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Climate change promotes the emergence of serious disease outbreaks of filarioid nematodes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97203
Source
Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):7-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Sauli Laaksonen
Jyrki Pusenius
Jouko Kumpula
Ari Venäläinen
Raine Kortet
Antti Oksanen
Eric Hoberg
Author Affiliation
Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira (FINPAR), P.O. Box 517, FI-90101, Oulu, Finland, sauli.laaksonen@evira.fi.
Source
Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):7-13
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Filarioid parasites represent major health hazards with important medical, veterinary, and economic implications, and considerable potential to affect the everyday lives of tens of millions of people globally (World Health Organization, 2007). Scenarios for climate change vary latitudinally and regionally and involve direct and indirect linkages for increasing temperature and the dissemination, amplification, and invasiveness of vector-borne parasites. High latitude regions are especially influenced by global climate change and thus may be prone to altered associations and dynamics for complex host-pathogen assemblages and emergence of disease with cascading effects on ecosystem structure. Although the potential for substantial ecological perturbation has been identified, few empirical observations have emanated from systems across the Holarctic. Coincidental with decades of warming, and anomalies of high temperature and humidity in the sub-Arctic region of Fennoscandia, the mosquito-borne filarioid nematode Setaria tundra is now associated with emerging epidemic disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality for reindeer and moose. We describe a host-parasite system that involves reindeer, arthropods, and nematodes, which may contribute as a factor to ongoing declines documented for this ungulate species across northern ecosystems. We demonstrate that mean summer temperatures exceeding 14 degrees C drive the emergence of disease due to S. tundra. An association between climate and emergence of filarioid parasites is a challenge to ecosystem services with direct effects on public health, sustainability of free-ranging and domestic ungulates, and ultimately food security for subsistence cultures at high latitudes.
PubMed ID
20422252 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of food insecurity in a Greenlandic community and the importance of social, economic and environmental stressors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143145
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Christina Goldhar
James D Ford
Lea Berrang-Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Memorial University St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. christina.goldhar@mun.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diet
Environment
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Characterize and examine the prevalence of food insecurity in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, and identify stressors affecting the food system.
A mixed-methods study using quantitative food security surveys and semi-structured interviews.
Food security surveys (n=61) were conducted with a random sample of 6% of Qeqertarsuaq's population. Semi-structured interviews (n=75) allowed participants to describe in their own words their experience of food insecurity and permitted in-depth examination of determinants. Key informant interviews were used to provide context to local perspectives.
Prevalence of food insecurity (8%) is low. However, interviews reveal a more nuanced picture, with women, adults aged 55+, and non-hunters reporting constrained access to Greenlandic foods. Barriers restricting traditional food access include changing sea ice conditions, reduced availability of some species, high costs of hunting and purchasing food, tightening food sharing networks, and hunting and fishing regulations.
While the Qeqertarsuaq food system is relatively secure, the research highlights susceptibility to social, economic and environmental stressors which may become more prevalent in the future.
PubMed ID
20519090 View in PubMed
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Source
Tidsskr Sykepl. 1997 Apr 22;85(7):19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-22-1997
Author
E. Gjelsvik
Source
Tidsskr Sykepl. 1997 Apr 22;85(7):19
Date
Apr-22-1997
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Norway
Poverty
Social Security
PubMed ID
9464130 View in PubMed
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Growth measures among preschool-age Inuit children living in Canada and Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119375
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Dec;40(8):712-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Tracey Galloway
Birgit V L Niclasen
Gina Muckle
Kue Young
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. tracey.galloway@ad.umanitoba.ca
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Dec;40(8):712-7
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Height - ethnology
Body Weight - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Growth Disorders - ethnology
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Obesity - ethnology
Prevalence
Abstract
The present study reports findings from a study of preschool-age Inuit children living in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland.
We compare stature and obesity measures using cutoffs from the Centers for Disease Control and the International Obesity Task Force references. The sample is comprised of 1121 Inuit children (554 boys and 567 girls) aged 3-5 years living in Nunavut (n=376) and Nunavik (n=87), Canada, in the capital city of Nuuk, Greenland (n=86), and in Greenland's remaining towns and villages (n=572).
Greenland Inuit children were significantly taller than their Canadian counterparts, with greatest height and weight observed among children from Nuuk. Overall prevalence of stunting was low with the three cutoffs yielding similar values for height-for-age z-scores. Obesity prevalence was higher among Canadian Inuit children than their Greenland counterparts.
Inuit children have stature values consistent with those of the Centers for Disease Control reference and low prevalence of stunting, though geographic variability in mean stature values between Canadian and Greenlandic samples likely reflects differences in both socioeconomic status and genetic admixture. Obesity prevalence is high among both Canadian and Greenland Inuit preschoolers, with children living in the city of Nuuk exhibiting lower obesity prevalence than children living in either Nunavut or Nunavik, Canada or Greenland's towns and villages. Varying obesity prevalence may reflect varying degrees of food security in remote locations as well as the influence of stature and sitting height which have not been well studied in young Inuit children.
PubMed ID
23108476 View in PubMed
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The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123211
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:464
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
James Ford
Marie-Pierre Lardeau
Will Vanderbilt
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. james.ford@mcgill.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:464
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Educational Status
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Assistance - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nunavut - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience.
Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n?=?94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1?month period, along with key informant interviews.
Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis.
The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22720722 View in PubMed
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Ræstur fiskur: air-dried fermented fish the Faroese way.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267479
Source
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11(1):76
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Ingvar Svanberg
Source
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015;11(1):76
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Fish has played an important role in the diet of the population of the mid-Atlantic Faroe Islands. Dried and fermented fish in particular have been an essential storable protein source in an economy where weather conditions and seasonal fluctuations affect the availability of food. For generations the islanders have prepared ræstur fiskur, a home-made air-dried and fermented fish dish made of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) or saithe (Pollachius virens (L.)). Fermenting the fish is an efficient and valuable cultural strategy for preserving fish.
This ethnobiological study investigates the historical and present use of fermented fish in Faroese cuisine and examines its preservation as an everyday food that Faroese men pride themselves on making in high quality. This study is based on field notes collected through interviews and observations on the Faroe Islands since the mid-1990s.
Processed fish could be stored for a long period of time; this was important in an economy where weather conditions and seasonal fluctuations affect food availability dramatically. For this reason, home-made air-dried fish has been central to the food security of the Faroese people. Usually consumed with tallow from sheep, the dish was once appreciated customarily on Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve, but has been largely replaced by Danish dishes. However, it has survived as everyday food until today.
The presence of small-scale fishing, changing economic conditions, socially acquired taste-preferences, and the importance of old-fashioned dishes as key symbols of cultural identity, all contribute to the survival of ræstur fiskur in Faroese food culture. Today, the dish is not only an essential food source, but its consumption is also an important act of identification and solidarity with the national identity of the islanders.
Notes
Cites: J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 24;128(2):395-40420097282
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1859422789518
Cites: J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:7025277227
Cites: Int J Food Microbiol. 2000 Mar 10;54(1-2):81-910746577
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001 Mar;55(3):21511160178
Cites: Am Anthropol. 1999;101(2):244-5519280767
PubMed ID
26537479 View in PubMed
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Associations between household food insecurity and health outcomes in the Aboriginal population (excluding reserves).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132094
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Noreen Willows
Paul Veugelers
Kim Raine
Stefan Kuhle
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2T4. willows@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Nutrition Surveys
Quality of Life
Smoking - ethnology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal people are more vulnerable to food insecurity and morbidity than is the Canadian population overall. However, little information is available about the association between food insecurity and health in Aboriginal households.
Data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to examine the relationships between household food security and self-reported health, well-being and health behaviours in a sample of 837 Aboriginal adults living off reserve. Household food security status was based on Health Canada's interpretation of the United States Household Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders.
An estimated 29% of Aboriginal people aged 18 or older lived in food-insecure households. They were more likely to report poor general and mental health, life dissatisfaction, a very weak sense of community belonging, high stress and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts in food-secure households. When age, gender and household education were taken into account, respondents from food-insecure households had significantly higher odds of poor general health, high stress, life dissatisfaction, and a very weak community belonging.
Reductions in household food insecurity may improve the health and well-being of Aboriginals living off-reserve.
PubMed ID
21848128 View in PubMed
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Alaska suicide follow-back study final report: study period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87940
Source
Alaska Injury Prevention Center, Critical Illness and Trauma Foundation, Inc, and American Association of Suicidology. 43 p.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
how to conduct follow-back interviews with survivors of the decedents. All information was entered into a secure database. All efforts to protect confidentiality were in accordance with the Institutional Review Board requirements of the Alaska Native Medical Center, the University of Alaska
  1 document  
Author
Perkins, R
Sanddal, TL
Howell, M
Berman, L
Sanddal, ND
Source
Alaska Injury Prevention Center, Critical Illness and Trauma Foundation, Inc, and American Association of Suicidology. 43 p.
Date
2006
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
File Size
439119
Keywords
Age group
Alaska Natives
Alcohol/drug use
Ethnicity
Mechanism
Non-Natives
Regional differences
Suicide
Urban-rural differences
Indians of North America
Abstract
GOALS: There were two goals for the study: (1) to do an in-depth demographic analysis of the suicides in Alaska for three years from September 1, 2003 through August 31, 2006 and (2) to conduct interviews with key informants for as many suicide cases as possible. This report is divided into two sections, Section 1 addressing the epidemiological data and Section 2 addressing the data derived from the interviews.PURPOSE: The purpose of the data gathering, reporting, and analysis was to better understand the etiology and antecedents of suicide among Alaskans, in order to identify potential points ofintervention and strategies to reduce the rate of suicide.METHODS: Death certificates attributed to suicides occurring in Alaska between September 1, 2003, and August 31, 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. Information from the Alaska StateMedical Examiner, State Troopers, and other law enforcement agencies was collated and reviewed for each suicide death. A cadre of Native and non-Native interviewers was trained in how to use the interview protocol and how to conduct follow-back interviewswith survivors of the decedents. All information was entered into a secure database. All efforts to protect confidentiality were in accordance with the Institutional Review Board requirements of the Alaska Native Medical Center, the University of Alaska Anchorage,and the National Institutes of Health (Certificate of Confidentiality).RESULTS: There were 426 suicides during the 36 month study period. The average annual suicide rate for the three year study period was 21.4/100,000 (U.S. Census, 2005 estimated population). Males out-numbered females 4 to 1. The age-group of 20 to 29 had both the greatest number of suicides and the highest rate per 100,000 population. Alaska Natives had a significantly higher average rate of suicide than the non-Native population (51.4/100,000 compared to 16.9/100,000). The leading mechanism of death was firearms, accounting for 63% of the suicides. The use of handguns was more prevalent in the non-Native population whereas long guns were used more often by Alaska Natives. The EMS region with the greatest number of Native suicides was Region 4, which includes Bethel and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Region 2, which includes the Northwest Arctic census area had the highest overall rate of suicide deaths. Follow-back interviews wereconducted with 71 informants for 56 of the suicide decedents. Reported alcohol/drug use was the same for Urban as for Rural Native decedents. The same alcohol/drug use pattern was seen for Urban and for Rural non-Native decedents. Toxicology results werereceived for 33% of all the suicide cases. Alcohol was found in 44% of the toxicology tests and THC (marijuana) was found in 15%.CONCLUSION: This study adds volumes of information to our existing knowledge of suicide in Alaska. More in-depth studies are already in progress, which will continue to add to our knowledgebase while bringing in additional resources for prevention and treatment. The report also highlights the need for better death data collection, to quantify alcohol and drug involvement and other contributing factors.
Notes
The Alaska Suicide Follow Back Study was prepared for the Statewide Suicide Prevention Council and was substantially funded through the Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority and the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services.
Documents

Alaska-suicide-follow-back-study.pdf

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Food security: what the community wants. Learning through focus groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216722
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1994;55(4):188-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
D. Hargrove
J A Dewolfe
L. Thompson
Author Affiliation
Kingston, Frontenac and Lennox and Addington Health Unit, Ontario.
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1994;55(4):188-91
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Planning - methods
Educational Status
Focus Groups
Food Services - organization & administration
Humans
Income
Interviews as Topic
Mental health
Ontario
Public Health Administration
Self Concept
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.
PubMed ID
10139320 View in PubMed
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Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165658
Source
J Vet Med Educ. 2006;33(4):517-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
J. Bruce Prince
David M Andrus
Kevin Gwinner
Author Affiliation
College of Business Administration, Kansas State University, Calvin 101, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. jbprince@ksu.edu
Source
J Vet Med Educ. 2006;33(4):517-24
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Bioterrorism - prevention & control
Canada
Career Choice
Consumer Product Safety
Delphi Technique
Education, Veterinary - manpower - trends
Food Supply
Forecasting
Humans
Schools, Veterinary - manpower - trends
United States
Veterinary Medicine - manpower - trends
Abstract
The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.
PubMed ID
17220489 View in PubMed
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Exploring food security with collective kitchens participants in three Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166067
Source
Qual Health Res. 2007 Jan;17(1):75-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Rachel Engler-Stringer
Shawna Berenbaum
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada.
Source
Qual Health Res. 2007 Jan;17(1):75-84
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cooking - standards
Diet - standards
Female
Food Services - organization & administration
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Poverty
Residence Characteristics
Social Welfare
Abstract
Collective kitchens are small groups of people who pool their resources to cook large quantities of food. With the help of semi-participant observation and in-depth individual interviews, this study is an exploration of participants' perceptions of changes in food security since becoming involved in a collective kitchen. Several important themes emerged, including Increased Variety, Making Ends Meet, and Comparisons to Food Banks. Participants in groups that cooked large quantities of food (upwards of five meals monthly) reported some increases in their food resources. Participants also reported increased dignity associated with not having to access charitable resources to feed their families. Some participants reported decreased psychological distress associated with food insecurity. Overall, participants reported increases in food security; however, collective kitchens are not a long-term solution to the income-related food insecurity experienced by many Canadian families.
PubMed ID
17170245 View in PubMed
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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:3-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
health aspects and without adequate research and appropriate research funding, the problems will overwhelm the opportunities. Food security is a central concern � and an important example. Food security requires that all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient
  1 document  
Author
Birgitta Evengard
Anthony McMichael
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:3-5
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
192216
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Ecosystem
Global warming
Health status
Humans
Ice
Transition Temperature
Vulnerable Populations
Notes
Cites: J Intern Med. 2011 Nov;270(5):401-1321682780
Cites: Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1158-6219407799
PubMed ID
22121341 View in PubMed
Documents

Evengard-Vulnerable_populations.pdf

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Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129632
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:48-58.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. Results: The total number of environmental
  1 document  
Author
Charlotta Rylander
Jon Ø Odland
Torkjel M Sandanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:48-58.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
813640
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenhouse Effect
Housing
Humans
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Welfare
Pregnancy
Abstract
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants.
Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas.
The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to Mercury because of increased emissions and increased biological availability.
A number of environmental stressors are predicted to increase with climate change and increasingly affecting human health. Efforts should be put on reducing risk for the next generation, thus global politics and research effort should focus on maternal and newborn health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22084626 View in PubMed
Documents

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Food perceptions and concerns of aboriginal women coping with gestational diabetes in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129705
Source
J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011 Nov-Dec;43(6):482-91
Publication Type
Article
Author
Hannah Tait Neufeld
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. umneuf30@cc.umanitoba.ca
Source
J Nutr Educ Behav. 2011 Nov-Dec;43(6):482-91
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes, Gestational - epidemiology - ethnology - psychology
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Interviews as Topic
Manitoba - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
To describe how Aboriginal women in an urban setting perceive dietary treatment recommendations associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Semi-structured explanatory model interviews explored Aboriginal women's illness experiences with GDM.
Twenty-nine self-declared Aboriginal women who had received a diagnosis of GDM within the last 5 years in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Factors influencing Aboriginal women's prenatal food perceptions with GDM.
Thematic analysis was used through coding linkages and matrix queries to assist in identifying and categorizing patterns or relationships.
Participants associated fear, anxiety, and frustration with GDM. Emotional reactions appeared alongside negative relationships with food and other prescribed lifestyle treatments. Collectively, these results suggested that the experience of living with GDM can be overwhelming, as suggested by some of the complex factors influencing women's perceptions and reported behaviors. Discussions indicated many felt socially isolated and had a poor self-image and sense of failure resulting from ineffective GDM management practices.
Future efforts should focus on self-efficacy and security in Aboriginal women's own interpretation of GDM, providing them with the understanding that there is potential for prevention and change.
PubMed ID
22078771 View in PubMed
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Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117569
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:1
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Mandana Vahabi
Cynthia Damba
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Community Services-Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada. mvahabi@ryerson.ca
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:1
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Female
Food Supply
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food.
A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique.
Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants' ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources.
The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness.
Notes
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Cites: Can J Public Health. 2002 Nov-Dec;93(6):411-512448861
PubMed ID
23286318 View in PubMed
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Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: nutrition intervention in the care of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178515
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Sep;104(9):1425-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Cade Fields-Gardner
Pamela Fergusson
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Sep;104(9):1425-41
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - therapy
Canada
Dietetics
Female
HIV Infections - complications - therapy
Humans
Male
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Disorders - etiology - prevention & control
Nutrition Therapy
Nutritional Sciences - education
Nutritional Status
Societies
United States
Abstract
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have had a significant impact on domestic and global health, social, political, and economic outcomes. Prevention and treatment efforts to control HIV infection are more demanding than in previous decades. Achieving food and nutrition security, and managing nutrition-related complications of HIV infection and the multiple aspects of disease initiated by or surrounding HIV infection, referred to as HIV disease, remain challenges for patients and for those involved with HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment efforts. Confounding clinical issues include medication interactions, coinfection with other infections and diseases, wasting, lipodystrophy, and others. Dietetics professionals, other health care professionals, and people infected with HIV will need to understand and address multiple complex aspects of HIV infection and treatment to improve survival, body functions, and overall quality of life. Individualized nutrition care plans will be an essential feature of the medical management of persons with HIV infection and AIDS.
PubMed ID
15354161 View in PubMed
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Determinants of healthy eating among low-income Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173664
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jul-Aug;96 Suppl 3:S37-42, S42-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Elaine M Power
Author Affiliation
Health Studies Program, School of Physical and Health Education, Queen's University, Kingston, ON. power@post.queensu.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2005 Jul-Aug;96 Suppl 3:S37-42, S42-8
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Child
Food Habits - psychology
Humans
Poverty
Public Health
Social Class
Abstract
This paper draws on four bodies of literature to consider the determinants of healthy eating for low-income Canadians: a) the social determinants of health; b) socio-economic gradients in diet; c) food security; and d) the sociology of food. Though there is a paucity of data for Canada, it is very likely that, as in other industrialized countries, there are socio-economic gradients in diet such that those who are better off consume healthier diets than those less well-to-do. The available evidence suggests that income affects food intake both directly and indirectly through the dispositions associated with particular social class locations. Thus, there may be both economic and cultural thresholds for some food groups or particular foods in food groups. Understanding these thresholds is especially important in addressing the issues facing those who are the most vulnerable among Canadians with low incomes: the food insecure. The literature reviewed suggests that improved nutrition for low-income Canadians may be difficult to achieve a) in isolation from other changes to improve their lives; b) without improvement in the nutrition of the general population of Canadians; and c) without some combination of these two changes. Four major areas of research need were identified: a) national data on socio-economic gradients in diet; b) sociological research on the interaction of income and class with other factors affecting food practices; c) sociological research on Canadian food norms and cultures; and d) research on the costs of healthy eating.
PubMed ID
16042163 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122663
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18592
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
of safe intakes and exposure reduction measures; and the promotion of improved food security policies in the Russian Arctic, including practical advice for native peoples. Material and methods Levels and distribution patterns of PTSs in selected food samples collected during 2001�2003, as well
  1 document  
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St-Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18592
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
4941326
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Male
Metals - isolation & purification
Organic Chemicals - isolation & purification
Population Groups
Risk Reduction Behavior
Russia
Abstract
The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction.
A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures.
Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food.
POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions.
Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007.
Notes
Cites: J Environ Monit. 2003 Aug;5(4):689-9612948250
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jun 1;230(1-3):1-8210466227
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2009 Sep 15;407(19):5216-2219608216
Cites: J Environ Monit. 2007 Aug;9(8):884-9317671671
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63 Suppl 2:179-8215736647
PubMed ID
22789517 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203007
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
A M Hamelin
J P Habicht
M. Beaudry
Author Affiliation
Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Family
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Social Alienation
Social Values
Stress, Psychological
Urban Population
Abstract
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.
PubMed ID
10064323 View in PubMed
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