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Status of Alaska Natives report 2004: volume 1.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294098
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. [423 p.]
Publication Type
Report
Date
May 2004
. For example, elec- tricity is two to three times as expensive in remote areas as in Anchorage, and food costs are 50 percent or more higher. • The entire personal income of the eight most remote areas in 2000 was barely larger than that of just the city of Juneau (Figure S-25). That’s a clear measure
  1 document  
Author
Goldsmith S
Angvik J
Howe L
Hill
A
Leask L
Author Affiliation
Institute of Social and Economic Research
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. [423 p.]
Date
May 2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
22772067
Keywords
Alaska
Indians of North America
Economic conditions
Statistics
Eskimos
Aleuts
Social Conditions
Rural conditions
Notes
UAA - ALASKA E98.E2S82 2004
Volume 1. [Main report] -- Volume 2. 2000 Census data by ANCSA region: Alaska Native or American Indian alone -- Volume 3. 2000 Census data by ANCSA regions: Alaska Native or American Indian alone or in combination with another race.
Prepared for the Alaska Federation of Natives.
Additional support provided by Understanding Alaska.
Documents

statusaknatives2004-vol1.pdf

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Reporting of Indian health service coverage on the American Community Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294089
Source
U.S. Census Bureau, Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2018
, address, gender, and in the case of the IHS file Social Security Number. After the assignment of these unique identifiers, all personal information is removed to preserve confidentiality. For more information about this process, see Wagner and Layne (2014). Once the unique identifiers are assigned
  1 document  
Author
Bhaskar, Renuka
Shattuck, Rachel M.
Noon, James
Author Affiliation
U.S. Census Bureau
Source
U.S. Census Bureau, Center for Administrative Records Research and Applications.
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
719082
Keywords
Indians of North America
Health coverage
Indian Health Service
Abstract
Response error in surveys affects the quality of data which are relied on for numerous research and policy purposes. We use linked survey and administrative records data to examine reporting of a particular item in the American Community Survey (ACS) – health coverage among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) through the Indian Health Service (IHS). We compare responses to the IHS portion of the 2014 ACS health insurance question to whether or not individuals are in the 2014 IHS Patient Registration data. We evaluate the extent to which individuals misreport their IHS coverage in the ACS as well as the characteristics associated with misreporting. We also assess whether the ACS estimates of AIANs with IHS coverage represent an undercount. Our results will be of interest to researchers who rely on survey responses in general and specifically the ACS health insurance question. Moreover, our analysis contributes to the literature on using administrative records to measure components of survey error.
Notes
CARRA Working Paper series #2018-04
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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294629
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
Notes
Cites: Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007 May;210(3-4):201-28 PMID 17376741
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Cites: Environ Res. 2006 Mar;100(3):295-318 PMID 16081062
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2015 Sep 15;527-528:150-8 PMID 25965033
PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186436
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
N J Stern
K L Hiett
G A Alfredsson
K G Kristinsson
J. Reiersen
H. Hardardottir
H. Briem
E. Gunnarsson
F. Georgsson
R. Lowman
E. Berndtson
A M Lammerding
G M Paoli
M T Musgrove
Author Affiliation
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, 950 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30604-5677, USA.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abattoirs
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Chickens - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Risk assessment
Seasons
Abstract
We describe the observed relationship of campylobacter in poultry operations to human cases in a closed environment. During 1999 in Iceland, domestic cases of campylobacteriosis reached peak levels at 116/100,000 and in 2000 dropped to 33/100,000. Approximately 62% of broiler carcass rinses were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in 1999. During 2000, only 15% of the broiler flocks tested Campylobacter spp. positive. In 2000, carcasses from flocks which tested positive on the farms at 4 weeks of age were subsequently frozen prior to distribution. We suggest that public education, enhanced on-farm biological security measures, carcass freezing and other unidentified factors, such as variations in weather, contributed to the large reduction in poultry-borne campylobacteriosis. There is no immediate basis for assigning credit to any specific intervention. We continue to seek additional information to understand the decline in campylobacteriosis and to create a risk assessment model for Campylobacter spp. transmission through this well defined system.
PubMed ID
12613742 View in PubMed
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Barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity for First Nation youths in northern Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82158
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Skinner Kelly
Hanning Rhona M
Tsuji Leonard J S
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Diet - economics - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Rural Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity in youths in a remote sub-arctic community, Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative multi-method participatory approach. METHODS: The study included a purposive convenience sample of two adult (n = 22) and three youths (n = 30; students in grades 6 to 8) focus groups, unstructured one-on-one interviews with adult key informants (n = 7), and a scan of the community environment. Data were coded and analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Hurricane thinking and concept mapping were used to illustrate findings and relationships between concepts. RESULTS: Dominant emerging themes included empowerment, trust, resources, barriers and opportunities, while major sub-themes included food security, cost, accessibility/availability, capacity building, community support, programs/training and the school snack/breakfast program. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers to healthy nutrition and physical activity exist in this community and are possibly similar in other remote communities. Empowerment is a core issue that should be considered in the design of public health interventions for First Nations youths in remote sub-arctic communities.
PubMed ID
16711466 View in PubMed
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Our choices, our future: Analysis of the status of Alaska Natives report 2004

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature94079
Publication Type
Report
Date
July 2004
plan for services that Elders will need for quality of life so that Elders can live where they want to live, in their home communities, with their families, surrounded by familiar faces, speaking their languages, eating their foods, free of pain and stress. • Migration. The Policy Center heard
  1 document  
Author
Alaska Native Policy Center
Author Affiliation
First Alaskans Institute
Date
July 2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Access to health care
Alaska Natives
Alcohol
Census data
General health indicators
Health data
Health of Alaska Native teens
Living conditions
Social health
Substance abuse treatment
Suicide rates
Abstract
UAA's Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER) recently completed its work entitled the "Status of Alaska Natives Report 2004." AFN wanted the updated statistics to be shared with the Alaska Native community, and it wanted to know what the Native community thinks about the data. Accordingly, AFN contracted with the First Alaskans Institute's Alaska Native Policy Center in a knowledge development effort to: bring ISER's updated statistics back to the Native community in order to get feedback from Native people on what the data mean and what actions can be taken to improve the statistics; and write and publish an analysis of the 2004 statistics from a Native point of view, for a Native audience. The Policy Center made 20 formal presentations of data to over 1400 participants in meetings held in seven regions. The facts and findings published here are based on the data, discussions, and feedback from these meetings.
Notes
This report was prepared with funding from the Alaska Federation of Natives utilizing grant monies from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Documents

Our Choices Our Future.pdf

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Status of Alaska Natives report 2004: Volume 2. 2000 Census data by ANCSA region: Alaska Native or American Indian alone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294134
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Publication Type
Report
Date
May 2004
Households [PCT97] Social Security Income In 1999 For Households [PCT98] Supplemental Security Income (SSI) In 1999 For Households [PCT99] Public Assistance Income In 1999 For Households [PCT100] Retirement Income In 1999 For Households [PCT101] Other Types Of Income In 1999 For Households
  1 document  
Author
Goldsmith S
Angvik J
Howe L
Hill A
Leask L
Author Affiliation
Institute of Social and Economic Research
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Date
May 2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
22028566
Keywords
Alaska
Indians of North America
Economic conditions
Statistics
Eskimos
Aleuts
Social Conditions
Rural conditions
Notes
UAA - ALASKA E98.E2S82 2004 Volume 1. [Main report] -- Volume 2. 2000 Census data by ANCSA region: Alaska Native or American Indian alone -- Volume 3. 2000 Census data by ANCSA regions: Alaska Native or American Indian alone or in combination with another race.
Prepared for the Alaska Federation of Natives.
Additional support provided by Understanding Alaska.
Documents

StatusAKNativesRpt2004v2.pdf

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Source
University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Division of Respirology and Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. [60 p.]
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
January 2011
)  Income distributionIncome distribution  HousingHousing  EducationEducation  Social safety netsSocial safety nets  EnvironmentEnvironment  AddictionsAddictions  Health care servicesHealth care services  Food security and Food security and NutritionNutrition
  1 document  
Author
Alvarez, Gonzalo G
Author Affiliation
Assistant Professor of Medicine,
Source
University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Division of Respirology and Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. [60 p.]
Date
January 2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Indigenous Groups
Inuit
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
3162116
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Inuit
Pulmonary
Health
Research
Cancer
Statistics
Tuberculosis
Health Care Access
Documents

Alvarez-Inuit-pulmonary-health-Jan--2011.pdf

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Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and Inuit Nutrition Security in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294373
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2018
Author
Tiff-Annie Kenny
Myriam Fillion
Sarah Simpkin
Sonia D Wesche
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Date
Sep-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) has been fundamental to the diet and culture of Arctic Indigenous Peoples for thousands of years. Although caribou populations observe natural cycles of abundance and scarcity, several caribou herds across the Circumpolar North have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades due to a range of interrelated factors. Broadly, the objectives of this study are to examine food and nutrition security in relation to wildlife population and management status across Inuit Nunangat (the Inuit homeland, consisting of four regions across the Canadian Arctic). Specifically, we: (1) characterize the contribution of caribou to Inuit nutrition across northern Canada and (2) evaluate the population and management status of caribou herds/populations harvested by Inuit. Dietary data were derived from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey, which included dietary information for Inuit adults (n?=?2097) residing in thirty-six communities, spanning three regions (the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut) of the Canadian North. Published information regarding the range, abundance, status, and management status of caribou herds/populations was collected through document analysis and was validated through consultation with northern wildlife experts (territorial governments, co-management, and/or Inuit organizations). While caribou contributed modestly to total diet energy (3-11% of intake) across the regions, it was the primary source of iron (14-37%), zinc (18-41%), copper (12-39%), riboflavin (15-39%), and vitamin B12 (27-52%), as well as a top source of protein (13-35%). Restrictions on Inuit subsistence harvest (harvest quotas or bans) are currently enacted on at least six northern caribou herds/populations with potential consequences for country food access for over twenty-five Inuit communities across Canada. A holistic multi-sectorial approach is needed to ensure the sustainability of wildlife populations, while supporting Inuit food and nutrition security in the interim.
Notes
Cites: Science. 2009 Sep 11;325(5946):1355-8 PMID 19745143
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PubMed ID
30116999 View in PubMed
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Placemat information: First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294475
Source
First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB).
Publication Type
Fact Sheet
healthy behaviours and supportive environments in the areas of healthy eating, physical activity, food security, chronic disease prevention, management and screening, and injury prevention policy. Key activities supporting program-delivery include: chronic disease prevention and management, injury
  1 document  
Source
First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB).
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Fact Sheet
File Size
250624
Keywords
First Nations
Inuit
Medical transportation
Medical care
Health coverage
Health services
Health agencies
Documents

1Claxdalandakapewhandout1.pdf

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Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). 23 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2007
environmental security of the Alas- k a n I n u i t c o a s t l i n e d e p e n d e d “ u p o n t h e s t r e n g t h o f ( s e l f ) government in Canada and Greenland”, and only when we all have our own home rule governments, “will we be able to really trust any offshore operation in the Beaufort
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). 23 p.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3181838
Keywords
Canada
Inuit
Environment
Wildlife & harvesting
Research & health activities
Human Rights
Documents

06-07_annual_report_lenglish.pdf

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Population-specific HIV/AIDS status report: Aboriginal Peoples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294483
Source
Public Health Agency of Canada. Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control. HIV/AIDS Policy, Coordination and Programs Division. xvi, 122 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2010
  1 document  
Source
Public Health Agency of Canada. Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control. HIV/AIDS Policy, Coordination and Programs Division. xvi, 122 p.
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
2387719
Keywords
HIV
AIDS
First Nations
Inuit
Métis
Demographic profiles
Documents
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Indigenous Peoples' food systems: the many dimensions of culture, diversity and environment for nutrition and health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294487
Source
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment. 339 p.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2009
, Andhra Pradesh, India Buduru Salomeyesudas and Periyapatna V. Satheesh 209 Chapter 10 The Bhil food system: links to food security, nutrition and health Lalita Bhattacharjee, Gopa Kothari, Vidya Priya and Biplap K. Nandi 231 Chapter 11 The Maasai food system and food and nutrition security Shadrack
  1 document  
Author
Kuhnlein, Harriet V.
Erasmus, Bill
Spigelski, Dina
Source
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment. 339 p.
Date
2009
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
9714794
Notes
ISBN: 978-92-5-106071-1
From back cover : Food systems of Indigenous Peoples who retain connection to long-evolved cultures and patterns of living in local ecosystems present a treasure of knowledge that contributes to well-being and health, and can benefit all humankind. This book seeks to define and describe the diversity in food system use, nutrition and health in 12 rural case studies of Indigenous Peoples in different parts of the world as a window to global Indigenous Peoples’ circumstances. A procedure for documenting Indigenous Peoples’ food systems was developed by researchers working with the Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment (CINE) at McGill University, Canada, and the FAO. The procedure was adapted and applied in case studies located in Canada, Japan, Peru, India, Nigeria, Colombia, Thailand, Kenya, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The collective intent of this documentation is to show the inherent strengths of the local traditional food systems, how people think about and use these foods, the influx of industrial and purchased food, and the circumstances of the nutrition transition in indigenous communities. This research was completed with both qualitative and quantitative methods by Indigenous Peoples and their academic partners in the context of the second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples, and the Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples adopted in 2007 by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Documents
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Breaking down colonial borders in Inuit Nunaat through education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294489
Source
The Gordon Foundation and The Jane Glassco Northern Fellowship. 19 p.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
May 2017
Western food they were provided at Eklutna, so she fought to have Native food once a week for the students. She helped greatly to alleviate students’ homesickness (Blackman 1989, 100-104). Brower Neakok then went on to study at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, where she trained for two
  1 document  
Author
Rudolph, Angela Nuliayok
Source
The Gordon Foundation and The Jane Glassco Northern Fellowship. 19 p.
Date
May 2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
5410017
Keywords
Inuit
Education
Tradition learning
History
Canada
Nunavut
Alaska
Documents

Angela-Nuliayok-Rudolph_Breacking-Down-Colonial-Borders.pdf

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Final Report on Carcinogens Background Document for Formaldehyde.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99152
Source
Rep Carcinog Backgr Doc. 2010 Jan;(10-5981):i-512
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Source
Rep Carcinog Backgr Doc. 2010 Jan;(10-5981):i-512
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Executive Summary: Introduction: Formaldehyde is a high-production-volume chemical with a wide array of uses. The predominant use of formaldehyde in the United States is in the production of industrial resins (mainly urea-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, polyacetal, and melamine-formaldehyde resins) that are used to manufacture products such as adhesives and binders for wood products, pulp and paper products, plastics, and synthetic fibers, and in textile finishing. Formaldehyde is also used as a chemical intermediate. Resin production and use as a chemical intermediate together account for over 80% of its use. Other, smaller uses of formaldehyde that may be important for potential human exposure include use in agriculture, medical use as a disinfectant and preservative (for pathology, histology, and embalming), and use in numerous consumer products as a biocide and preservative. Formaldehyde (gas) is listed in the Eleventh Report on Carcinogens (RoC) as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals (NTP 2005a); it was first listed in the 2nd RoC (NTP 1981). Formaldehyde (all physical forms) was nominated by NIEHS for possible reclassification in the 12th RoC based on the 2004 review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2006), which concluded that there was sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in humans. Human Exposure: Formaldehyde has numerous industrial and commercial uses and is produced in very large amounts (billions of pounds per year in the United States) by catalytic oxidation of methanol. Its predominant use, accounting for roughly 55% of consumption, is in the production of industrial resins, which are used in the production of numerous commercial products. Formaldehyde is used in industrial processes primarily as a solution (formalin) or solid (paraformaldehyde or trioxane), but exposure is frequently to formaldehyde gas, which is released during many of the processes. Formaldehyde gas is also created from the combustion of organic material and can be produced secondarily in air from photochemical reactions involving virtually all classes of hydrocarbon pollutants. In some instances, secondary production may exceed direct air emissions. Formaldehyde is also produced endogenously in humans and animals. Formaldehyde is a simple, one-carbon molecule that is rapidly metabolized, is endogenously produced, and is also formed through the metabolism of many xenobiotic agents. Because of these issues, typical biological indices of exposure, such as levels of formaldehyde or its metabolites in blood or urine, have proven to be ineffective measures of exposure. Formaldehyde can bind covalently to single-stranded DNA and protein to form crosslinks, or with human serum albumin or the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin to form molecular adducts, and these reaction products of formaldehyde might serve as biomarkers for exposure to formaldehyde. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde is highly variable and can occur in numerous industries, including the manufacture of formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins, wood-composite and furniture production, plastics production, histology and pathology, embalming and biology laboratories, foundries, fiberglass production, construction, agriculture, and firefighting, among others. In fact, because formaldehyde is ubiquitous, it has been suggested that occupational exposure to formaldehyde occurs in all work places. Formaldehyde is also ubiquitous in the environment and has been detected in indoor and outdoor air; in treated drinking water, bottled drinking water, surface water, and groundwater; on land and in the soil; and in numerous types of food. The primary source of exposure is from inhalation of formaldehyde gas in indoor settings (both residential and occupational); however, formaldehyde also may adsorb to respirable particles, providing a source of additional exposure. Major sources of formaldehyde exposure for the general public have included combustion sources (both indoor and outdoor sources including industrial and automobile emissions, home cooking and heating, and cigarette smoke), off-gassing from numerous construction and home furnishing products, and off-gassing from numerous consumer goods. Ingestion of food and water can also be a significant source of exposure to formaldehyde. Numerous agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security, CPSC, DOT, EPA, FDA, HUD, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, OSHA, ACGIH, and NIOSH, have developed regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to formaldehyde. Human Cancer Studies: A large number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and carcinogenicity in humans. The studies fall into the following main groups: (1) historical cohort studies and nested case-control studies of workers in a variety of industries that manufacture or use formaldehyde, including the chemical, plastics, fiberglass, resins, and woodworking industries, as well as construction, garment, iron foundry, and tannery workers; (2) historical cohort studies and nested case-control studies of health professionals, including physicians, pathologists, anatomists, embalmers, and funeral directors; (3) population-based cohort or cancer registry studies; and (4) population-based or occupationally based case-control incidence or mortality studies of specific cancer endpoints. In addition, several studies have re-analyzed data from specific cohort or case-control studies or have conducted pooled analyses or meta-analyses for specific cancer endpoints. The largest study available to date is the cohort mortality study of combined mixed industries conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This cohort includes 25,691 male and female workers, enrolled from 10 different formaldehyde-producing or -using plants, employed before 1966 and followed most recently to 1994 and 2004, most of whom were exposed to formaldehyde (Hauptmann et al. 2003, 2004 and Beane Freeman et al. 2009). Quantitative exposure data were used to construct job-exposure matrices for individual workers, some of whom experienced peak exposures to formaldehyde >/= 4 ppm. This cohort is the only study in which exposure-response relationships between peak, average, cumulative, and duration of exposure and mortality for multiple cancer sites were investigated. Two other large cohort studies are available: (1) a large multi-plant cohort study (N = 14,014) of workers in six chemical manufacturing plants in the United Kingdom (Coggon et al. 2003), which calculated SMRs among ever-exposed and highly exposed workers for formaldehyde, and (2) a NIOSH cohort of garment workers (N = 11,039) (Pinkerton et al. 2004) which evaluated mortality for duration of exposure, time since first exposure, and year of first exposure to formaldehyde for selected cancer sites. The other cohort studies (for both industrial and health professional workers) were smaller, and in general only reported mortality or incidence for ever-exposed workers in external (SMR or PMR) analyses, although some of the studies of health professional workers attempted indirect measures of exposure (such as length in a professional membership) as a proxy for exposure duration. Several of the nested case-control studies attempted to evaluate exposure-response relationships, but were limited by small numbers of exposed cases, and many of the population-based case-control studies lacked quantitative data or sufficient numbers of cases to evaluate exposure-response relationships. However, the nested case-control study of lymphohematopoietic, nasopharyngeal, and brain cancers among U.S. embalmers and funeral directors by Hauptmann et al. (2009) had large numbers of exposed cases of lymphohematopoietic cancer and used both questionnaire- and experimental model-based exposure metrics of exposure, including average, cumulative, peak, and duration of exposure, and number of embalmings. [Since most of the cohorts have relatively low statistical power to evaluate rare cancers such as sinonasal and nasopharyngeal cancers, case-control studies are generally more informative for these outcomes.] Findings across studies for cancer sites that have been the principal focus of investigation are summarized below. Sinonasal cancers: In cohort studies, increased risks of sinonasal cancers were observed among male (SPIR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.0, 13 exposed cases) and female (SPIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.6 to 6.0, 4 exposed cases) Danish workers exposed to formaldehyde (Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996) and among formaldehyde-exposed workers in the NCI cohort (SMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.38 to 3.68, 3 deaths) (Hauptmann et al. 2004). One death from squamous-cell sinonasal cancer was reported in the study of tannery workers among formaldehyde-exposed workers by Stern et al. (1987). No increase in risk was found among formaldehyde-exposed workers in the other large cohort studies (Coggon et al. 2003, Pinkerton et al. 2004). The smaller cohort studies did not report findings or did not observe any deaths for this specific endpoint. [Sinonasal cancers are rare, and even the larger cohort studies have insufficient numbers of exposed workers and expected deaths (e.g., approximately three in the NCI cohort) to be very informative.] Of the six case-control studies reviewed, four (Olsen et al. 1984 and Olsen and Asnaes 1986; Hayes et al. 1986; Roush et al. 1987; and Luce et al. 1993) reported an association between sinonasal cancers and formaldehyde exposure; statistically significant risks were found in three studies among individuals ever exposed to formaldehyde or with higher probabilities or levels of exposure (Olsen et al. 1994 and Olsen and Asnaes 1986; Hayes et al. 1986; and Luce et al. 1993). All of these studies found elevated risks among individuals with low or no exposure to wood dust or after adjusting for exposure to wood dust. Stronger associations were found for adenocarcinoma, with higher risks for this endpoint observed among individuals with higher average and cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and earlier dates of first exposure (Luce et al. 1993). A pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies of sinonasal cancer from seven countries (Luce et al. 2002) found statistically significant increases in adenocarcinoma among subjects in the highest exposure groups (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.5 to 5.7, 91 exposed cases for men, adjusted for wood dust exposure; and OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 2.0 to 19.7, 5 exposed cases for women, unadjusted for wood dust exposure). For squamous-cell carcinoma, the corresponding ORs were 1.2 (95% CI = 0.8 to 1.8, 30 exposed cases) for men and 1.5 (95% CI = 0.6 to 3.8, 6 exposed cases) for women; neither OR was adjusted for wood dust exposure. A statistically significant increase in risk for sinonasal cancers (mRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.3, 933 deaths) was found in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies by Collins et al. (1997); however, no increase in risks was found in meta-analyses of three cohort studies by Collins et al. (1987) or in eight industrial cohort studies by Bosetti et al. (2008). Nasopharyngeal cancers: Similar to sinonasal cancers, nasopharyngeal cancers are rare [and most of the risk estimates reported in the cohort studies are based on small numbers of expected cases or deaths]. Among cohort studies, a statistically significant increase in mortality from nasopharyngeal cancer was observed in the large NCI cohort (SMR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.05 to 4.21, 8 deaths) (Hauptmann et al. 2004), and statistically nonsignificant elevated risks were observed among white embalmers from the United States (PMR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.39 to 5.48, 3 deaths) (Hayes et al. 1990) and among male Danish workers exposed to formaldehyde (SPIR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.3 to 3.2, 4 cases) (Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996). One incident case of nasopharyngeal cancer was reported among Swedish workers in the abrasive materials industry (expected deaths not reported, but only 506 workers were potentially exposed) (Edling et al. 1987b). No associations between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal cancer were found in the other two large cohorts: one death was observed (vs. 2 expected) in the British chemical workers cohort (Coggon et al. 2003) and no deaths were observed (vs. 0.96 expected) in the NIOSH cohort (Pinkerton et al. 2004). The other, smaller, cohort studies did not report findings or did not observe any deaths for nasopharyngeal cancer. Exposure-response relationships between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal cancer were evaluated in the large NCI cohort study. Among seven exposed and two unexposed deaths, relative risks of nasopharyngeal cancers increased with cumulative exposure (Ptrend = 0.025 among exposed groups) and with peak and average exposure (Ptrend = 0.044 and 0.126, respectively, across exposed and unexposed groups, using unexposed as the referent as no deaths were observed in the lowest exposed group). Adjustment for duration of exposure to a number of potentially confounding substances and plant type did not substantively alter the findings. Most of the deaths occurred at one factory (Plant 1), which appears to have had the largest numbers of highly exposed workers. In a nested case-control analysis of nasopharyngeal deaths in this plant, Marsh et al. (2007b) reported that several of the nasopharyngeal cancers occurred among workers with previous employment in metal-working occupations. Six of the nine available case-control studies reported increases in nasopharyngeal cancers in association with probable exposure to formaldehyde or at higher levels or duration of estimated exposure (Olsen et al. 1984 [women only], Vaughan et al. 1986a, Roush et al. 1987, West et al. 1993, Vaughan et al. 2000, and Hildesheim et al. 2001). Risks of nasopharyngeal cancers increased with exposure duration and cumulative exposure in two population-based case-control studies (Vaughan et al. 2000, Hildesheim et al. 2001). In some studies, higher risks were found among individuals in the high-exposure groups (Vaughan et al. 1986a, Roush et al 1987), or with more years since first exposure (West et al. 1993), and some studies reported that risks were still elevated after taking into account smoking (Vaughan et al. 2000, Vaughan et al. 1986a, West et al. 1993) or exposure to wood dust (Hildesheim et al. 2001, Vaughan et al. 2000, West et al. 1993). No associations between nasopharyngeal cancer and formaldehyde exposure were found in population-based case-control studies in Denmark (Olsen et al. 1984 [men only]), and Malaysia (Armstrong et al. 2000), a case-cohort study among Chinese textile workers (Li et al. 2006), or in a nested case-control study among embalmers (Hauptmann et al. 2009). Several meta-analyses were available. A statistically significant increase in risk (mRR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5, 455 deaths) was reported in a large meta-analysis of 12 case-control and cohort studies (Collins et al. 1997), and a nonsignificant increase in risk in a small meta-analysis of three other cohort mortality studies (SMR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.69 to 2.56, 9 deaths) (Bosetti et al. 2008). Bachand et al. (2010) reported a borderline statistically significant risk in a meta-analysis of seven case-control studies (mRR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.50) but did not find an increase in risk (mRR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.4 to 1.29) in an analysis of data from six cohort studies, which excluded Plant 1 of the NCI cohort and used the re-analysis data from Marsh et al. (2005) for the other plants. [The Bachand meta-analysis used data for all pharyngeal cancer or buccal cavity cancer from some cohort studies and one case-control study, however.] Other head and neck cancers, and respiratory cancer Most of the cohort studies reported risk estimates for cancers of the buccal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and lung, or combinations of these cancers. Most of these studies, including two of the large cohorts (Pinkerton et al. 2004 and Coggon et al. 2003), three of the professional health worker studies (Hayes et al. 1990, Walrath and Fraumeni 1983 and 1984), and two of the smaller industrial cohorts (Andjelkovich et al. 1995 and Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996) found elevated (between approximately 10% and 30%) but statistically nonsignificant risks for cancers of the buccal cavity or buccal cavity and pharynx combined; risk estimates were usually based on small numbers of deaths or cases. In the NCI cohort, increased risks for all upper respiratory cancers or buccal cavity cancer combined were generally found among workers in the highest categories of exposure (compared with the lowest category), but trends were not statistically significant (Hauptmann et al. 2004). Most of the population-based or nested case-control studies that reported on head and neck cancers found small increases (usually statistically nonsignificant) in risks for formaldehyde exposure and cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx (or parts of the pharynx) (Vaughan et al. 1986a, Merletti et al. 1991, Gustavsson et al. 1998, Laforest et al. 2000, Marsh et al. 2002, Wilson et al. 2004, Berrino et al. 2003) or of the upper respiratory tract (Partanen et al. 1990). Exposure-response relationships were not clear in most of the available studies; however, positive exposure-response relationships between probability and duration of exposure and cancers of the hypopharynx and larynx combined were reported by Laforest et al. (2000) and between combined probability and intensity of exposure and salivary cancer by Wilson et al. (2004). No associations between formaldehyde exposure and pharyngeal cancers (subtypes or combinations) were observed in case-control studies by Shangina et al. (2006) and Tarvainen et al. (2008). Most of the cohort studies and two of the four available case-control studies found no association between formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer. Two case-control studies (Wortley et al. 1992, Shangina et al. 2006) reported increased risk among subjects with the highest exposure to formaldehyde. Small excesses of mortality or incidence of cancers of the lung or respiratory system among formaldehyde-exposed workers were observed in four cohort studies (Andjelkovich et al. 1995, Dell and Teta 1995, Hansen and Olsen 1996 [women only], and Coggon et al. 2003). A statistically significant increase in risk of lung cancer was observed in the large study of British chemical workers (SMR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.32, 594 deaths, among all workers) (Coggon et al. 2003). In this study, risks increased with increasing exposure level (Ptrend /= 4 ppm) vs. the lowest exposed category for all lymphohematopoietic cancers (RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.81, 108 deaths, Ptrend = 0.02), and statistically nonsignificant increases for all leukemias combined and peak exposure >/= 4 ppm (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.18, 48 deaths, Ptrend = 0.12) and for myeloid leukemia and peak exposure >/= 4 ppm (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.87 to 3.64, 19 deaths, Ptrend = 0.13; trends among exposed person-years). No associations were found with cumulative or average exposure. An excess of leukemia, especially myeloid leukemia, was also found among garment workers in the large NIOSH cohort (Pinkerton et al. 2004), but not in the British chemical workers cohort (Coggon et al. 2003). In the NIOSH cohort, risks for leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia were higher among workers with longer duration of exposure (10+ yrs), longer time since first exposure (20+ years), and among those exposed prior to 1963 (when formaldehyde exposure was thought to be higher) (Pinkerton et al. 2004). In the smaller industrial cohort studies, some studies reported excesses for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined among formaldehyde-exposed workers (Bertazzi et al. 1989, Stellman et al. 1998) or leukemia (Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996), but others observed no association for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined (Andjelkovich et al. 1995, Stern 2003, Pinkerton et al. 2004) or leukemia (Andjelkovich et al. 1995, Stellman et al. 1998, Stern 2003). Each of the six cohort studies of health professionals, and the nested case-control study of embalmers from three of these studies, found elevated mortality for lymphohematopoietic cancers. Hall et al. (1991), Hayes et al. (1990), Stroup et al. (1986), Levine et al. (1984) and Walrath and Fraumeni (1983, 1984) reported increases in risk for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined and for leukemia. Most estimates were statistically nonsignificant with the exception of the studies of Hayes et al. (1990) and Stroup et al. (1986), where statistically significant excess mortality was found for all leukemia combined or for myeloid leukemia in association with formaldehyde exposure. In the nested case-control study by Hauptmann et al. (2009), sufficient numbers of cases of lymphohematopoietic cancer deaths among embalmers and funeral directors were identified to enable evaluation of exposure-response relationships, using models of potential formaldehyde exposure. A significant increase in nonlymphoid lymphohematopoietic cancers was observed among ever-embalmers (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.0 to 9.5, 44 exposed cases), and significant increases in risk were observed at the highest levels of cumulative, average, and peak exposure. Most of the increase was attributable to myeloid leukemia, which was significantly elevated among ever-embalmers (OR = 11.2, 95% CI = 1.3 to 95.6, 33 exposed cases) and showed significant trends with duration of exposure and peak exposure, and a more attenuated trend with 8-hour time-weighted average intensity of exposure. In further analyses of non-lymphoid lymphohematopoietic cancers using workers with /= 4 ppm was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk in the NCI cohort (RR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01 to 4.12, 21 deaths, Ptrend = 0.08 among the exposed group) (Beane Freeman et al. 2009), although an increase in risk was also seen among unexposed workers for this endpoint. Increased risks also were seen among British chemical workers (Coggon et al. 2003), abrasive materials workers (Edling et al. 1987b), and U.S. embalmers (Hayes et al. 1990). Other cohort studies did not find associations, based on small numbers of observed deaths or cases, or did not report findings. Among case-control studies, statistically nonsignificant increases in risks were observed by Boffetta et al. (1989), Pottern et al. (1992) (women only), and Hauptmann et al. (2009), but not by Heineman et al. (1992) (men only). Several meta-analyses were available. (Hauptmann et al. [2009] was not available for any of the analyses.) Statistically significant risks were reported for all lymphohematopoietic cancers and leukemia among cohort studies of health professionals by Bosetti et al. (2008) (RR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.47, 263 deaths for all lymphohematopoietic cancers; and RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.68, 106 deaths for leukemia) and among studies of occupations with known high formaldehyde exposure by Zhang et al. (2009a), (mRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.43, 19 studies for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined; mRR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.00, P
PubMed ID
20737003 View in PubMed
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LC-MS-MS aboard ship: tandem mass spectrometry in the search for phycotoxins and novel toxigenic plankton from the North Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92886
Source
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Nov;392(5):797-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Krock Bernd
Tillmann Urban
John Uwe
Cembella Allan
Author Affiliation
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany. bernd.krock@awi.de
Source
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Nov;392(5):797-803
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Environmental monitoring
Food Contamination
Humans
Marine Toxins - analysis
North Sea
Plankton - physiology
Plants, Toxic - chemistry
Shellfish - analysis - toxicity
Spiro Compounds - analysis
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
Phycotoxins produced by various species of toxigenic microalgae occurring in the plankton are a global threat to the security of seafood resources and the health of humans and coastal marine ecosystems. This has necessitated the development and application of advanced methods in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for monitoring of these compounds, particularly in plankton and shellfish. Most such chemical analyses are conducted in land-based laboratories on stored samples, and thus much information on the near real-time biogeographical distribution and dynamics of phycotoxins in the plankton is unavailable. To resolve this problem, we conducted ship-board analysis of a broad spectrum of phycotoxins collected directly from the water column on an oceanographic cruise along the North Sea coast of Scotland, Norway, and Denmark. We equipped the ship with a triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap hybrid LC-MS-MS system for detection and quantitative analysis of toxins, such as domoic acid, gymnodimine, spirolides, dinophysistoxins, okadaic acid, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, and azaspiracids (AZAs). We focused particular attention on the detection of AZAs, a group of potent nitrogenous polyether toxins, because the culprit species associated with the occurrence of these toxins in shellfish has been controversial. Marine toxins were analyzed directly from size-fractionated plankton net tows (20 microm mesh size) and Niskin bottle samples from discrete depths, after rapid methanolic extraction but without any further clean-up. Almost all expected phycotoxins were detected in North Sea plankton samples, with domoic acid and 20-methylspirolide G being most abundant. Although AZA was the least abundant of these toxins, the high sensitivity of the LC-MS-MS enabled detailed quantification, indicating that the highest amounts of AZA-1 were present in the southern Skagerrak in the 3-20 microm size-fraction. The direct on-board toxin measurements enabled isolation of plankton from stations with high AZA-1 levels and from the most suspicious size-fraction, i.e. most likely to contain the AZA-producer. A large number (>100) of crude cultures were established by serial dilution and later screened for the presence of AZAs after several weeks growth. From one crude culture containing AZA, a small dinoflagellate was subsequently isolated and brought into pure culture. We have thus proved that even sophisticated mass spectrometers can be operated in ship laboratories without any limitation caused by vibrations of the ship's engine or by wave movement during heavy seas at wind forces up to nine Beaufort. On-board LC-MS-MS is a valuable method for near real-time analysis of phycotoxins in plankton for studies on bloom dynamics and the fate of toxins in the food web, and for characterization and isolation of putatively toxigenic organisms.
PubMed ID
18584156 View in PubMed
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Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005;66(1):3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Dawna Royall
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005;66(1):3
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger - physiology
Poverty
PubMed ID
15780149 View in PubMed
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A questionnaire to examine food service satisfaction of elderly residents in long-term care facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175652
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2004;24(2):5-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Christina O Lengyel
Joan T Smith
Susan J Whiting
Gordon A Zello
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA.
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2004;24(2):5-18
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Food Services - standards
Homes for the Aged
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient satisfaction
Personal Autonomy
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Saskatchewan
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a survey tool for assessing the satisfaction of elderly long-term care (LTC) residents with the meals and food services they receive, as well as to assess quality of life issues related to eating. Food service delivery should be provided in an environment that fosters autonomy, interpersonal relations, and security. The questionnaire was administered as face-to-face interviews with 205 residents (> or = 65 years of age) of 13 LTC facilities in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (participation rate = 67%). Residents expressed some concern with food variety, quality, taste, and appearance, and with the posting of menus. Quality of life issues were mostly positive; however, residents were less satisfied with areas related to their autonomy such as food choice and snack availability.
PubMed ID
15778154 View in PubMed
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The social construction of anemia in school shelters for indigenous children in Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170413
Source
Qual Health Res. 2006 Apr;16(4):503-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Bernardo Turnbull
Gloria Martínez-Andrade
Miguel Klünder
Tania Carranco
Ximena Duque-López
Rosa Isela Ramos-Hernández
Marco González-Unzaga
Sergio Flores-Hernández
Homero Martínez-Salgado
Author Affiliation
Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Nutricional (UIEN), Instituto Méxicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), México D.F., México.
Source
Qual Health Res. 2006 Apr;16(4):503-16
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - epidemiology - ethnology
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Cultural Characteristics
Diet
Food Supply
Humans
Indians, North American
Malnutrition - epidemiology
Mexico - epidemiology
Poverty Areas
Schools - organization & administration
Abstract
Indigenous children in school shelters in Mexico suffer from anemia in spite of food that is subsidized, prepared, and served to them. Economically and biomedically centered strategies to reduce anemia have achieved only partial and short-term success. An interdisciplinary team investigated the food security system of the school shelters and collected data through interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed that the children's nutrition depends on a frail chain of events in which a single link's failure can lead to nutritional insecurity. The authors conclude that the social actors involved in the process are mainly considering the economic aspects of nutrition, but anemia persists as a social construction of the faulty relationship between the institution that runs the shelters and the indigenous culture. The authors make suggestions for an intervention that empowers the community by involving it actively in solving the problem.
Notes
Comment In: Qual Health Res. 2006 Dec;16(10):1315-617079795
PubMed ID
16513993 View in PubMed
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The opportunities and challenges of evidence-based nutrition (EBN) in the Asia Pacific region: clinical practice and policy-setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158133
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):2-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Mark L Wahlqvist
Meei-Shyuan Lee
Joseph Lau
Ken N Kuo
Ching-jang Huang
Wen-Harn Pan
Hsing-Yi Chang
Rosalind Chen
Yi-Chen Huang
Author Affiliation
Nutrition Consortium, Center for Health Policy Research Development, National Health Research Institutes, No. 35, Keyan Road, Zhunan, Taiwan. profmlw@nhri.org.tw
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):2-7
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Evidence-Based Medicine
Health Policy
Humans
Nutrition Policy
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic - standards
Abstract
Evidence-based nutrition (EBN) has gained currency as part of the growing role of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to increase the validity, utility and cost-effectiveness of both clinical practice and, increasingly, public health endeavours. Nutritionally-related disorders and diseases (NRD) account for a relatively large proportion of the burden of ill-health, disease and mortality, especially as the nexus between them and both infectious disease and so-called chronic disease is understood. As resource allocation is increasingly dependent on the evidence for preventive or therapeutic effect, the case for nutrition interventions also needs to be underpinned by evidence. However, feeding studies are not as amenable to the designs familiar to clinical trialists and dietary interventions in public health may be complex in their conduct and interpretation, making other approaches like cohort studies more attractive even if costly and long in the execution. With a number of food system changes in rapid progress or imminent, especially in the populous Asia Pacific region, along with changing demographics, changing disease patterns and concern about present and future food security, a stock-take and scenario analysis of EBN was undertaken by a panel of nutrition scientists, population scientists, agriculturalists, clinicians and policy makers together with consumer and indigenous stake-holders in Taiwan in 2007. They found that clinical practice guidelines and proposals for health and nutrition policies required greater emphasis and expertise in EBN.
PubMed ID
18364319 View in PubMed
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636 records – page 2 of 32.