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Mental health in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: results from a large population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264261
Source
BMC Endocr Disord. 2014;14:83
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Keith J Petrie
Ane Wilhelmsen-Langeland
Mari Hysing
Source
BMC Endocr Disord. 2014;14:83
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Anxiety - epidemiology - etiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - etiology
Depression - epidemiology - etiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - psychology
Eating Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - epidemiology - etiology
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Self Report
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
Diabetes has previously been linked to mental health problems in adolescents, but more recent studies have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the current study was to compare symptoms of mental health problems, sleep and eating disturbances in adolescents with and without Type 1 diabetes in a population based sample.
Data were taken from the youth@hordaland study, a large population based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012. In all, 9883 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53% girls) provided self-reported data on both diabetes and a range of instruments assessing mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention, perfectionism, resilience, sleep problems and eating behaviour.
40 adolescents were classified as having Type 1 diabetes (prevalence 0.4%). We found that adolescents with Type 1 diabetes did not differ from their peers on any of the mental health measures.
This is one of the first population-based studies to examine mental health of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. There was no evidence of increased psychopathology across a wide range of mental health measures. These findings contradict previous studies, and suggest that Type 1 diabetes is not associated with an increased risk of psychosocial problems.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25303963 View in PubMed
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Prospective study of predictors and consequences of insomnia: personality, lifestyle, mental health, and work-related stressors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287382
Source
Sleep Med. 2016 Apr;20:51-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Øystein Vedaa
Elfrid Krossbakken
Ingse Dagny Grimsrud
Bjørn Bjorvatn
Børge Sivertsen
Nils Magerøy
Ståle Einarsen
Ståle Pallesen
Source
Sleep Med. 2016 Apr;20:51-8
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Bullying - physiology
Depression - psychology
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mental health
Norway
Personality
Prospective Studies
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - psychology
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Work Schedule Tolerance - psychology
Abstract
To prospectively investigate the reciprocal relationships between personality traits, lifestyle factors, mental health, sleepiness, and work-related stressors against insomnia.
A total of 799 Norwegian shift-working nurses (mean age 33.2 years, 90% female) participated in this prospective cohort study. They were assessed on self-report instruments (Bergen Insomnia Scale, Diurnal Type Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Work-Family Interface Scale, among others) in 2008/2009 (wave 1) and 2011 (wave 3). Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the bidirectional relationship between a wide range of individual and work-related variables and insomnia.
Languidity (ß?=?0.18***), anxiety (ß?=?0.11**), depression (ß?=?0.14***), exposure to bullying behavior (ß?=?0.08*), and negative spillover between work and family life (work to family, ß?=?0.08*; family to work, ß?=?0.07*) predicted increased symptoms of insomnia over time. Morningness (ß?=?-0.09*) and positive spillover from work to family (ß?=?-0.11**) predicted less symptoms of insomnia over time. No support was found for night work as a predictor of increased insomnia. Insomnia was a precursor for anxiety (ß?=?0.11**), but not for depression (*p?
PubMed ID
27318226 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic status and child mental health: the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260545
Source
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2014;42(5):705-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Tormod Bøe
Børge Sivertsen
Einar Heiervang
Robert Goodman
Astri J Lundervold
Mari Hysing
Source
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2014;42(5):705-15
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - etiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Mental Disorders - etiology - psychology
Norway
Parenting - psychology
Parents - psychology
Poverty
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.
PubMed ID
24150864 View in PubMed
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Economic volatility in childhood and subsequent adolescent mental health problems: a longitudinal population-based study of adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289789
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 09 18; 7(9):e017030
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-18-2017
Author
Tormod Bøe
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Børge Sivertsen
Mari Hysing
Keith J Petrie
Eric Dearing
Henrik Daae Zachrisson
Author Affiliation
Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway.
Source
BMJ Open. 2017 09 18; 7(9):e017030
Date
09-18-2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult Survivors of Child Adverse Events - psychology
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Child
Depression - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Income
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Poverty - psychology
Psychology, Adolescent
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the current paper was to investigate the association between the patterns of duration, timing and sequencing of exposure to low family income during childhood, and symptoms of mental health problems in adolescence.
Survey administered to a large population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents.
Survey data from 9154 participants of 16-19?years age (53% participation rate; 52.7% girls) were linked to registry-based information about childhood family income from tax return data.
Mental health outcomes were symptoms of emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems and general mental health problems measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, symptoms of depression measured with Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) measured with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale.
Latent class analysis and the BCH approach in Mplus were used to examine associations between patterns of poverty exposure and mental health outcomes. Four latent classes of poverty exposure emerged from the analysis. Participants moving into poverty (2.3%), out of poverty (3.5%) or those chronically poor (3.1%) had more symptoms of mental health problems (Cohen's d=16-.50) than those with no poverty exposure (91.1%). This pattern was, however, not found for symptoms of ADHD. The pattern of results was confirmed in robustness checks using observed data.
Exposure to poverty in childhood was found to be associated with most mental health problems in adolescence. There was no strong suggestion of any timing or sequencing effects in the patterns of associations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28928191 View in PubMed
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Cumulative effects of negative life events and family stress on children's mental health: the Bergen Child Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295902
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2018 01; 53(1):1-9
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2018
Author
Tormod Bøe
Anna Sofia Serlachius
Børge Sivertsen
Keith J Petrie
Mari Hysing
Author Affiliation
Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Mailbox 7810, 5020, Norway. tormod.boe@uni.no.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2018 01; 53(1):1-9
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Anxiety - psychology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emotions
Female
Humans
Income
Life Change Events
Male
Mental Disorders - psychology
Mental health
Norway
Parents - psychology
Risk factors
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Numerous studies have documented that lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased mental health problems in children. One proposed pathway for this association has been differential exposure to accumulated risk factors in children of lower SES. The aim of the current study was to investigate the socioeconomic distribution of exposure to negative life events and family stress and to examine the direct and interactive association between lower SES and exposure to life events and family stress in relation with mental health problems.
Using cross-sectional data from the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (conducted in 2006), the current study investigated the association between lower SES and exposure to negative life events, family life stressors, and mental health problems in a sample of 2043 Norwegian 11-13 years and their parents. Information about mental health was self-reported by the children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, whereas information about SES and exposure to negative life events and family stressors were provided by their parents.
The findings showed that lower SES was associated with more symptoms of emotional-, conduct-, hyperactivity/inattention-, and peer problems and that exposure to life events and family stress explained some of this association (10-29% of the total effects).
Low SES and higher prevalence of negative life events and family stressors were associated with more symptoms of mental health problems. Overall, the effect sizes were smaller than previous investigations (f 2s?=?0.015-0.031), perhaps suggesting a buffering effect of the social safety net in place in Norway.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29090324 View in PubMed
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The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115668
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2013 Jun;54(3):250-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Ingrid Dundas
Jon Vøllestad
Per-Einar Binder
Børge Sivertsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 12, Bergen, Norway. Ingrid.dundas@uib.no
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2013 Jun;54(3):250-60
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Attention - physiology
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Mindfulness - statistics & numerical data
Norway
Psychometrics - instrumentation
Questionnaires - standards
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to adapt the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) for use in Norway. Three studies involving three different samples of university students (mean age 22 years, total N = 792) were conducted. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a five factor structure provided an acceptable fit to the data. All five factors loaded significantly on the overall mindfulness factor. As expected, correlations between the FFMQ total scores and subscales were positive and significant, ranging from 0.45 to 0.65. Correlations between FFMQ total/subscales and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were significant and negative (since low scores on the MAAS indicate high mindfulness), ranging from r = -0.17 to -0.69. The Norwegian FFMQ total score was inversely correlated with all indicators of psychological health: neuroticism (r = -0.61), ruminative tendencies (r = -0.41), self-related negative thinking (r = -0.40), emotion regulation difficulties (r = -0.66) and depression (r = -0.46 to r = -0.65). In contrast to the other FFMQ subscales, the FFMQ Observe subscale did not have a positive relation to psychological health in our mostly non-meditating sample. However, being able to non-judgmentally observe one's inner life and environment is a part of the mindfulness construct that might emerge more clearly with more mindfulness training. We conclude that the Norwegian FFMQ has acceptable psychometric properties and can be recommended for use in Norway, especially in studies seeking to differentiate between different aspects of mindfulness and how these may change over time.
PubMed ID
23480438 View in PubMed
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Insomnia as a risk factor for ill health: results from the large population-based prospective HUNT Study in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104718
Source
J Sleep Res. 2014 Apr;23(2):124-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Tea Lallukka
Paula Salo
Ståle Pallesen
Mari Hysing
Steinar Krokstad
Simon Øverland
Source
J Sleep Res. 2014 Apr;23(2):124-32
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - epidemiology
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - epidemiology
Asthma - epidemiology
Chronic Disease - epidemiology - prevention & control
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Depression - epidemiology
Female
Fibromyalgia - epidemiology
Headache - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Osteoporosis - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Whiplash Injuries - epidemiology
Abstract
Insomnia co-occurs with many health problems, but less is known about the prospective associations. The aim of the current study was to investigate if insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of mental and physical conditions. Prospective population-based data from the two last Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT2 in 1995–97 and HUNT3 in 2006–08), comprising 24 715 people in the working population, were used to study insomnia as a risk factor for incidence of physical and mental conditions. Insomnia was defined according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Insomnia at HUNT2 was a significant risk factor for incidence of a range of both mental and physical conditions at HUNT3 11 years later. Most effects were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for confounding factors, and insomnia remained a significant risk factor for the following conditions in the adjusted analyses: depression [odds ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.91–2.98], anxiety (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63–2.64), fibromyalgia (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.51–2.79), rheumatoidarthritis (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.29–2.52), whiplash (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.21–2.41), arthrosis (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.43–1.98), osteoporosis (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.14–2.01, headache (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16–1.95,asthma (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.86 and myocardial infarction (OR:1.46, 95% CI: 1.06–2.00). Insomnia was also associated significantly with incidence of angina, hypertension, obesity and stroke in the crude analyses, but not after adjusting for confounders. We conclude that insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of several physical and mental conditions. These results may have important clinical implications, and whether or not treatment of insomnia would have a preventive value for both physical and mental conditions should be studied further.
Notes
Comment In: J Sleep Res. 2014 Apr;23(2):121-324628696
PubMed ID
24635564 View in PubMed
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Midlife insomnia and subsequent mortality: the Hordaland health study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265078
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:720
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Ståle Pallesen
Nick Glozier
Bjørn Bjorvatn
Paula Salo
Grethe S Tell
Reidun Ursin
Simon Øverland
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:720
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk assessment
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - drug therapy - mortality - psychology
Abstract
Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality.
Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40-45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry.
Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR = 3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR = 4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR = 1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (
Notes
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PubMed ID
25024049 View in PubMed
Less detail

What characterizes individuals developing chronic whiplash?: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114636
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2013 May;74(5):393-400
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit
Ingvard Wilhelmsen
Keith J Petrie
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Børge Sivertsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Medicine II, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. makalani.myrtveit@med.uib.no
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2013 May;74(5):393-400
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Chronic Disease
Cohort Studies
Compensation and Redress
Female
Health Services - utilization
Health Surveys
Humans
Illness Behavior
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Pain Measurement - psychology
Prescription Drugs - therapeutic use
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Somatoform Disorders - diagnosis - psychology
Utilization Review
Whiplash Injuries - diagnosis - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Most individuals experiencing whiplash accidents recover rapidly. A considerable proportion, however, develop chronic symptoms. Psychological factors may slow recovery, possibly by increasing the likelihood of other symptoms being misattributed to, and amplified by the whiplash injury. We aimed to investigate how pre-injury mental and somatic symptoms, self-rated health, use of health-services and medications, health-behavior and socio-demographics predict the development of chronic whiplash.
Data from two waves of a large, population based study (HUNT2 (baseline) and HUNT3) were used. Individuals reporting no whiplash at baseline were identified in HUNT3. Characteristics reported at baseline were compared between those who had developed chronic whiplash in HUNT3 (n=199) and those who had not (n=20,600), using Pearson's chi-squared tests, independent sample t-tests and logistic regression analyses.
Individuals developing chronic whiplash reported worse baseline health than those reporting no chronic whiplash. Poor self-rated health was a strong risk factor for subsequent chronic whiplash (OR=2.26, 95%CI: 1.68-3.04). Musculoskeletal pain also increased the risk (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.15-1.26), as did diffuse somatic symptoms (OR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.47-2.96), use of different health services (OR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.19-1.45), high use of medications (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.14-1.43) and symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.93, 95%CI: 1.39-2.68). Physical activity was protective (OR=0.67, 95%CI: 0.49-0.91). Most socio-demographic variables were not significantly associated with chronic whiplash.
Poor somatic and mental pre-injury health increased the risk of subsequent chronic whiplash. This suggests that chronic whiplash is not merely an organic disorder, and highlights the importance of individual expectations, symptom reattribution and amplification in development of chronic whiplash.
PubMed ID
23597326 View in PubMed
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Seasonal variations in sleep problems at latitude 63°-65° in Norway: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study, 1995-1997.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134659
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jul 15;174(2):147-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2011
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Simon Overland
Steinar Krokstad
Arnstein Mykletun
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway. borge.sivertsen@fhi.no
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jul 15;174(2):147-53
Date
Jul-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Seasons
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Most studies on seasonal variability in sleep have asked participants if they think their sleep quality varies with the seasons, which reveals the research hypothesis to the participants. To date, the hypothesis of seasonal variation in sleep has not been tested in a large population-based fully blinded study. The aim of the current study was to investigate monthly variations in sleep problems in a geographic region of Norway with large seasonal differences in daytime light. Using data from a general health survey, the authors had access to information on sleep in the general population, collected across the seasons over 2 years without linking sleep to seasonal variation. In all, 43,045 participants (mean age, 44.6 years) of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 1995-1997 (referred to as "HUNT-2"), provided reports of insomnia symptoms and time in bed in all months except July. The mean prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 12.4%. No evidence of a seasonal variation on reports of insomnia symptoms or time in bed was found. These null findings are in marked contrast to previous seasonality studies of sleep. Previous studies reporting seasonal variations in sleep and insomnia might have been subject to publication biases and lack of blinding to the research hypothesis.
PubMed ID
21555717 View in PubMed
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Physical activity is independently associated with reduced mortality: 15-years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285219
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0172932
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Øyvind Kopperstad
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Børge Sivertsen
Grethe S Tell
Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Sæther
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0172932
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality - physiopathology
Exercise - physiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality - physiopathology
Risk
Self Report
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for non-communicable diseases and mortality. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between PA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and the impact of other potentially contributing factors.
Data from the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 1997-99) were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The study included 20,506 individuals born 1950-1957 and 2,225 born in 1925-1927 (baseline age 40-49 and 70-74). Based on self-report, individuals were grouped as habitually performing low intensity, short duration, low intensity, longer duration or high intensity PA. The hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality during follow-up were calculated. Measures of socioeconomic status, physical health, mental health, smoking and alcohol consumption were added separately and cumulatively to the model.
PA was associated with lower all-cause mortality in both older (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.67-0.84)) and younger individuals (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.72-0.92)) (crude models, HR: risk associated with moving from low intensity, short duration to low intensity, longer duration PA, and from low intensity, longer duration to high intensity). Smoking, education, somatic diagnoses and mental health accounted for some of the association between physical activity and mortality, but a separate protective effect of PA remained in fully adjusted models for cardiovascular (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.66-0.92)) and respiratory (HR 0.45 (95% CI 0.32-0.63) mortality (both age-groups together), as well as all-cause mortality in the older age group (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.66-0.83).
Low intensity, longer duration and high intensity physical activity was associated with reduced all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, indicating that physical activity is beneficial also among older individuals, and that a moderate increase in PA can be beneficial.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28328994 View in PubMed
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Sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139436
Source
Sleep. 2010 Oct;33(10):1323-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Paula Salo
Tuula Oksanen
Børge Sivertsen
Martica Hall
Jaana Pentti
Marianna Virtanen
Jussi Vahtera
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. paula.salo@ttl.fi
Source
Sleep. 2010 Oct;33(10):1323-31
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Causality
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Nervous System Diseases - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
To examine sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work.
Prospective observational cohort study linking survey data on sleep disturbances with records of work disability (> or = 90 days sickness absence, disability pension, or death) obtained from national registers.
Public sector employees in finland.
56,732 participants (mean age 44.4 years, 80% female), who were at work and free of work disability at the study inception.
During a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, incident diagnosis-specific work disability was observed in 4,028 (7%) employees. Of those, 2,347 (60%) returned to work. Sleep disturbances 5-7 nights per week predicted work disability due to mental disorders (hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.9) and diseases of the circulatory system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1), musculoskeletal system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and nervous system (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2), and injuries and poisonings (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) after controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, night/shift work, health behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise), diagnosed somatic diseases, use of pain killers, depression, and anxiety. In addition, sleep disturbances prior to disability were associated with higher likelihood of not returning to work after work disability from musculoskeletal diseases (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) and, in men, after work disability due to mental disorders (HR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.1).
Sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk for subsequent disabling mental disorders and various physical illnesses. They also predict the outcome of work disability due to musculoskeletal disorders.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21061854 View in PubMed
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Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory analysis of the Whiteley Index. Results from a large population based study in Norway. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258257
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2014 Sep;77(3):213-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2014
Author
Kari-Elise Frøystad Veddegjærde
Børge Sivertsen
Ingvard Wilhelmsen
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway; Department of Medicine, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address: karielisev@gmail.com.
Source
J Psychosom Res. 2014 Sep;77(3):213-8
Date
Sep-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - diagnosis - epidemiology
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Humans
Hypochondriasis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Psychometrics
Abstract
The Whiteley Index (WI) is a widely used screening instrument for health anxiety/hypochondriasis. Several studies have previously explored the psychometric properties of the WI, but with mixed findings concerning both item composition and factor structure. The main aim of the current study was to examine different factor structures as identified from previous studies using data from a large general population based study. We also wanted to provide gender specific norms.
Data were taken from a large population-based study in Norway, the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK N=7274). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of several models of the WI was conducted. Item response theory (IRT) analysis was performed on the model with the best goodness-of-fit.
CFA of all previously proposed factor models of the WI revealed clearly inadequate model fits. The IRT analysis suggested that a six-item model best described the data, and CFA confirmed an adequate goodness-of-fit across indices.
The current study found evidence for a six-item, single-factor model of the WI. Our findings suggest that this abbreviated version has the best factor structure compared to previously proposed factor models. We recommend that the factor structure identified in this study should be investigated further in independent samples.
PubMed ID
25149031 View in PubMed
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Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114518
Source
J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct;22(5):549-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Mari Hysing
Ståle Pallesen
Kjell M Stormark
Astri J Lundervold
Børge Sivertsen
Author Affiliation
The Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway; Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Source
J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct;22(5):549-56
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Aging
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Fatigue - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Self Report
Sex Characteristics
Sleep - physiology
Sleep Deprivation - epidemiology - physiopathology
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group.
PubMed ID
23611716 View in PubMed
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The gender gap in accrued pension rights - an indicator of women's accumulated disadvantage over the course of working life. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291747
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2018 May; 46(3):417-424
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2018
Author
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Gunnel Hensing
Simon Øverland
Ann Kristin Knudsen
Børge Sivertsen
Jussi Vahtera
Grethe S Tell
Inger Haukenes
Author Affiliation
1 Division of Mental and Physical Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2018 May; 46(3):417-424
Date
May-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Educational Status
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Sex Factors
Sexism
Abstract
Economic gender equality is one of the goals of the Nordic Welfare states. Despite this, there is a considerable gender gap in pensionable income in the European Union, and an unmet need for measures that absorb more of the complexity associated with accumulated (dis)advantages across gender and population groups. The aims of the present study were to examine the gender difference in association between average earned pension points and 1) education and 2) current occupational prestige, and to discuss pension points as a possible indicator of accumulated disadvantages.
We linked a community-based survey, the Hordaland Health study (HUSK), to the national register of insurance benefits (FD-trygd). This made it possible to trace gendered patterns of economic (dis)advantages associated with educational level, career development and gainful work over the life course for 17,275 individuals.
We found profound differences in earned accrued pension rights between men and women across socioeconomic strata, and a significant interaction between pension rights and gender in the association with education and occupational prestige. Our findings indicate that men, as a group, may have lower educational attainment and occupational prestige than women, and still earn more pension points throughout their career. These differences place women at risk for future economic strain and deprivation over and above their similarly educated and positioned male counterparts.
We suggest that accrued pension rights may be a relevant measure of accumulated (dis)advantages over the course of working life, and a useful indicator when gender equality is measured and discussed.
PubMed ID
28673123 View in PubMed
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Sleep problems in Parkinson's disease: a community-based study in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121716
Source
BMC Neurol. 2012;12:71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Elisabeth Svensson
Antoine G Beiske
Jon Håvard Loge
Kornelia K Beiske
Børge Sivertsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Adult Mental Health, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. elisabeth.svensson@dce.au.dk
Source
BMC Neurol. 2012;12:71
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Parkinson Disease - diagnosis
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sleep Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of sleep problems in a community-based sample of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Norway, and their associated factors.
176 consecutive PD outpatients (41% females) were included in a study of non-motor symptoms, including sleep problems. All participants responded to the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS), where an overall score below 82 or a score below 5 on a sub-item indicate possible sleep problem. Factors associated with sleep were also investigated, with special emphasis on severity of PD, fatigue, mental health and restless legs syndrome (RLS).
The mean age was 68.5?years (range 35-90); the mean Hoehn and Yahr stage was 2.11 (SD 0.86), and the mean UPDRS part III was 22.3 (SD 11.7). Sleep problems were common among PD patients. While only 17% of the sample had an overall score below 82 on the PDSS, 70% of the patients had a score below 5 on one item. There was no significant association between PD severity and any of the sleep items in the PDSS; whereas fatigue, mental health problems, and RLS were associated with PDSS score.
The current findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems in PD patients, especially focusing on the association with mental health problems, fatigue and RLS.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22883600 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and drug use among internationally adopted adolescents: Results from a Norwegian population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295096
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2018; 88(2):226-235
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Kristin Gärtner Askeland
Børge Sivertsen
Jens Christoffer Skogen
Annette M La Greca
Grethe S Tell
Leif Edvard Aarø
Mari Hysing
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Source
Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2018; 88(2):226-235
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adoption - ethnology
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - ethnology
Depression - ethnology
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Internationality
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Self Report
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - ethnology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
PubMed ID
28253017 View in PubMed
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The joint contribution of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea on sickness absence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120059
Source
J Sleep Res. 2013 Apr;22(2):223-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Erla Björnsdóttir
Simon Øverland
Bjørn Bjorvatn
Paula Salo
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Mental Health, Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway. borge.sivertsen@fhi.no
Source
J Sleep Res. 2013 Apr;22(2):223-30
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive - epidemiology
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Several studies have indicated a high degree of overlap between insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea, but little is known regarding how the overlap may affect adverse outcomes associated with each of the disorders. The aim of the current study was to examine the separate and combined effects of symptoms of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea on long-term sick leave. We used an historical cohort design with 4 years follow-up. Information on sick leave was obtained from Norwegian official registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study in western Norway, 1997-99. A total of 6892 participants aged 40-45 years were assessed for self-reported symptoms of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea (snoring and breathing cessations), as well as confounding factors. The level of overlap between insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea was low (7-12%). Both insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea alone were significant risk factors for subsequent sick leave after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 2.3). Having comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea increased the risk significantly. There was an additive interaction effect between the two conditions in the unadjusted analyses, but this was reduced to a non-significant level when adjusting for confounders. This study is the first to report the separate and combined effects of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea on any adverse outcome. Having both insomnia and obstructive sleep apnoea increased the risk of later sick leave, but there was no evidence of an independent synergy effect of the two conditions.
PubMed ID
23043357 View in PubMed
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The social gradient of sleep in adolescence: results from the youth@hordaland survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295524
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2017 02 01; 27(1):65-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-01-2017
Author
Mari Hysing
Keith J Petrie
Tormod Bøe
Tea Lallukka
Børge Sivertsen
Author Affiliation
The Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2017 02 01; 27(1):65-71
Date
02-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Female
Humans
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Sleep Wake Disorders - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
PubMed ID
28177471 View in PubMed
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Maternal Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression and Child Nocturnal Awakenings at 6 and 18 Months.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291902
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 2017 Nov 01; 42(10):1156-1164
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-01-2017
Author
Eivind Ystrom
Mari Hysing
Leila Torgersen
Hilde Ystrom
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Børge Sivertsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Disorders, Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Source
J Pediatr Psychol. 2017 Nov 01; 42(10):1156-1164
Date
Nov-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Crying - psychology
Depression - psychology
Female
Humans
Infant
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Postpartum Period - psychology
Siblings
Sleep
Sleep Deprivation - psychology
Sleep Wake Disorders - psychology
Abstract
We aim to estimate the pathways between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and child nocturnal awakenings via structural equation modeling using a sibling design.
Structural equation modeling on data from 14,926 sibling dyads or triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
At 6?months, we estimated the association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and child nocturnal awakenings to be owing to several nonsignificant pathways. Child nocturnal awakenings at 18?months, however, were influenced by concurrent maternal symptoms of anxiety (ß?=?.10) and depression (ß?=?.12). Neither maternal symptoms of anxiety (ß?=?.04) nor depression (ß?=?-.00) was influenced by concurrent child nocturnal awakenings.
Our findings suggest that maternal mental health influences child sleep behavior at 18?months after birth, and not vice versa. This is in support of hypotheses on maternal mental health influencing child sleep during toddlerhood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28369506 View in PubMed
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