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Mind the Wind: Microclimate Effects on Incubation Effort of an Arctic Seabird

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297155
Source
Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Biology. vi, 21 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
Mind the Wind: Microclimate Effects on Incubation Effort of an Arctic Seabird Christoffer Høyvik Hilde MSc in Biology Supervisor: Christophe Pelabon, IBI Co-supervisor: Sebastien Descampes, Norsk Polarinstitutt Department of Biology Submission date: May 2015 Norwegian University of Science
  1 document  
Author
Hilde, Christoffer Høyvik
Source
Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Biology. vi, 21 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1273485
Keywords
Svalbard
Wind
Temperature
Humidity
Reproduction
Commin eiders
Abstract
1. The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing chance of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments.
2. In this three-year study, I used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest-shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. I added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared the body mass loss during incubation between females with and without shelter.
3. Non-sheltered females experienced a higher mass loss during incubation than females with artificial shelter. This manipulation allowed me to identify wind as the key climatic variable leading to an energetically challenging incubation and was positively correlated with mass loss for non-sheltered females. Increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease mass loss, but this effect was negligible in absence of wind. Humidity had no effect on mass loss.
4. This study is one of few that clearly demonstrate a direct effect of climate on avian lifehistory. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, this study emphasizes that climatic variables other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change.
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Hilde_2015_Mind-the-Wind---Microclimate-Effects-on-Incubation-Effort-of-an-Arctic-Seabird.pdf

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Mind the wind: microclimate effects on incubation effort of an arctic seabird.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271905
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Apr;6(7):1914-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Christoffer Høyvik Hilde
Christophe Pélabon
Loreleï Guéry
Geir Wing Gabrielsen
Sébastien Descamps
Source
Ecol Evol. 2016 Apr;6(7):1914-21
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The energetic costs of reproduction in birds strongly depend on the climate experienced during incubation. Climate change and increasing frequency of extreme weather events may severely affect these costs, especially for species incubating in extreme environments. In this 3-year study, we used an experimental approach to investigate the effects of microclimate and nest shelter on the incubation effort of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in a wild Arctic population. We added artificial shelters to a random selection of nesting females, and compared incubation effort, measured as body mass loss during incubation, between females with and without shelter. Nonsheltered females had a higher incubation effort than females with artificial shelters. In nonsheltered females, higher wind speeds increased the incubation effort, while artificially sheltered females experienced no effect of wind. Although increasing ambient temperatures tended to decrease incubation effort, this effect was negligible in the absence of wind. Humidity had no marked effect on incubation effort. This study clearly displays the direct effect of a climatic variable on an important aspect of avian life-history. By showing that increasing wind speed counteracts the energetic benefits of a rising ambient temperature, we were able to demonstrate that a climatic variable other than temperature may also affect wild populations and need to be taken into account when predicting the effects of climate change.
PubMed ID
27099703 View in PubMed
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Arctic Human Development Report : regional processes and global linkages. (AHDR-II)

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295208
Source
Norden, Nordic Council of Ministers. TemaNord 2014:567.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2014
  1 document  
Author
Larsen, Joan Nymand
Fondahl, Gail
Author Affiliation
(eds.)
Source
Norden, Nordic Council of Ministers. TemaNord 2014:567.
Date
2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Report
File Size
13797930
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Populations
Migration
Culture
Identity
Economics
Governance
Legal systems
Resources usage
Climate change
Human health and well-being
Education
Globalization
Community viability and adaptation
Abstract
The goals of the second volume of the (AHDR-II) Arctic Human Development Report: Regional Processes and Global Linkages – are to provide an update to the first AHDR (2004) in terms of an assessment of the state of Arctic human development; to highlight the major trends and changes unfolding related to the various issues and thematic areas of human development in the Arctic over the past decade; and, based on this assessment, to identify policy relevant conclusions and key gaps in knowledge, new and emerging Arctic success stories, and important AHDR-II follow-up activities.
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