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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290437
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
a Department of Anthropology , University of Toronto Mississauga , Mississauga , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Commerce
Eligibility Determination
Food Assistance - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Program Evaluation
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jul 05;75:31127 PMID 27388896
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138900
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Stacey Marjerrison
Elizabeth A Cummings
N Theresa Glanville
Sara F L Kirk
Mary Ledwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Diet
Disease Management
Female
Health Behavior
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of food insecurity in households with a child with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (DM), investigate whether food insecurity is associated with poorer DM control, and describe the household characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families with a child with DM.
Telephone interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting families over a 16-month period. Food insecurity was assessed through a validated questionnaire; additional questions elicited demographic information and DM management strategies. Charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.
A total of 183 families were interviewed. Food insecurity was present in 21.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.87%-27.85%), significantly higher than the overall prevalences in Nova Scotia (14.6%) and Canada (9.2%). Food insecurity was associated with higher HbA1c level; however, in multivariate analysis, only child's age and parents' education were independent predictors of HbA1c. Children from food-insecure families had higher rates of hospitalization, for which food security status was the only independent predictor. Common characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families were identified.
Food insecurity was more common in families with a child with DM, and the presence of food insecurity was predictive of the child's hospitalization. Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM.
PubMed ID
21126743 View in PubMed
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Status of Alaska Natives report 2004: Volume 2. 2000 Census data by ANCSA region: Alaska Native or American Indian alone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294134
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Publication Type
Report
Date
May 2004
Households [PCT97] Social Security Income In 1999 For Households [PCT98] Supplemental Security Income (SSI) In 1999 For Households [PCT99] Public Assistance Income In 1999 For Households [PCT100] Retirement Income In 1999 For Households [PCT101] Other Types Of Income In 1999 For Households
  1 document  
Author
Goldsmith S
Angvik J
Howe L
Hill A
Leask L
Author Affiliation
Institute of Social and Economic Research
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage.
Date
May 2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
22028566
Keywords
Alaska
Indians of North America
Economic conditions
Statistics
Eskimos
Aleuts
Social Conditions
Rural conditions
Notes
UAA - ALASKA E98.E2S82 2004 Volume 1. [Main report] -- Volume 2. 2000 Census data by ANCSA region: Alaska Native or American Indian alone -- Volume 3. 2000 Census data by ANCSA regions: Alaska Native or American Indian alone or in combination with another race.
Prepared for the Alaska Federation of Natives.
Additional support provided by Understanding Alaska.
Documents

StatusAKNativesRpt2004v2.pdf

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Source
University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Division of Respirology and Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. [60 p.]
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
January 2011
)  Income distributionIncome distribution  HousingHousing  EducationEducation  Social safety netsSocial safety nets  EnvironmentEnvironment  AddictionsAddictions  Health care servicesHealth care services  Food security and Food security and NutritionNutrition
  1 document  
Author
Alvarez, Gonzalo G
Author Affiliation
Assistant Professor of Medicine,
Source
University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Division of Respirology and Infectious Diseases, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. [60 p.]
Date
January 2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Indigenous Groups
Inuit
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
3162116
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Inuit
Pulmonary
Health
Research
Cancer
Statistics
Tuberculosis
Health Care Access
Documents

Alvarez-Inuit-pulmonary-health-Jan--2011.pdf

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Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and Inuit Nutrition Security in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294373
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2018
Author
Tiff-Annie Kenny
Myriam Fillion
Sarah Simpkin
Sonia D Wesche
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Date
Sep-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) has been fundamental to the diet and culture of Arctic Indigenous Peoples for thousands of years. Although caribou populations observe natural cycles of abundance and scarcity, several caribou herds across the Circumpolar North have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades due to a range of interrelated factors. Broadly, the objectives of this study are to examine food and nutrition security in relation to wildlife population and management status across Inuit Nunangat (the Inuit homeland, consisting of four regions across the Canadian Arctic). Specifically, we: (1) characterize the contribution of caribou to Inuit nutrition across northern Canada and (2) evaluate the population and management status of caribou herds/populations harvested by Inuit. Dietary data were derived from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey, which included dietary information for Inuit adults (n?=?2097) residing in thirty-six communities, spanning three regions (the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut) of the Canadian North. Published information regarding the range, abundance, status, and management status of caribou herds/populations was collected through document analysis and was validated through consultation with northern wildlife experts (territorial governments, co-management, and/or Inuit organizations). While caribou contributed modestly to total diet energy (3-11% of intake) across the regions, it was the primary source of iron (14-37%), zinc (18-41%), copper (12-39%), riboflavin (15-39%), and vitamin B12 (27-52%), as well as a top source of protein (13-35%). Restrictions on Inuit subsistence harvest (harvest quotas or bans) are currently enacted on at least six northern caribou herds/populations with potential consequences for country food access for over twenty-five Inuit communities across Canada. A holistic multi-sectorial approach is needed to ensure the sustainability of wildlife populations, while supporting Inuit food and nutrition security in the interim.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30116999 View in PubMed
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Placemat information: First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294475
Source
First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB).
Publication Type
Fact Sheet
healthy behaviours and supportive environments in the areas of healthy eating, physical activity, food security, chronic disease prevention, management and screening, and injury prevention policy. Key activities supporting program-delivery include: chronic disease prevention and management, injury
  1 document  
Source
First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB).
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Fact Sheet
File Size
250624
Keywords
First Nations
Inuit
Medical transportation
Medical care
Health coverage
Health services
Health agencies
Documents

1Claxdalandakapewhandout1.pdf

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Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). 23 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2007
environmental security of the Alas- k a n I n u i t c o a s t l i n e d e p e n d e d “ u p o n t h e s t r e n g t h o f ( s e l f ) government in Canada and Greenland”, and only when we all have our own home rule governments, “will we be able to really trust any offshore operation in the Beaufort
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). 23 p.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3181838
Keywords
Canada
Inuit
Environment
Wildlife & harvesting
Research & health activities
Human Rights
Documents

06-07_annual_report_lenglish.pdf

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Population-specific HIV/AIDS status report: Aboriginal Peoples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294483
Source
Public Health Agency of Canada. Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control. HIV/AIDS Policy, Coordination and Programs Division. xvi, 122 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2010
  1 document  
Source
Public Health Agency of Canada. Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control. HIV/AIDS Policy, Coordination and Programs Division. xvi, 122 p.
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
2387719
Keywords
HIV
AIDS
First Nations
Inuit
Métis
Demographic profiles
Documents
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Climate change promotes the emergence of serious disease outbreaks of filarioid nematodes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97203
Source
Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):7-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Sauli Laaksonen
Jyrki Pusenius
Jouko Kumpula
Ari Venäläinen
Raine Kortet
Antti Oksanen
Eric Hoberg
Author Affiliation
Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira (FINPAR), P.O. Box 517, FI-90101, Oulu, Finland, sauli.laaksonen@evira.fi.
Source
Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):7-13
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14 degrees C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes.
PubMed ID
20422252 View in PubMed
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Submission from the Inuit Circumpolar Council to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Right to Health and Indigenous People with a Focus on the Mental Health of Inuit Children and Youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294118
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council. 19 p.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
February 29, 2016
harvesting and preparing traditional foods. This cost-effective outreach program is described as “a unified approach to complex and overlapping community challenges, including suicide prevention, mental health promotion, cultural connections and food security” (ICC 2015, p. 24). The program has strong
  1 document  
Author
Gombay, N
Schreiber, D
Ford, S
Meakin, S
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council. 19 p.
Date
February 29, 2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
704257
Keywords
Inuits
Humans
Health care perspectives
Child-rearing
Mental health
Documents

InuitCircumpolarCouncil.pdf

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Final Report on Carcinogens Background Document for Formaldehyde.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99152
Source
Rep Carcinog Backgr Doc. 2010 Jan;(10-5981):i-512
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Source
Rep Carcinog Backgr Doc. 2010 Jan;(10-5981):i-512
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Executive Summary: Introduction: Formaldehyde is a high-production-volume chemical with a wide array of uses. The predominant use of formaldehyde in the United States is in the production of industrial resins (mainly urea-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, polyacetal, and melamine-formaldehyde resins) that are used to manufacture products such as adhesives and binders for wood products, pulp and paper products, plastics, and synthetic fibers, and in textile finishing. Formaldehyde is also used as a chemical intermediate. Resin production and use as a chemical intermediate together account for over 80% of its use. Other, smaller uses of formaldehyde that may be important for potential human exposure include use in agriculture, medical use as a disinfectant and preservative (for pathology, histology, and embalming), and use in numerous consumer products as a biocide and preservative. Formaldehyde (gas) is listed in the Eleventh Report on Carcinogens (RoC) as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals (NTP 2005a); it was first listed in the 2nd RoC (NTP 1981). Formaldehyde (all physical forms) was nominated by NIEHS for possible reclassification in the 12th RoC based on the 2004 review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC 2006), which concluded that there was sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in humans. Human Exposure: Formaldehyde has numerous industrial and commercial uses and is produced in very large amounts (billions of pounds per year in the United States) by catalytic oxidation of methanol. Its predominant use, accounting for roughly 55% of consumption, is in the production of industrial resins, which are used in the production of numerous commercial products. Formaldehyde is used in industrial processes primarily as a solution (formalin) or solid (paraformaldehyde or trioxane), but exposure is frequently to formaldehyde gas, which is released during many of the processes. Formaldehyde gas is also created from the combustion of organic material and can be produced secondarily in air from photochemical reactions involving virtually all classes of hydrocarbon pollutants. In some instances, secondary production may exceed direct air emissions. Formaldehyde is also produced endogenously in humans and animals. Formaldehyde is a simple, one-carbon molecule that is rapidly metabolized, is endogenously produced, and is also formed through the metabolism of many xenobiotic agents. Because of these issues, typical biological indices of exposure, such as levels of formaldehyde or its metabolites in blood or urine, have proven to be ineffective measures of exposure. Formaldehyde can bind covalently to single-stranded DNA and protein to form crosslinks, or with human serum albumin or the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin to form molecular adducts, and these reaction products of formaldehyde might serve as biomarkers for exposure to formaldehyde. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde is highly variable and can occur in numerous industries, including the manufacture of formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins, wood-composite and furniture production, plastics production, histology and pathology, embalming and biology laboratories, foundries, fiberglass production, construction, agriculture, and firefighting, among others. In fact, because formaldehyde is ubiquitous, it has been suggested that occupational exposure to formaldehyde occurs in all work places. Formaldehyde is also ubiquitous in the environment and has been detected in indoor and outdoor air; in treated drinking water, bottled drinking water, surface water, and groundwater; on land and in the soil; and in numerous types of food. The primary source of exposure is from inhalation of formaldehyde gas in indoor settings (both residential and occupational); however, formaldehyde also may adsorb to respirable particles, providing a source of additional exposure. Major sources of formaldehyde exposure for the general public have included combustion sources (both indoor and outdoor sources including industrial and automobile emissions, home cooking and heating, and cigarette smoke), off-gassing from numerous construction and home furnishing products, and off-gassing from numerous consumer goods. Ingestion of food and water can also be a significant source of exposure to formaldehyde. Numerous agencies, including the Department of Homeland Security, CPSC, DOT, EPA, FDA, HUD, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, OSHA, ACGIH, and NIOSH, have developed regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to formaldehyde. Human Cancer Studies: A large number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and carcinogenicity in humans. The studies fall into the following main groups: (1) historical cohort studies and nested case-control studies of workers in a variety of industries that manufacture or use formaldehyde, including the chemical, plastics, fiberglass, resins, and woodworking industries, as well as construction, garment, iron foundry, and tannery workers; (2) historical cohort studies and nested case-control studies of health professionals, including physicians, pathologists, anatomists, embalmers, and funeral directors; (3) population-based cohort or cancer registry studies; and (4) population-based or occupationally based case-control incidence or mortality studies of specific cancer endpoints. In addition, several studies have re-analyzed data from specific cohort or case-control studies or have conducted pooled analyses or meta-analyses for specific cancer endpoints. The largest study available to date is the cohort mortality study of combined mixed industries conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This cohort includes 25,691 male and female workers, enrolled from 10 different formaldehyde-producing or -using plants, employed before 1966 and followed most recently to 1994 and 2004, most of whom were exposed to formaldehyde (Hauptmann et al. 2003, 2004 and Beane Freeman et al. 2009). Quantitative exposure data were used to construct job-exposure matrices for individual workers, some of whom experienced peak exposures to formaldehyde >/= 4 ppm. This cohort is the only study in which exposure-response relationships between peak, average, cumulative, and duration of exposure and mortality for multiple cancer sites were investigated. Two other large cohort studies are available: (1) a large multi-plant cohort study (N = 14,014) of workers in six chemical manufacturing plants in the United Kingdom (Coggon et al. 2003), which calculated SMRs among ever-exposed and highly exposed workers for formaldehyde, and (2) a NIOSH cohort of garment workers (N = 11,039) (Pinkerton et al. 2004) which evaluated mortality for duration of exposure, time since first exposure, and year of first exposure to formaldehyde for selected cancer sites. The other cohort studies (for both industrial and health professional workers) were smaller, and in general only reported mortality or incidence for ever-exposed workers in external (SMR or PMR) analyses, although some of the studies of health professional workers attempted indirect measures of exposure (such as length in a professional membership) as a proxy for exposure duration. Several of the nested case-control studies attempted to evaluate exposure-response relationships, but were limited by small numbers of exposed cases, and many of the population-based case-control studies lacked quantitative data or sufficient numbers of cases to evaluate exposure-response relationships. However, the nested case-control study of lymphohematopoietic, nasopharyngeal, and brain cancers among U.S. embalmers and funeral directors by Hauptmann et al. (2009) had large numbers of exposed cases of lymphohematopoietic cancer and used both questionnaire- and experimental model-based exposure metrics of exposure, including average, cumulative, peak, and duration of exposure, and number of embalmings. [Since most of the cohorts have relatively low statistical power to evaluate rare cancers such as sinonasal and nasopharyngeal cancers, case-control studies are generally more informative for these outcomes.] Findings across studies for cancer sites that have been the principal focus of investigation are summarized below. Sinonasal cancers: In cohort studies, increased risks of sinonasal cancers were observed among male (SPIR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.0, 13 exposed cases) and female (SPIR = 2.4, 95% CI = 0.6 to 6.0, 4 exposed cases) Danish workers exposed to formaldehyde (Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996) and among formaldehyde-exposed workers in the NCI cohort (SMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.38 to 3.68, 3 deaths) (Hauptmann et al. 2004). One death from squamous-cell sinonasal cancer was reported in the study of tannery workers among formaldehyde-exposed workers by Stern et al. (1987). No increase in risk was found among formaldehyde-exposed workers in the other large cohort studies (Coggon et al. 2003, Pinkerton et al. 2004). The smaller cohort studies did not report findings or did not observe any deaths for this specific endpoint. [Sinonasal cancers are rare, and even the larger cohort studies have insufficient numbers of exposed workers and expected deaths (e.g., approximately three in the NCI cohort) to be very informative.] Of the six case-control studies reviewed, four (Olsen et al. 1984 and Olsen and Asnaes 1986; Hayes et al. 1986; Roush et al. 1987; and Luce et al. 1993) reported an association between sinonasal cancers and formaldehyde exposure; statistically significant risks were found in three studies among individuals ever exposed to formaldehyde or with higher probabilities or levels of exposure (Olsen et al. 1994 and Olsen and Asnaes 1986; Hayes et al. 1986; and Luce et al. 1993). All of these studies found elevated risks among individuals with low or no exposure to wood dust or after adjusting for exposure to wood dust. Stronger associations were found for adenocarcinoma, with higher risks for this endpoint observed among individuals with higher average and cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and earlier dates of first exposure (Luce et al. 1993). A pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies of sinonasal cancer from seven countries (Luce et al. 2002) found statistically significant increases in adenocarcinoma among subjects in the highest exposure groups (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.5 to 5.7, 91 exposed cases for men, adjusted for wood dust exposure; and OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 2.0 to 19.7, 5 exposed cases for women, unadjusted for wood dust exposure). For squamous-cell carcinoma, the corresponding ORs were 1.2 (95% CI = 0.8 to 1.8, 30 exposed cases) for men and 1.5 (95% CI = 0.6 to 3.8, 6 exposed cases) for women; neither OR was adjusted for wood dust exposure. A statistically significant increase in risk for sinonasal cancers (mRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.3, 933 deaths) was found in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies by Collins et al. (1997); however, no increase in risks was found in meta-analyses of three cohort studies by Collins et al. (1987) or in eight industrial cohort studies by Bosetti et al. (2008). Nasopharyngeal cancers: Similar to sinonasal cancers, nasopharyngeal cancers are rare [and most of the risk estimates reported in the cohort studies are based on small numbers of expected cases or deaths]. Among cohort studies, a statistically significant increase in mortality from nasopharyngeal cancer was observed in the large NCI cohort (SMR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.05 to 4.21, 8 deaths) (Hauptmann et al. 2004), and statistically nonsignificant elevated risks were observed among white embalmers from the United States (PMR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.39 to 5.48, 3 deaths) (Hayes et al. 1990) and among male Danish workers exposed to formaldehyde (SPIR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.3 to 3.2, 4 cases) (Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996). One incident case of nasopharyngeal cancer was reported among Swedish workers in the abrasive materials industry (expected deaths not reported, but only 506 workers were potentially exposed) (Edling et al. 1987b). No associations between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal cancer were found in the other two large cohorts: one death was observed (vs. 2 expected) in the British chemical workers cohort (Coggon et al. 2003) and no deaths were observed (vs. 0.96 expected) in the NIOSH cohort (Pinkerton et al. 2004). The other, smaller, cohort studies did not report findings or did not observe any deaths for nasopharyngeal cancer. Exposure-response relationships between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal cancer were evaluated in the large NCI cohort study. Among seven exposed and two unexposed deaths, relative risks of nasopharyngeal cancers increased with cumulative exposure (Ptrend = 0.025 among exposed groups) and with peak and average exposure (Ptrend = 0.044 and 0.126, respectively, across exposed and unexposed groups, using unexposed as the referent as no deaths were observed in the lowest exposed group). Adjustment for duration of exposure to a number of potentially confounding substances and plant type did not substantively alter the findings. Most of the deaths occurred at one factory (Plant 1), which appears to have had the largest numbers of highly exposed workers. In a nested case-control analysis of nasopharyngeal deaths in this plant, Marsh et al. (2007b) reported that several of the nasopharyngeal cancers occurred among workers with previous employment in metal-working occupations. Six of the nine available case-control studies reported increases in nasopharyngeal cancers in association with probable exposure to formaldehyde or at higher levels or duration of estimated exposure (Olsen et al. 1984 [women only], Vaughan et al. 1986a, Roush et al. 1987, West et al. 1993, Vaughan et al. 2000, and Hildesheim et al. 2001). Risks of nasopharyngeal cancers increased with exposure duration and cumulative exposure in two population-based case-control studies (Vaughan et al. 2000, Hildesheim et al. 2001). In some studies, higher risks were found among individuals in the high-exposure groups (Vaughan et al. 1986a, Roush et al 1987), or with more years since first exposure (West et al. 1993), and some studies reported that risks were still elevated after taking into account smoking (Vaughan et al. 2000, Vaughan et al. 1986a, West et al. 1993) or exposure to wood dust (Hildesheim et al. 2001, Vaughan et al. 2000, West et al. 1993). No associations between nasopharyngeal cancer and formaldehyde exposure were found in population-based case-control studies in Denmark (Olsen et al. 1984 [men only]), and Malaysia (Armstrong et al. 2000), a case-cohort study among Chinese textile workers (Li et al. 2006), or in a nested case-control study among embalmers (Hauptmann et al. 2009). Several meta-analyses were available. A statistically significant increase in risk (mRR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5, 455 deaths) was reported in a large meta-analysis of 12 case-control and cohort studies (Collins et al. 1997), and a nonsignificant increase in risk in a small meta-analysis of three other cohort mortality studies (SMR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.69 to 2.56, 9 deaths) (Bosetti et al. 2008). Bachand et al. (2010) reported a borderline statistically significant risk in a meta-analysis of seven case-control studies (mRR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.50) but did not find an increase in risk (mRR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.4 to 1.29) in an analysis of data from six cohort studies, which excluded Plant 1 of the NCI cohort and used the re-analysis data from Marsh et al. (2005) for the other plants. [The Bachand meta-analysis used data for all pharyngeal cancer or buccal cavity cancer from some cohort studies and one case-control study, however.] Other head and neck cancers, and respiratory cancer Most of the cohort studies reported risk estimates for cancers of the buccal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and lung, or combinations of these cancers. Most of these studies, including two of the large cohorts (Pinkerton et al. 2004 and Coggon et al. 2003), three of the professional health worker studies (Hayes et al. 1990, Walrath and Fraumeni 1983 and 1984), and two of the smaller industrial cohorts (Andjelkovich et al. 1995 and Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996) found elevated (between approximately 10% and 30%) but statistically nonsignificant risks for cancers of the buccal cavity or buccal cavity and pharynx combined; risk estimates were usually based on small numbers of deaths or cases. In the NCI cohort, increased risks for all upper respiratory cancers or buccal cavity cancer combined were generally found among workers in the highest categories of exposure (compared with the lowest category), but trends were not statistically significant (Hauptmann et al. 2004). Most of the population-based or nested case-control studies that reported on head and neck cancers found small increases (usually statistically nonsignificant) in risks for formaldehyde exposure and cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx (or parts of the pharynx) (Vaughan et al. 1986a, Merletti et al. 1991, Gustavsson et al. 1998, Laforest et al. 2000, Marsh et al. 2002, Wilson et al. 2004, Berrino et al. 2003) or of the upper respiratory tract (Partanen et al. 1990). Exposure-response relationships were not clear in most of the available studies; however, positive exposure-response relationships between probability and duration of exposure and cancers of the hypopharynx and larynx combined were reported by Laforest et al. (2000) and between combined probability and intensity of exposure and salivary cancer by Wilson et al. (2004). No associations between formaldehyde exposure and pharyngeal cancers (subtypes or combinations) were observed in case-control studies by Shangina et al. (2006) and Tarvainen et al. (2008). Most of the cohort studies and two of the four available case-control studies found no association between formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer. Two case-control studies (Wortley et al. 1992, Shangina et al. 2006) reported increased risk among subjects with the highest exposure to formaldehyde. Small excesses of mortality or incidence of cancers of the lung or respiratory system among formaldehyde-exposed workers were observed in four cohort studies (Andjelkovich et al. 1995, Dell and Teta 1995, Hansen and Olsen 1996 [women only], and Coggon et al. 2003). A statistically significant increase in risk of lung cancer was observed in the large study of British chemical workers (SMR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.32, 594 deaths, among all workers) (Coggon et al. 2003). In this study, risks increased with increasing exposure level (Ptrend /= 4 ppm) vs. the lowest exposed category for all lymphohematopoietic cancers (RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.81, 108 deaths, Ptrend = 0.02), and statistically nonsignificant increases for all leukemias combined and peak exposure >/= 4 ppm (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.18, 48 deaths, Ptrend = 0.12) and for myeloid leukemia and peak exposure >/= 4 ppm (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.87 to 3.64, 19 deaths, Ptrend = 0.13; trends among exposed person-years). No associations were found with cumulative or average exposure. An excess of leukemia, especially myeloid leukemia, was also found among garment workers in the large NIOSH cohort (Pinkerton et al. 2004), but not in the British chemical workers cohort (Coggon et al. 2003). In the NIOSH cohort, risks for leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia were higher among workers with longer duration of exposure (10+ yrs), longer time since first exposure (20+ years), and among those exposed prior to 1963 (when formaldehyde exposure was thought to be higher) (Pinkerton et al. 2004). In the smaller industrial cohort studies, some studies reported excesses for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined among formaldehyde-exposed workers (Bertazzi et al. 1989, Stellman et al. 1998) or leukemia (Hansen and Olsen 1995, 1996), but others observed no association for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined (Andjelkovich et al. 1995, Stern 2003, Pinkerton et al. 2004) or leukemia (Andjelkovich et al. 1995, Stellman et al. 1998, Stern 2003). Each of the six cohort studies of health professionals, and the nested case-control study of embalmers from three of these studies, found elevated mortality for lymphohematopoietic cancers. Hall et al. (1991), Hayes et al. (1990), Stroup et al. (1986), Levine et al. (1984) and Walrath and Fraumeni (1983, 1984) reported increases in risk for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined and for leukemia. Most estimates were statistically nonsignificant with the exception of the studies of Hayes et al. (1990) and Stroup et al. (1986), where statistically significant excess mortality was found for all leukemia combined or for myeloid leukemia in association with formaldehyde exposure. In the nested case-control study by Hauptmann et al. (2009), sufficient numbers of cases of lymphohematopoietic cancer deaths among embalmers and funeral directors were identified to enable evaluation of exposure-response relationships, using models of potential formaldehyde exposure. A significant increase in nonlymphoid lymphohematopoietic cancers was observed among ever-embalmers (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.0 to 9.5, 44 exposed cases), and significant increases in risk were observed at the highest levels of cumulative, average, and peak exposure. Most of the increase was attributable to myeloid leukemia, which was significantly elevated among ever-embalmers (OR = 11.2, 95% CI = 1.3 to 95.6, 33 exposed cases) and showed significant trends with duration of exposure and peak exposure, and a more attenuated trend with 8-hour time-weighted average intensity of exposure. In further analyses of non-lymphoid lymphohematopoietic cancers using workers with /= 4 ppm was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk in the NCI cohort (RR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01 to 4.12, 21 deaths, Ptrend = 0.08 among the exposed group) (Beane Freeman et al. 2009), although an increase in risk was also seen among unexposed workers for this endpoint. Increased risks also were seen among British chemical workers (Coggon et al. 2003), abrasive materials workers (Edling et al. 1987b), and U.S. embalmers (Hayes et al. 1990). Other cohort studies did not find associations, based on small numbers of observed deaths or cases, or did not report findings. Among case-control studies, statistically nonsignificant increases in risks were observed by Boffetta et al. (1989), Pottern et al. (1992) (women only), and Hauptmann et al. (2009), but not by Heineman et al. (1992) (men only). Several meta-analyses were available. (Hauptmann et al. [2009] was not available for any of the analyses.) Statistically significant risks were reported for all lymphohematopoietic cancers and leukemia among cohort studies of health professionals by Bosetti et al. (2008) (RR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.47, 263 deaths for all lymphohematopoietic cancers; and RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15 to 1.68, 106 deaths for leukemia) and among studies of occupations with known high formaldehyde exposure by Zhang et al. (2009a), (mRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.43, 19 studies for all lymphohematopoietic cancers combined; mRR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.00, P
PubMed ID
20737003 View in PubMed
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Canada's relationship with Inuit : a history of policy and program development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294623
Source
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
June 2006
in exchange for European goods, such as metal knives and needles, rifles, tobacco, cloth and food. Items bartered by Inuit included caribou skins and meat, whalebone, walrus ivory, dogs and fish. The whaling industry peaked in the 1860s. Afterwards, whaling crews supplemented their incomes with
  1 document  
Author
Bonesteel, Sarah
Source
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Date
June 2006
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
16013414
Keywords
Inuit
History
Housing
Health care
Education
Economic development
Self-governement
Environment
Notes
ISBN: 978-1-100-11121-6
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inuit-book_1100100016901_eng.pdf

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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294629
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
Notes
Cites: Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007 May;210(3-4):201-28 PMID 17376741
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Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2015 Sep 15;527-528:150-8 PMID 25965033
PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of a nation-to-nation relationship: discussion paper.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294753
Source
Institute on Governance. Canadians for a New Partnership. 40 p.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
February 2017
would help deal with food insecurity, education, suicide prevention, housing, lateral violence and other difficult social issues. They have also called for financial support for local hunters, noting Canada provides a subsidy to farmers to help if crops fail and that something similar should be in
  1 document  
Author
Nickerson, Marcia
Source
Institute on Governance. Canadians for a New Partnership. 40 p.
Date
February 2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
862865
Keywords
First Nations
Metis
Inuit
Jurisdication
Revenues & revenue sharing
Wealth creation
Documents

IOG-Nation-to-Nation-Discussion-Paper-2017-02.pdf

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Inuit priorities for Canada's climate strategy : a Canadian Inuit vision for our common future in our homelands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294754
Source
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. 60 p.
Date
2016
claim organizations. • Assistance for Inuit households in achieving food security and in mitigating the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems, including shifting and/or declining wildlife and fish populations and loss and/or damage to harvesting equipment and
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. 60 p.
Date
2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
File Size
7723962
Keywords
Inuit
Arctic governance
Climate change
Documents

ITK_Climate-Change-Report_English.pdf

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Health professionals working with First Nations, Inuit, and Métis consensus guideline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294755
Source
JOGC, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. June 2013. V.35, no.6. suppl. 2.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
. (III) 09 . Eating traditional country foods helps to preserve cultural identity, but increasing environmental contaminants such as lead, arsenic, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants may compromise food safety . (II-3) 10 . Given demographic shifts such as rapidly growing populations with
  1 document  
Author
Don Wilson
Sandra de la Ronde
Simon Brascoupé
Alisha Nicole Apale
Lucy Barney
Bing Guthrie
Elizabeth Harrold
Ojistoh Horn
Robin Johnson
Darrien Rattray
Nicole Robinson
Natsiq Alainga-Kango
Gisela Becker
Vyta Senikas
Annie Aningmiuq
Geri Bailey
Darlene Birch
Katsi Cook
Jessica Danforth
Mary Daoust
Darlene Kitty
Jaime Koebel
Judith Kornelsen
Ndakaitedzva Tsatsa Kotwas
Audrey Lawrence
Amanda Mudry
Gail Theresa Turner
Vicki Van Wagner
Eduardo Vides
Fjola Hart Wasekeesikaw
Sara Wolfe
Source
JOGC, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. June 2013. V.35, no.6. suppl. 2.
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1059176
Keywords
Canada
Female
Health
Personnel
Health services
Humans
Inuit
Indigenous
Aboriginal
First Nation
Metis
Social Determinants of Health
Maternal/child
Health inequity
Culturally-safe care
Cultural competence
Delivery
Life-cycle
Traditional practices
Rural Health
Reproduction
Notes
Chapter 1: Definitions. Chapter 2: Demographics. Chapter 3: Social Determinants of Health Among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. Chapter 4: Health Systems, Policies, and Services for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis. Chapter 5: First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health. Chapter 6: First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Maternal Health. Chapter 7: Mature Women’s Health . Chapter 8: Changing Outcomes Through Culturally Competent Care. Chapter 9: Conclusion. Chapter 10: Case Studies . Appendix.
Documents

June-JOGC-2013-CPG293_Supplement_Eng_Online-Final_NO-cropmarks_REV-F.pdf

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Strategic action plan for First nations and Inuit mental wellness : Draft.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294756
Source
First Nations & Inuit Mental; Wellness Advisory Committee.
Publication Type
Report
Date
September 2007
  1 document  
Source
First Nations & Inuit Mental; Wellness Advisory Committee.
Date
September 2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
254808
Keywords
First Nations
Inuit
Mental health
Addiction
Treatment
Counseling
Documents

MWAC-Strategic-Action-Plan-draft-Sept07-1.pdf

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Rethinking Westphalian Sovereignty : The Inuit Circumpolar Council and the Future of Arctic Governance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294758
Source
Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program. Working papers on Arctic Security no.8 [54] p.
Publication Type
Article
Date
November 2013
RETHINKING WESTPHALIAN SOVEREIGNTY: THE INUIT CIRCUMPOLAR COUNCIL AND THE FUTURE OF ARCTIC GOVERNANCE The contents of this publication are entirely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the view or opinions of the Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program and the
  1 document  
Author
Shadian, Jessica
Author Affiliation
Arctic Centre, University of Lapland
Source
Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program. Working papers on Arctic Security no.8 [54] p.
Date
November 2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
File Size
5378232
Keywords
Inuit
Politics
Naatural resources
Juridiction
Self-governance
Documents

Rethinking-Westphalian-Sovereignty-The-Inuit-Circumpolar-Council-and-the-Future-of-Arctic-Governance.pdf

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561 records – page 1 of 29.