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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290437
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
a Department of Anthropology , University of Toronto Mississauga , Mississauga , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Commerce
Eligibility Determination
Food Assistance - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Program Evaluation
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jul 05;75:31127 PMID 27388896
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Assessing diet and lifestyle in the Canadian Arctic Inuit and Inuvialuit to inform a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99760
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010 Oct;23 Suppl 1:5-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
); numerous studies have described the reduction in hunting, gathering and sharing as key indicators of the acculturation of Arctic peoples (Bjerregaard et al., 2002; Craver, 2004; Mason, 2004; Curtis et al., 2005). Food security (access, availability, utilisation, stability) has been described as a
  1 document  
Author
S. Sharma
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. sangitag@ualberta.ca
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010 Oct;23 Suppl 1:5-17
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
6474495
Keywords
Arctic
Chronic Disease
Dietary and lifestyle transition
Environmental change
Aboriginal health
Abstract
Inuit in Nunavut (NU) and Inuvialuit in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, were traditionally nomadic peoples whose culture and lifestyle were founded on hunting and gathering foods from the local environment, primarily land and marine mammals. Lifestyle changes within the last century have brought about a rapid nutrition transition, characterised by decreasing consumption of traditional foods and an associated increase in the consumption of processed, shop-bought foods. This transition may be attributed to a multitude of factors, such as acculturation, overall food access and availability, food insecurity and climate change. Obesity and risk for chronic disease are higher in the Canadian Arctic population compared with the Canadian national average. This present review describes the study population and methodologies used to collect data in order to study the nutrition transition amongst Aboriginal Arctic populations and develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a novel, multi-institutional and culturally appropriate programme that aims to improve dietary adequacy and reduce risk of chronic disease. Included in this special issue of the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics are papers describing dietary intake patterns, physical activity levels, dietary behaviours, chronic disease prevalence and psychosocial factors that potentially mediate behaviour. A further paper describes how these data were utilised to inform and develop Healthy Foods North.
PubMed ID
21158957 View in PubMed
Documents
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Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104271
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Helga Bjørnøy Urke
Zhirong R Cao
Grace M Egeland
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
PubMed ID
24864166 View in PubMed
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Reconciling traditional knowledge, food security, and climate change: experience from Old Crow, YT, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104280
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Vasiliki Douglas
Hing Man Chan
Sonia Wesche
Cindy Dickson
Norma Kassi
Lorraine Netro
Megan Williams
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods - organization & administration
Culture
Focus Groups
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Preservation - economics - methods
Food Storage - economics - methods
Food Supply - economics - methods
Gardening - education - methods
Humans
Indians, North American - education
Nutritional Sciences - education
Transportation - economics - methods
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Because of a lack of transportation infrastructure, Old Crow has the highest food costs and greatest reliance on traditional food species for sustenance of any community in Canada's Yukon Territory. Environmental, cultural, and economic change are driving increased perception of food insecurity in Old Crow.
To address community concerns regarding food security and supply in Old Crow and develop adaptation strategies to ameliorate their impact on the community.
A community adaptation workshop was held on October 13, 2009, in which representatives of different stakeholders in the community discussed a variety of food security issues facing Old Crow and how they could be dealt with. Workshop data were analyzed using keyword, subject, and narrative analysis techniques to determine community priorities in food security and adaptation.
Community concern is high and favored adaptation options include agriculture, improved food storage, and conservation through increased traditional education. These results were presented to the community for review and revision, after which the Vuntut Gwitchin Government will integrate them into its ongoing adaptation planning measures.
PubMed ID
24859099 View in PubMed
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Canada's Residential Schools: the Inuit and Northern Experience. The final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Volume 2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294859
Source
McGill-Queen's Native and northern series; 82. 260 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2015
also made the northern schools more reliant on local food, which could be scarce. Children often came to the school because a parent had died or been hospitalized. Once there, they were separated from their siblings, taught a new language and reli- gion, fed strange foods, and given an education
  1 document  
Author
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Source
McGill-Queen's Native and northern series; 82. 260 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3623937
Keywords
Inuit
Residential schools
Education
Government relations
Social Conditions
History
Notes
ISBN 978-0-7735-4653-0 (v.2 : bound)
Documents

Volume_2_Inuit_and_Northern_English_Web.pdf

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Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138900
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Stacey Marjerrison
Elizabeth A Cummings
N Theresa Glanville
Sara F L Kirk
Mary Ledwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Diet
Disease Management
Female
Health Behavior
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of food insecurity in households with a child with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (DM), investigate whether food insecurity is associated with poorer DM control, and describe the household characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families with a child with DM.
Telephone interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting families over a 16-month period. Food insecurity was assessed through a validated questionnaire; additional questions elicited demographic information and DM management strategies. Charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.
A total of 183 families were interviewed. Food insecurity was present in 21.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.87%-27.85%), significantly higher than the overall prevalences in Nova Scotia (14.6%) and Canada (9.2%). Food insecurity was associated with higher HbA1c level; however, in multivariate analysis, only child's age and parents' education were independent predictors of HbA1c. Children from food-insecure families had higher rates of hospitalization, for which food security status was the only independent predictor. Common characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families were identified.
Food insecurity was more common in families with a child with DM, and the presence of food insecurity was predictive of the child's hospitalization. Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM.
PubMed ID
21126743 View in PubMed
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People do not eat n-3 fatty acids, they eat meals

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256651
Source
Pages 329-330 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
traditional food pattern is composed of many nutrients with specific effects on cardiovascular health and diabetes. Food patterns are also associated with many non-dietary risk factors. Design: In a cross sectional design, we studied diet and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes among 2247
  1 document  
Author
Bjerregaard P
Jeppesen C
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark and Department of Family and Health, Greenland Government
Source
Pages 329-330 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Diet
Eat
Fatty acids
Cardiovascular disease
N-3 fatty acids
Diabetes
Health
Greenland
Inuit
Food
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Determinants of change in fat consumption patterns in Nain, Newfoundland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256652
Source
Page 330 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
and possible to ensure food security for future generations. To build this tool, in July 2008, g focus groups were conducted with participants 14-70 years of age (23 women, 26 men). 78o/o participated in harvesting activities. Preliminary results indicate that participants have noticed changes in
  1 document  
Author
Bernier S
Furgal C
Winters K
Dewailly E
The Nunatsiavut Government
Author Affiliation
Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments
Source
Page 330 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Diet
Inuit
Food
Fat consumption
Canada
Newfoundland
Nutrition
Health
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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The assessment of bone mineral density, calcium, and vitamin D intake and exposure in British Antarctic Survey personnel

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256653
Source
Pages 330-331 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
bone mineralization, adequate amounts of vitamin D, calcium and exercise are required. Although vitamin D can be found in food products such as oily fish, the primary source of our intake is from sun exposure (photoactivation). It is estimated that worldwide a billion people are vitamin D deficient
  1 document  
Author
Boon D
Grant I
Gawn L
Cross S/
Knapp K
Vivian G
Moniz C
Rees G
Marquis P
Author Affiliation
The British Antarctic Survey & SCAR Expert Group
Source
Pages 330-331 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Antarctica
Bone Mineral Density
Calcium
Vitamin D
Sun exposure
Exercise
UVB radiation
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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An assessment of dietary intake in an Inuvialuit population to highlight foods for a nutritional intervention program to improve dietary intake: Results from health foods north

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256654
Source
Page 331 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
AN ASSESSMENT OF DIETARY INTAKE IN AN INUVIALUIT POPULATION TO HIGHLIGHT FOODS FOR A NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION PROGRAM TO IMPROVE DIETARY INTAKE, RES UL TS FROM HEAL TH FOODS NORTH 5. Sharma, E. De Roose, X. Cao, J. Gittelsohn, A. Corriveau University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  1 document  
Author
Shama S
DeRoose E
Cao X
Gittelsohn J
Corriveau A
Author Affiliation
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC
Source
Page 331 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Dietary intake
Food
Nutrition
Inuvialuit
Adults
Canada
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Food and nutrient intake of Inuit adults and the development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to evaluate a nutritional and lifestyle intervention program aimed at improving dietary intake and health: Results from Healthy Foods North

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256655
Source
Pages 331-332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
FOOD AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF INUIT ADULTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO EVALUATE A NUTRITIONAL AND LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING DIETARY INTAKE AND HEAL TH, RES UL TS FROM HEAL THY FOODS NORTH 5. Sharma, X. Cao, C. Roache, R. Reid, J
  1 document  
Author
Sharma S
Cao X
Roache C
Reid R
Gittelsohn J
Author Affiliation
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC
Source
Pages 331-332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Inuit
Canada
Energy
Vitamins
Nutrition
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Quality aspects of the Inuit diet in Greenland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256656
Source
Page 332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
: Data are from a cross-sectional study among Inuit >18 years in west Greenland. Data were collected by food frequency questionnaire and interviews. In the analyses we included men and women with a daily consumption of 3350-17 ooo kJ and 2100-15 ooo kJ, respectively. Eligible individuals totalled 2034
  1 document  
Author
Jeppesen C
Bjerregaard P
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Research in Greenland Directorate of Health and National Institute of Public Health
Source
Page 332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Diet
Greenland
Inuit
DQS
Dietary quality score
Men
Women
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Influence of casual wear and everyday diet on health of the Inuit diet in Greenland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256657
Source
Pages 332-333 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
  1 document  
Author
Dekabrina V
Author Affiliation
Institute of Humanities and North Indigenous Peoples SB RAS
Source
Pages 332-333 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Clothing
Diet
Indigenous
Health
Students
Autotherapy
Synthetic clothing
Winter
Poverty
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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Bill C-51: Proposed federal regulation of traditional medicine

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257055
Source
Pages 394-404 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
2010
knowledge for health and security and 50% rely on Indigenous knowledge for crops and food (Dei, Hall & Rosenburg, 2000). The United Nations Sub -commission on Prevention of Discrimina- tion and Protection of Minorities reports (7) that the annual market va lue of pharmaceutica l prod - ucts derived
  1 document  
Author
Orr P
Author Affiliation
Independent Legislative Counsel, Ontario, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada
Source
Pages 394-404 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Aboriginal
Bill C-51
Canadian Food and Drugs Act
Medicine
Traditional medicine
Parliament
Abstract
Bill C-51 was introduced in Parliament in 2008. The Bill included changes to the Canadian Food and Drugs Act that some argue would have a significant effect on the delivery of traditional medicine by Aboriginal healers in Canada. Although the Bill has "died on the order paper," it is likely to be reintroduced by the current government in substantially the same form. The paper identifies the elements of the proposed changes in the federal government's legislative policy towards the practice of traditional medicine, as contained in the proposed legislation, discusses their possible effects on the practice of traditional medicine and assesses the potential ramifications on the rights of Aboriginal persons to practice traditional medicine.
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Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257212
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Bogdan Cristescu
Gordon B Stenhouse
Mark S Boyce
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Choice Behavior
Ecosystem
Female
Food chain
Humans
Male
Ursidae
Abstract
On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e2790522194798
Cites: Oecologia. 2009 Mar;159(3):669-7819089457
Cites: Q Rev Biol. 1995 Jun;70(2):165-917610234
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 22;272(1581):2627-3416321785
Cites: Ecology. 2011 Feb;92(2):398-40721618919
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2008 Apr;23(4):194-20118308423
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e3169922363710
Cites: PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e1195420694139
Cites: Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-6721298447
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Aug;22(8):394-40017590476
PubMed ID
24367549 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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Preliminary report on Air Force - Eskimo contacts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298725
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Ladd Air Force Base. Technical note TN-56-14. 13 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
December 1956
ve thBID !!.. gt'e~ter e~nF!l'1 o f' security ;ln r o ] a t l.on ahip to :I t. Upon entering a village , one should also contact the local trader and make known the purpose of the visi t. Often, a t rader9 who has been a long- time resident of a village, has good i nsight into local conditions
  1 document  
Author
Oswalt, W.H.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Ladd Air Force Base. Technical note TN-56-14. 13 p.
Date
December 1956
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1118806
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Military Personnel
Indians of North America
Working relationships
Abstract
This report concerns the techniques for establishing successful working relationships between Armed Forces personnel and the Eskimos of isolated villages in western Alaska. The assumption is that the Armed Forces require satisfactory face-to-face relationships with Eskimos, and that the Armed Forces desire to minimize any disorganizing effects that their presence may have in a village.
This paper is restricted in applicability to those western Eskimos speaking the southern, or Yupik, dialect, These people live along the Bering Sea coast of Alaska, from the Alaska Peninsula northward to Seward Peninsula, and inland to the village of Holy Cross on the Yukon River, and the village of Napamute on the Kuskokwim River. While the generalities, in some instances, may have wider application, they all have the greatest factual probability in the region outlined above.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.56-14
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