 0320, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. pel@online.no
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2005 May;20(3):260-7
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Ambulatory Care
Anxiety Disorders - etiology - psychology - therapy
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - ethnology - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Depressive Disorder, Major - etiology - psychology - therapy
Female
Humans
Incest - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Norway
Prevalence
Psychotherapy - methods
Questionnaires
Abstract
PURPOSE: This study from Norway examines mental health status of women with child sexual abuse (CSA) who formerly had outpatient psychotherapy for anxiety disorders and/or depression. The relative contributions of CSA and other family background risk factors (FBRF) to aspects of mental health status are also explored. SUBJECTS: At a mean of 5.1 years after outpatient psychotherapy, 56 female outpatients with CSA and 56 without CSA were personally examined by an independent female psychiatrist. Systematic information about current mental health and functioning was collected by structured interview and questionnaires. RESULTS: Among women with CSA 95% had a mental disorder, 50% had PTSD, and mean global assessment of functioning (GAF) score was 61.8+/-10.6. In contrast, 70% of women without CSA had a mental disorder, 14% had PTSD, and mean GAF 71.2 + 8.5. GAF and trauma scale scores were mainly determined by CSA, while FBRF mainly influenced the global psychopathology and dissociation scores. DISCUSSION: We have little knowledge on the mental health status at long-term in women with CSA who had psychotherapy. This study found their mental status to be rather poor, and worse than that of women without CSA who had psychotherapy for the same disorders. From the broad spectrum of mental disorders associated with CSA, this study concerns only women treated as outpatients for anxiety disorders and/or non-psychotic depressions. CONCLUSION: Women with CSA showed poor mental health at long-term follow-up after treatment. The fitness of the psychodynamic individual psychotherapy given, or to what extent treatment can remedy the consequences of such childhood adversities, is discussed.
PubMed ID
15935426 View in PubMed
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Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: a population based survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45599
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:34
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Henrik D Zachrisson
Kjetil Rödje
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Div. Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, 0403, Nydalen, Oslo. heza@fhi.no
Source
BMC Public Health. 2006;6:34
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Health Services - utilization
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - therapy
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - therapy
Female
Health Care Surveys
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Male
Mental Health Services - utilization
Norway - epidemiology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
School Health Services
Students - psychology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a) examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b) identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c) identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. METHODS: This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154) is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. RESULTS: We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists), the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. CONCLUSION: It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment.
PubMed ID
16480522 View in PubMed
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Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289537
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Miriam Evensen
Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Ole Melkevik
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution.
A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (=30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution.
Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile.
Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings.
PubMed ID
27531845 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adolescent mental health and earnings inequalities in adulthood: evidence from the Young-HUNT Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289695
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2017
Author
Miriam Evensen
Torkild Hovde Lyngstad
Ole Melkevik
Anne Reneflot
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Feb; 71(2):201-206
Date
Feb-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent health
Adult
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution.
A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (=30 years) in young adulthood. We used linear regression with fixed-effects models comparing either students within schools or siblings within families. Unconditional quantile regressions were used to explore differentials across the earnings distribution.
Mental health problems in adolescence reduce average earnings in adulthood, and associations are robust to control for observed family background and school fixed effects. For some, but not all mental health problems, associations are also robust in sibling fixed-effects models, where all stable family factors are controlled. Further, we found much larger earnings loss below the 25th centile.
Adolescent mental health problems reduce adult earnings, especially among individuals in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. Preventing mental health problems in adolescence may increase future earnings.
PubMed ID
27531845 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263892
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2014 Oct;24(5):813-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Amanda Griffiths
Anne Kouvonen
Jaana Pentti
Tuula Oksanen
Marianna Virtanen
Paula Salo
Ari Väänänen
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2014 Oct;24(5):813-8
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Cohort Studies
Exercise - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Style
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women.
We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health.
There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women.
This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24532567 View in PubMed
Less detail

Is infertility really associated with higher levels of mental distress in the female population? Results from the North-Tr√łndelag Health Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272619
Source
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;36(2):38-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Eva Biringer
Louise Michele Howard
Ute Kessler
Robert Stewart
Arnstein Mykletun
Source
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;36(2):38-45
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Infertility, Female - epidemiology - psychology
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Quality of Life
Risk factors
Women's health
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the effect of ever having tried to conceive for more than 12 months on levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and to investigate if symptom levels of anxiety and depression in infertile women who remain childless, or go on to have children, respectively, differ from symptom levels in mothers without reports of infertility.
Analyses were based on information from 12?584 Norwegian women aged 19-45 years who participated in the North-Tr?ndelag Health Study from 1995 to 1997 and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Having tried to conceive for more than 12 months (ever) was weakly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. In the categorical analyses, women with resolved infertility had higher levels of anxiety symptoms (B?=?0.25 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.04-0.47)) and voluntarily childfree had lower levels of depressive symptoms (B?=?-0.05 (95% CI?=?-0.50 to -0.21)) than mothers without infertility. However, women with current primary or current secondary infertility had levels of anxiety and depression not significantly different from mothers without infertility.
At the population level, and from a longitudinal perspective, unresolved infertility is less burdensome than findings from studies on women seeking help for infertility would suggest.
PubMed ID
25572637 View in PubMed
Less detail

The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152872
Source
J Health Soc Behav. 2008 Dec;49(4):452-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Ari Väänänen
Nuria Tordera
Mika Kivimäki
Anne Kouvonen
Jaana Pentti
Anne Linna
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Centre of Expertise for Work Organizations, Helsinki, Finland. Ari.Vaananen@ttl.fi
Source
J Health Soc Behav. 2008 Dec;49(4):452-67
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Health status
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Mental health
Poisson Distribution
Prospective Studies
Psychometrics
Questionnaires
Work - psychology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.
PubMed ID
19181049 View in PubMed
Less detail

The double burden of and negative spillover between paid and domestic work: associations with health among men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175258
Source
Women Health. 2004;40(3):1-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Ari Väänänen
May V Kevin
Leena Ala-Mursula
Jaana Pentti
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Psychology, Topeliuksenkatu 41 A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland. Ari.Vaananen@ttl.fi
Source
Women Health. 2004;40(3):1-18
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Confidence Intervals
Conflict (Psychology)
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology
Time Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance - psychology
Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine whether the double burden of and negative spillover between domestic and full-time paid work are associated with an increase in health problems. Survey responses were linked with sickness absence records in a cross-sectional study of 6442 full-time municipal employees. Women and men experiencing severe work-family spillover had a 1.5-1.6 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.0) times higher rate of sickness absence than those with no such experience. The corresponding odds ratios for psychological distress and suboptimal self-assessed health varied between 3.6 and 6.5 (2.3 to 11.0). Among the women, severe family-work spillover increased the risk of psychological distress and suboptimal health [odds ratios 2.0 (1.4 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3), respectively], and accumulated sole responsibilities were associated with a 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) times higher odds ratio for psychological distress. Long domestic work hours (>50/week) were associated with a 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0) times higher rate of sickness absence among the men, but there was no such increase among the women. We conclude that negative work-family spillover especially is associated with health problems among both women and men, and negative family-work spillover is related to a poorer health status among women.
PubMed ID
15829442 View in PubMed
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Childhood adversity, adult socioeconomic status and risk of work disability: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285311
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Sep;74(9):659-666
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Jaana I Halonen
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Jaana Pentti
Marianna Virtanen
Jenni Ervasti
Tuula Oksanen
Tea Lallukka
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2017 Sep;74(9):659-666
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Disabled Persons - psychology
Employment
Family Relations - psychology
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - etiology
Mental health
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - etiology
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Pensions
Proportional Hazards Models
Retirement
Risk factors
Sick Leave
Social Class
Abstract
To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability.
Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects.
When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29?to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36?to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20?to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects.
These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28784838 View in PubMed
Less detail

Physical activity and common mental disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139680
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;197(5):357-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Samuel B Harvey
Matthew Hotopf
Simon Overland
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Weston Education Centre, 10 Cutcombe Road, London SE5 9RJ, UK. samuel.b.harvey@kcl.ac.uk
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;197(5):357-64
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety - epidemiology - metabolism
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Depression - epidemiology - metabolism
Exercise - physiology - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Recreation - physiology - psychology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Workplace
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may have antidepressant and/or anti-anxiety effects.
To examine the bidirectional relationship between physical activity and common mental disorders and establish the importance of context, type and intensity of activity undertaken.
A clinical examination of 40 401 residents of Norway was undertaken. Participants answered questions relating to the frequency and intensity of both leisure-time and workplace activity. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Biological and social data were also collected.
There was an inverse relationship between the amount of leisure-time physical activity and case-level symptoms of depression. This cross-sectional association was only present with leisure-time (as opposed to workplace) activity and was not dependent on the intensity of activities undertaken. Higher levels of social support and social engagement were important in explaining the relationship between leisure activity and depression. Biological changes such as alterations to parasympathetic vagal tone (resting pulse) and changes to metabolic markers had a less important role.
Individuals who engage in regular leisure-time activity of any intensity are less likely to have symptoms of depression. The context and social benefits of exercise are important in explaining this relationship.
PubMed ID
21037212 View in PubMed
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The association between habitual diet quality and the common mental disorders in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133326
Source
Psychosom Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;73(6):483-90
Publication Type
Article
Author
Felice N Jacka
Arnstein Mykletun
Michael Berk
Ingvar Bjelland
Grethe S Tell
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia. felice@barwonhealth.org.au
Source
Psychosom Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;73(6):483-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Exercise
Female
Food Habits - psychology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests a role for diet quality in the common mental disorders depression and anxiety. We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality, dietary patterns, and the common mental disorders in Norwegian adults.
This cross-sectional study included 5731 population-based men and women aged 46 to 49 and 70 to 74 years. Habitual diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and mental health was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
After adjustments for variables including age, education, income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, an a priori healthy diet quality score was inversely related to depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59-0.84) and anxiety (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.68-0.87) in women and to depression (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.99) in men. Women scoring higher on a healthy dietary pattern were less likely to be depressed (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.82) or anxious (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98), whereas men were more likely to be anxious (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03-1.38). A traditional Norwegian dietary pattern was also associated with reduced depression in women (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92) and anxiety in men (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61-0.96). A western-type diet was associated with increased anxiety in men (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.14-1.42) and women (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.17-1.43) before final adjustment for energy intake.
In this study, those with better quality diets were less likely to be depressed, whereas a higher intake of processed and unhealthy foods was associated with increased anxiety.
PubMed ID
21715296 View in PubMed
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The health status of nonparticipants in a population-based health study: the Hordaland Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100403
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Dec 1;172(11):1306-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2010
Author
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Matthew Hotopf
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Simon Overland
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Research Section for Mental Health Epidemiology, Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. ann.knudsen@psych.uib.no
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Dec 1;172(11):1306-14
Date
Dec-1-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Consumer Participation - statistics & numerical data
Diagnosis-Related Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Insurance, Disability - utilization
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Selection Bias
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The authors aimed to examine whether nonparticipation in a population-based health study was associated with poorer health status; to determine whether specific health problems were overrepresented among nonparticipants; and to explore potential consequences of participation bias on associations between exposures and outcomes. They used data from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), conducted in western Norway in 1997-1999. Of 29,400 persons invited, 63.1% participated in the study. Information from HUSK was linked with the Norwegian national registry of disability pensions (DPs), including information about DP diagnosis. The risk of DP receipt was almost twice as high among nonparticipants as participants (relative risk = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.81, 1.95). The association was strongest for DPs received for mental disorders, with a 3-fold increased risk for nonparticipation. Substance abuse, psychotic disorders, and personality disorders were especially overrepresented among nonparticipants. The authors simulated the impact of nonparticipation on associations between exposures and outcomes by excluding HUSK participants with higher symptoms of common mental disorders (exposure) and examining the impact on DP (outcome). This selective exclusion modestly reduced associations between common mental disorders and DP. The authors conclude that nonparticipants have poorer health, but this is disorder-dependent. Participation bias is probably a greater threat to the validity of prevalence studies than to studies of associations between exposures and outcomes.
PubMed ID
20843863 View in PubMed
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Predictors of methadone maintenance treatment utilization in a multisite cohort of illicit opioid users (OPICAN).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162622
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008 Apr;34(3):340-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Benedikt Fischer
Michelle Firestone Cruz
Jayadeep Patra
Jürgen Rehm
Author Affiliation
Center for Addictions Research of British Columbia, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. bfischer@uvic.ca
Source
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008 Apr;34(3):340-6
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Catchment Area (Health)
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Health Services - utilization
Methadone - therapeutic use
Narcotics - therapeutic use
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Predictive value of tests
Street Drugs
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - rehabilitation
Abstract
Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been a primary treatment response to illicit opioid use in Canada for decades, analytical treatment data are scarce. Using data from the multisite OPICAN cohort of illicit opioid and other drug users repeatedly assessed between 2002 (baseline) and 2005 (last follow-up [FU]), we (1) longitudinally examined characteristics associated with MMT uptake between baseline and FU and (2) cross-sectionally compared drug use patterns between cohort participants in MMT (n = 133) and those not in MMT (n = 400) at the last FU through bivariate and multivariate analyses (stepwise logistic regression). Significant baseline predictors of MMT uptake emerging in the logistic regression model included injection drug, heroin, as well as alcohol use, housing status, and Quebec City as a site. Furthermore, lower prevalence levels of opioid (e.g., morphine and OxyContin) and nonopioid (e.g., cocaine and crack) drug use as well as lower frequency of heroin use days were observed among MMT users. This study highlights potential factors relevant for improved MMT uptake and illustrates possible reductions of drug use related to MMT.
PubMed ID
17614236 View in PubMed
Less detail

General practitioners' opinions on how to improve treatment of mental disorders in primary health care. Interviews with one hundred Norwegian general practitioners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145503
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:35
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Arnstein Mykletun
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Tone Tangen
Simon Overland
Author Affiliation
Research Section for Mental Health Epidemiology, Research Centre for Health Promotion, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:35
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Health Services Research
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Mental Disorders - therapy
Norway
Physicians, Family - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care - standards
Quality Assurance, Health Care - methods
Abstract
Improvements in treatment of mental disorders are repeatedly called for. General practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the majority of treatment of mental disorders. Consequently, we interviewed GPs about their opinions on how treatment of mental disorders in primary health care contexts could be improved.
Among GPs affiliated within the Norwegian reimbursement system, we approached 353, and made contact with 246 GP's. One-hundred of these agreed to participate in our study, and 95 of them expressed opinions on how to improve treatment of mental disorders. The telephone interviews were based on open-ended questions, responses were transcribed continuously, and content analysis was applied. Results are presented both as frequency tables of common responses, and as qualitative descriptions and quotations of opinions.
Nearly all (95%) of the GPs had suggestions on how to improve treatment of mental disorders in primary health care. Increased capacity in secondary health care was suggested by 59% of GPs. Suggestions of improved collaboration with secondary health care were also common (57%), as were improvements of GPs' skills and knowledge relevant for diagnosing and treating mental disorders (40%) and more time for patients with mental disorders in GP contexts (40%).
The GPs' suggestions are in line with international research and debate. It is thought-provoking that the majority of GPs call for increased capacity in secondary care, and also better collaboration with secondary care. Some GPs made comparisons to the health care system for physical disorders, which is described as better-functioning. Our study identified no simple short-term cost-effective interventions likely to improve treatment for mental disorders within primary health care. Under-treatment of mental disorders is, however, also associated with significant financial burdens.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20144205 View in PubMed
Less detail

Neighbourhood socioeconomic status, health and working conditions of school teachers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164563
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007 Apr;61(4):326-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Marianna Virtanen
Mika Kivimäki
Marko Elovainio
Anne Linna
Jaana Pentti
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Psychology, Topeliuksenkatu 41 aA, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland. marianna.virtanen@ttl.fi
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007 Apr;61(4):326-30
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Chronic Disease
Faculty
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Professional Competence
Psychology, Social
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Workload
Workplace
Abstract
To investigate the associations of workplace neighbourhood socioeconomic status with health behaviours, health and working conditions among school teachers.
The survey responses and employer records of 1862 teachers were linked to census data on school neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In the multilevel analysis, adjustments were made for demographics, work factors and the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area.
226 public schools in Finland.
Teachers working in schools from neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status reported heavy alcohol consumption (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.83) and higher probability of doctor-diagnosed mental disorders (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.12) more often than teachers working in schools located in the wealthiest neighbourhoods. After controlling for the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area, only heavy alcohol consumption remained statistically significant. Teachers working in schools with lower socioeconomic status also reported lower frequency of workplace meetings, lower participation in occupational training, lower teaching efficacy and higher mental workload.
School neighbourhood socioeconomic status is associated with working conditions and health of school teachers. The association with health is partially explained by the socioeconomic status of the teachers' own residential neighbourhoods. An independent association was found between low socioeconomic status of school neighbourhoods and heavy alcohol use among teachers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17372293 View in PubMed
Less detail

Common mental disorders and disability pension award: seven year follow-up of the HUSK study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142165
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2010 Jul;69(1):59-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Simon Øverland
Helene Flood Aakvaag
Samuel B Harvey
Matthew Hotopf
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Research Section of Mental Health Epidemiology, Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Ann.Knudsen@psych.uib.no
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2010 Jul;69(1):59-67
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Disability Evaluation
Eligibility Determination
Female
Humans
Insurance, Disability - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Norway
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Sick Role
Abstract
Rates of disability pension (DP) awards remain high in most developed countries. We aimed to estimate the impact of anxiety and depression on DPs awarded both for mental and for physical diagnoses and to estimate the relative contribution of sub case-level anxiety and depression compared with case-level symptom loads.
Information from a large cohort study on mental and physical health in individuals aged 40-46 (N=15,288) was linked to a comprehensive national database of disability benefits. Case-level and sub case-level anxiety and depression were defined as scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale of >or=8 and 5-7, respectively. The outcome was incident award of a DP (including ICD-10 diagnosis) during 1-7-year follow-up.
DP awards for all diagnoses were predicted both from case-level anxiety [HR 1.90 (95% CI 1.50-2.41)], case-level depression [HR 2.44 (95% CI 1.65-3.59] and comorbid anxiety and depression [HR 4.92 (95% CI 3.94-6.15)] at baseline. These effects were only partly accounted for by adjusting for baseline somatic symptoms and diagnoses. Anxiety and depression also predicted awards for physical diagnoses [HR 3.26 (95% CI 2.46-4.32)]. The population attributable fractions (PAF) of sub case-level anxiety and depression symptom loads were comparable to those from case-level symptom loads (PAF anxiety 0.07 versus 0.11, PAF depression 0.05 versus 0.06).
The long-term occupational impact of symptoms of anxiety and depression is currently being underestimated. Sub case-level symptom loads of anxiety and depression make an important and previously unmeasured contribution to DP awards.
PubMed ID
20630264 View in PubMed
Less detail

Length of sickness absence and sustained return-to-work in mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases: a cohort study of public sector employees.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286523
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 Jul 01;43(4):358-366
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-01-2017
Author
Johanna Kausto
Jaana Pentti
Tuula Oksanen
Lauri J Virta
Marianna Virtanen
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017 Jul 01;43(4):358-366
Date
Jul-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Health
Public Sector
Registries
Return to work
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Workplace
Abstract
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the length of sickness absence and sustained return to work (SRTW) and the predictors of SRTW in depression, anxiety disorders, intervertebral disc disorders, and back pain in a population-based cohort of employees in the Finnish public sector. Methods We linked data from employers' registers and four national population registers. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with a cluster option was applied. SRTW was defined as the end of the sickness benefit period not followed by a recurrent sickness benefit period in 30 days. Results For depression, the median time to SRTW was 46 and 38 days among men and women, respectively. For anxiety disorders, the figures were 24 and 22 days, for intervertebral disc disorders, 42 and 41 days, and, for back pain, 21 and 22 days among men and women respectively. Higher age and the persistence of the health problem predicted longer time to SRTW throughout the diagnostic categories. Comorbid conditions predicted longer time to SRTW in depression and back pain among women. Conclusions This large cohort study adds scientific evidence on the length of sickness absence and SRTW in four important diagnostic categories among public sector employees in Finland. Further research taking into account, eg, features of the work environment is suggested. Recommendations on the length of sickness absence at this point should be based on expert opinion and supplemented with research findings.
PubMed ID
28463382 View in PubMed
Less detail

Lost working years due to mental disorders: an analysis of the Norwegian disability pension registry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121479
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42567
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Simon Øverland
Matthew Hotopf
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Ann.Knudsen@psych.uib.no
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42567
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Disability Evaluation
Disabled Persons
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Norway
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Abstract
Mental disorders are prevalent diagnoses in disability benefit statistics, with awards often granted at younger age than for other diagnoses. We aimed to compare the number of lost working years following disability benefit award for mental disorders versus other diagnostic groups.
Data from the complete Norwegian official registry over disability benefit incidence, including primary diagnoses, were analyzed for the period 2001 to 2003 (N = 77,067), a time-period without any reform in the disability benefit scheme. Lost working years due to disability benefit award before scheduled age retirement at age 67 were calculated.
Musculoskeletal disorders were the commonest reason for disability benefit awards (36.3%) with mental disorders in second place (24.0%). However, mental disorders were responsible for the most working years lost (33.8%) compared with musculoskeletal disorders (29.4%). Individuals awarded disability benefit for a mental disorder were on average 8.9 years younger (46.1 years) than individuals awarded for a musculoskeletal disorder (55.0 years), and 6.9 years younger than individuals awarded for any other somatic disorder (53.0 years). Anxiety and depressive disorders were the largest contributors to lost working years within mental disorders.
Age at award is highly relevant when the total burden of different diagnoses on disability benefits is considered. There is great disparity in total number of lost working years due to disability benefit award for different diagnostic groups. The high number of lost working years from mental disorders has serious consequences for both the individual and for the wider society and economy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22905150 View in PubMed
Less detail

Determinants of health-related quality of life of opiate users at entry to low-threshold methadone programs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170213
Source
Eur Addict Res. 2006;12(2):74-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Peggy Millson
Laurel Challacombe
Paul J Villeneuve
Carol J Strike
Benedikt Fischer
Ted Myers
Ron Shore
Shaun Hopkins
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. p.millson@utoronto.ca
Source
Eur Addict Res. 2006;12(2):74-82
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cocaine-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - rehabilitation
Comorbidity
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - rehabilitation
Methadone - administration & dosage
Middle Aged
Ontario
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - rehabilitation
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Recurrence
Retreatment
Statistics as Topic
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - psychology - rehabilitation
Tranquilizing Agents
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of factors associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among opiate users at entry to low-threshold methadone treatment.
The SF-36 questionnaire was administered to 145 opiate users at enrollment into low-threshold methadone maintenance programs. ANOVA and correlational analyses were performed to investigate the determinants of poor physical and mental composite summary scales (PCS and MCS) of the SF-36 among opiate users. Stepwise regression methods were also employed to fit PCS and MCS multivariate models.
Age, employment status, chronic medical conditions, hospitalization, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and age at first injection episode were significantly associated with PCS. Mental health problems, sexual abuse, physical abuse, the use of sedatives, the use of cocaine, the number of days of cocaine use, sedative use and multiple substance use in the past month were significantly associated with MCS. The variances in the MCS and PCS were not readily explained by any one factor.
The multiplicity of factors influencing HRQOL of opiate users suggests the need for a range of services within the context of a methadone program, addressing primary medical care needs as well as treatment for both mental health problems and abuse issues.
PubMed ID
16543742 View in PubMed
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