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Food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145862
Source
CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):243-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-23-2010
Author
Grace M Egeland
Angela Pacey
Zirong Cao
Isaac Sobol
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, St-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec. grace.egeland@mcgill.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):243-8
Date
Feb-23-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Deprivation
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Nutritional Status
Public Health
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Food security (i.e., a condition in which all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life) has been noted to be lower in indigenous communities in Canada. We investigated the prevalence of inadequate food security, or food insecurity, among Inuit households with preschool children.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the health status of 388 randomly selected Inuit children aged three to five years in 16 Nunavut communities during the period from 2007 to 2008. From the survey data, we classified levels of food insecurity specifically among children. We also classified levels of overall food insecurity of the household of each child. We calculated the weighted prevalence of levels of child food insecurity and of household food insecurity.
Nearly 70% of Inuit preschoolers resided in households rated as food insecure (69.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 64.7%-74.6%). Overall, 31.0% of children were moderately food insecure, and 25.1% were severely food insecure, with a weighted prevalence of child food insecurity of 56.1% (95% CI 51.0%-61.3%). Primary care-givers in households in which children were severely food insecure reported experiencing times in the past year when their children skipped meals (75.8%), went hungry (90.4%) or did not eat for a whole day (60.1%). Primary caregivers in households in which children were moderately food insecure reported experiencing times in the past year when they worried food would run out (85.1%), when they fed their children less expensive food (95.1%) and when their children did not eat enough because there was no money for food (64.3%).
We observed a high prevalence of household food insecurity, with a substantial proportion of children with severely food insecure status. Interventions are needed to ensure a healthy start in life for Inuit preschoolers.
Notes
Cites: CMAJ. 2003 Mar 18;168(6):686-9112642423
Cites: Pediatrics. 2008 Sep;122(3):e529-4018762488
Cites: Health Rep. 2001 Aug;12(4):11-2215069808
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2008 Mar-Apr;99(2):95-718457280
Cites: BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-310797032
Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Oct 17;163(8):961-511068567
Cites: Pediatrics. 2001 Jul;108(1):44-5311433053
Cites: J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):120-612514278
Cites: J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6):1447-5315173410
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2004 Nov-Dec;95(6):465-915622799
Cites: Health Rep. 2005 May;16(3):47-5115971515
Cites: J Nutr. 2005 Dec;135(12):2831-916317128
Cites: Pediatrics. 2006 Feb;117(2):464-7316452367
Cites: Pediatrics. 2006 Nov;118(5):e1406-1317079542
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-3117319086
Cites: J Nutr. 2007 Apr;137(4):1110-417374689
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Sep;66(4):308-1918018844
Comment In: CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):228-920100847
Comment In: CMAJ. 2010 Apr 6;182(6):59220368294
PubMed ID
20100848 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of a collective kitchens program: using the Population Health Promotion Model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179482
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):72-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Tara J Fano
Sheila M Tyminski
Mary A T Flynn
Author Affiliation
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Nutrition and Active Living, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):72-80
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alberta
Attitude of Health Personnel
Child
Consumer Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Food Services - organization & administration - utilization
Health Promotion - organization & administration - utilization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motivation
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Social Facilitation
Social Support
Abstract
To evaluate the impact of the Calgary Health Region Collective Kitchen Program on various Population Health Promotion Model health determinants, data were collected through mail-in questionnaires that examined the members' (n=331) and coordinators' (n=58) perspectives of the program. Seventy-nine members (24%) and 26 coordinators (45%) were included in the study. Three incomplete questionnaires (from prenatal program members) were discarded. Sixty-one percent of members who reported income level and family size (n=61) had incomes below the low-income cut-off. Fifty-eight members (73%) reported improvements in their lives because of the program. Sixty-four members (81%) perceived they learned to feed their families healthier foods. The members reported their fruit and vegetable consumption before and since joining a collective kitchen, and the proportion of those consuming at least five fruit and vegetable servings a day rose from 29% to 47%. The most common reasons for joining this program concerned social interactions and support. Over 90% of the coordinators perceived that they were competent to coordinate a kitchen. The results indicate that the collective kitchens program addresses several health determinants, and may increase members' capacity to attain food security and to achieve improved nutritional health.
PubMed ID
15217525 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Latin American recent immigrants in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141183
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Mandana Vahabi
Cynthia Damba
Cecilia Rocha
Elizabeth Cristina Montoya
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Community Services-Daphne Cockwell, School of Nursing, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3, Canada. mvahabi@ryerson.ca
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-39
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an increasing number of young immigrants, many of whom, despite relatively high education, are unemployed or have low wage positions. This study examines the extent of food insecurity and its correlates among recent Latin American (LA) immigrants in Toronto. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 70 adult LA recent immigrants. Participants were recruited from selected community health centres across Toronto using snow ball sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with primary household care givers. A considerably high rate of food insecurity (56%) was found among participants. Household food insecurity was highly related to: being on social assistance; limited proficiency in English; and the use of foodbanks. Our findings indicate that the primary correlate of a household's food security status is income, which suggests the potential for strategies to improve the financial power of new immigrants to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally acceptable food. Enhancing the employability of new immigrants, reforming the income structure for working adults beyond social assistance, and providing more subsidized English language and housing programs may be effective.
PubMed ID
20803253 View in PubMed
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A questionnaire to examine food service satisfaction of elderly residents in long-term care facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175652
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2004;24(2):5-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Christina O Lengyel
Joan T Smith
Susan J Whiting
Gordon A Zello
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA.
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2004;24(2):5-18
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Food Services - standards
Homes for the Aged
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient satisfaction
Personal Autonomy
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Saskatchewan
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a survey tool for assessing the satisfaction of elderly long-term care (LTC) residents with the meals and food services they receive, as well as to assess quality of life issues related to eating. Food service delivery should be provided in an environment that fosters autonomy, interpersonal relations, and security. The questionnaire was administered as face-to-face interviews with 205 residents (> or = 65 years of age) of 13 LTC facilities in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (participation rate = 67%). Residents expressed some concern with food variety, quality, taste, and appearance, and with the posting of menus. Quality of life issues were mostly positive; however, residents were less satisfied with areas related to their autonomy such as food choice and snack availability.
PubMed ID
15778154 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and severity of household food insecurity of First Nations people living in an on-reserve, sub-Arctic community within the Mushkegowuk Territory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259196
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):31-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Leonard J S Tsuji
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):31-9
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Ontario
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Vulnerable Populations - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To measure and describe the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity in a remote on-reserve First Nations community using the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) and to evaluate the perceived relevance of the HFSSM for this population.
Household food security status was determined from the eighteen-item HFSSM following the classifications developed by Health Canada for the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2 Nutrition. One adult from each household in the community was invited to complete the HFSSM and to comment on its relevance as a tool to measure food security for First Nations communities.
Sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada.
Households (n 64).
Seventy per cent of households were food insecure, 17% severely and 53% moderately. The prevalence of food insecurity in households with children was 76%. Among respondents from homes rated as having severe food insecurity, all (100 %) reported worrying that food would run out, times when food didn't last and there wasn't money to buy more, and times when they couldn't afford to eat balanced meals. The majority of respondents felt the HFSSM did not capture an accurate picture of food security for their situation. Aspects missing from the HFSSM included the high cost of market food and the incorporation of traditional food practices.
A high prevalence of household food insecurity was reported in this community. On-reserve remote First Nations communities may be more susceptible to food insecurity than off-reserve Aboriginal populations. Initiatives that promote food security for this vulnerable population are needed.
PubMed ID
23806766 View in PubMed
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The structure of a factory closure: individual responses to job-loss and unemployment in a 10-year controlled follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73805
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1301-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
S. Westin
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1301-11
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Aged
Employment
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Norway
Pensions
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retirement
Salaries and Fringe Benefits
Social Adjustment
Unemployment - psychology
Abstract
A prospective study has been conducted of 85 employees (72 women and 13 men) made redundant when a brisling sardine factory on the west coast of Norway was shut down in 1975. 87 employees (66 women and 21 men) in a 'sister factory' which was not shut down, were used as controls. Previous analyses have shown a substantial reduction in future employment of the study group, a two-fold increase in time consumed on sick leave during the first follow-up year, and a more than three-fold increase in the life-table based rates of disability pensions (invalidity) during the first four follow-up years compared to the controls. In this paper the follow-up data regarding six mutually exclusive and inclusive conditions related to employment and health have been analysed on a weeks per person per year basis, permitting the effects of job-loss over 10 years to be compared with what could have been expected had the factory not been closed. For those not subjected to old age pension or death, three kinds of long-term adaptation showed a marked differential effect among study subjects and controls: a substantial long-term reduction in mean time spent in job, an increase in consumption of time on disability pension, and an increase in time spent outside the labour force without social security coverage, the latter being mostly confined to women. These follow-up data provide a comprehensive picture of individual long-term adaptation to involuntary job-loss, emphasizing its effects on future employment, health, social readjustment and social security benefit consumption.
PubMed ID
2287959 View in PubMed
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Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131583
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):133-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Rachel Engler-Stringer
Bernadette Stringer
Ted Haines
Author Affiliation
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):133-6
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cooking
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Income
Interviews as Topic
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status.
This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients.
Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently.
Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.
PubMed ID
21896250 View in PubMed
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Community-based health research led by the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131709
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Sonia Wesche
Roseanne C Schuster
Pam Tobin
Cindy Dickson
Darcie Matthiessen
Shel Graupe
Megan Williams
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Community Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Health Services Research
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories
Questionnaires
Abstract
This paper documents an exceptional research partnership developed between the Vuntut Gwitchin Government (VGG) in Old Crow, Yukon, with a group of scientists to examine northern food security and health as part of a larger, multidisciplinary International Polar Year (IPY) research program. We focus on the elements that enabled a successful community-researcher relationship. Study design. The VGG led the development of the research and acted as Principal Investigator on the IPY grant. The multidisciplinary collaboration spanned the physical, biological and health sciences, including issues related to food security.
The food security and health component of this research was carried out using a series of complementary methods, including focus groups, structured interviews, a household questionnaire, an interactive workshop, community meetings, transcript analysis and a caribou flesh exposure assessment.
Results from the food security component are informing local and regional adaptation planning. The legacy of the research collaboration includes a number of results-based outputs for a range of stakeholders, a community-based environmental monitoring program, long-term research relationships and improved community capacity.
The type of collaboration described here provides a useful model for new types of participatory health research with northern communities.
PubMed ID
21884655 View in PubMed
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Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104271
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Helga Bjørnøy Urke
Zhirong R Cao
Grace M Egeland
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
PubMed ID
24864166 View in PubMed
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Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117569
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:1
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Mandana Vahabi
Cynthia Damba
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Community Services-Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada. mvahabi@ryerson.ca
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:1
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Female
Food Supply
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food.
A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique.
Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants' ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources.
The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness.
Notes
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2002 Jan;54(1):119-3211820676
Cites: Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005 Spring;66(1):43-617068874
Cites: J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):120-612514278
Cites: J Nutr. 2003 Apr;133(4):1070-412672921
Cites: Can J Diet Pract Res. 2003 Summer;64(2):51-712826026
Cites: Health Rep. 2001 Aug;12(4):11-2215069808
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2004 Jun;58(12):2645-5415081212
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2004 Sep;7(6):791-415369618
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2005 Nov;61(9):1971-8215927331
Cites: CMAJ. 2006 Mar 14;174(6):787-9116534085
Cites: J Nutr. 2006 Oct;136(10):2638-4416988139
Cites: Qual Health Res. 2007 Jan;17(1):75-8417170245
Cites: J Immigr Minor Health. 2007 Jul;9(3):157-6917245658
Cites: Can J Diet Pract Res. 2007 Summer;68(2):73-817553192
Cites: J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-1218287374
Cites: Qual Health Res. 2009 Mar;19(3):297-31119224874
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):184-819507719
Cites: J Immigr Health. 2005 Oct;7(4):259-6819813292
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-4820196916
Cites: J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-3920803253
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2002 Nov-Dec;93(6):411-512448861
PubMed ID
23286318 View in PubMed
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Food purchasing and food insecurity among low-income families in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140960
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71(3):e50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Naomi Dachner
Laurie Ricciuto
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71(3):e50-6
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Food - economics
Humans
Income
Nutritive Value
Ontario
Poverty - psychology
Questionnaires
Single-Parent Family
Abstract
Factors underlying food-purchasing decisions were examined among a sample of low-income Toronto families.
A cross-sectional survey was completed among 485 families residing in high-poverty Toronto neighbourhoods. Food-security status was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Open-ended questions were included to examine respondents' food selection and management practices and their purchasing decisions for six indicator foods. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between factors influencing food-purchasing decisions, perceived food adequacy, and severity of food insecurity.
Twenty-two percent of families had been severely food insecure in the past 30 days. Respondents engaged in thrifty food shopping practices, such as frequenting discount supermarkets and budgeting carefully. Price was the most salient factor influencing food-purchasing decisions; the likelihood that families would report this factor increased with deteriorating food security. Preference, quality, and health considerations also guided food-purchasing decisions, but generally to a lesser extent as food insecurity increased. Household food supplies reflected constraints on food purchasing, and they diminished with increasing food insecurity.
Despite their resourcefulness, low-income families struggle to feed their families. Dietitians have an important role to play as advocates for adequate income supports to promote food security and nutritional health.
PubMed ID
20825694 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203007
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
A M Hamelin
J P Habicht
M. Beaudry
Author Affiliation
Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Family
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Social Alienation
Social Values
Stress, Psychological
Urban Population
Abstract
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.
PubMed ID
10064323 View in PubMed
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Beverage consumption in low income, "milk-friendly" families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150389
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(2):95-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
N Theresa Glanville
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(2):95-8
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Beverages - economics - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Infant
Male
Mental Recall
Milk - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poverty
Questionnaires
Abstract
Beverage consumption by poor, lone mother-led, "milk-friendly" families living in Atlantic Canada was characterized over a one-month income cycle.
Beverage intake and food security status were assessed weekly, using a 24-hour dietary recall and the Cornell-Radimer food insecurity questionnaire. Families were classified as "milk friendly" if total consumption of milk was 720 mL on a single day during the month. Beverage intake was assessed using t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc comparisons, and chi-square analysis.
Milk consumption by milk-friendly families (76; total sample, 129) was highest at the time of the month when they had the most money to spend. During all time intervals, mothers consumed the least amount of milk and children aged one to three years consumed the most. Mothers consumed carbonated beverages disproportionately, while children of all ages consumed more fruit juice/drink. Mothers' coffee consumption was profoundly increased when either they or their children were hungry.
The quality of beverage intake by members of low-income households fluctuates in accordance with financial resources available to purchase foods. Mothers' beverage intake is compromised by the degree of food insecurity the family experiences.
PubMed ID
19515273 View in PubMed
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How do people attribute income-related inequalities in health? A cross-sectional study in Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256372
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85286
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Aisha Lofters
Morgan Slater
Maritt Kirst
Ketan Shankardass
Carlos Quiñonez
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Inner City Health, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; St. Michael's Department of Family & Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85286
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Health Care Surveys - economics
Healthcare Disparities - economics
Humans
Income
Logistic Models
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Abstract
Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities.
We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities.
There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%).
A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity-focused public policy, and knowledge translation strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24454835 View in PubMed
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Perception of needs and responses in food security: divergence between households and stakeholders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155395
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2008 Dec;11(12):1389-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Anne-Marie Hamelin
Céline Mercier
Annie Bédard
Author Affiliation
Department of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Pavillon Paul-Comtois, Université Laval, 2425 rue de l'Agriculture, Québec City, Canada G1V 0A6. anne-marie.hamelin@aln.ulaval.ca
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2008 Dec;11(12):1389-96
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Educational Status
Family Characteristics
Female
Food - standards
Food Supply - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Needs Assessment
Perception
Poverty
Public Assistance
Quebec
Questionnaires
Social Class
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the study was (i) to describe the needs of food-insecure households and their assessment of community programmes, as expressed by households and perceived by stakeholders; and (ii) to examine the similarities and differences between households' and stakeholders' perceptions in Quebec City area.
A semi-structured interview and sociodemographic questionnaire with fifty-five households and fifty-nine stakeholders (community workers, managers, donor agencies). The transcriptions were subjected to content analysis and inter-coder reliability measurement.
The respondents' perceptions converge towards three main categories of needs: needs specific to food security, conditions necessary for achieving food security and related needs. There was agreement on the necessity of better financial resources, although the impact of financial resources alone may be uncertain in the opinion of some stakeholders. Different perceptions of needs and of their fulfilment by community programmes emerge between both groups. Despite households found positive aspects, they complained that quality of food and access were major needs neglected. Their account suggests overall a partial fit between the programmes and food security needs; even a combination of programmes (e.g. collective kitchens, purchasing groups, community gardens) was insufficient to adequately meet these needs. In contrast, most stakeholders perceived that the household's primary need was a basic amount of food and that the households were satisfied with programmes.
It is urgent to evaluate the overall effect of community programmes on specific aspects of household food insecurity. The results emphasise that community programmes alone cannot bring about social change needed to prevent food insecurity.
PubMed ID
18761760 View in PubMed
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The assessment of food security in homeless individuals: a comparison of the Food Security Survey Module and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133107
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2254-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Anna C Holland
Matthew C Kennedy
Stephen W Hwang
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8, Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2254-9
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Guidelines as Topic
Homeless Persons
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Software
United States
Abstract
To compare the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the US Food Security Survey Module (US FSSM) and a modified version of the US FSSM in which references to buying food were changed to references to getting food, in terms of their classification of food security levels among homeless individuals, and to determine which of these instruments was most preferred by homeless individuals.
A cross-sectional survey.
Recruitment of participants took place at seven shelters and from three drop-in programmes that serve homeless individuals in Toronto, Canada.
Fifty individuals who were =18 years of age, able to communicate in English and currently homeless.
The modified US FSSM assigned 20% of participants to a lower ordinal food security category compared with the US FSSM, and only 8% to a higher food security category. The HFIAS assigned 30% of participants to a lower food security category compared with either the US FSSM or the modified US FSSM, and only 10-16% of participants to a higher food security category. When asked to compare all three instruments, the majority of respondents (62%) selected the HFIAS as the best instrument for people who are homeless.
A majority of homeless individuals selected the HFIAS as the best food security instrument for people who are homeless. Our findings suggest that the HFIAS is a more appropriate instrument than the US FSSM for measuring food security in the homeless population.
PubMed ID
21740619 View in PubMed
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Dietary intake of vitamin D in a northern Canadian Dené First Nation community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107734
Source
Pages 766-773 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):766-773
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
northern Aboriginal populations. Keywords: vitamin D; First Nations; indigenous; Aboriginal; diet; nutrition; food security CQ\C-~ION F ood insecurity, defined as insufficient physical and/ or economic access to adequate quantities of safe and nutritious food required to maintain health, is a
  1 document  
Author
Joyce Slater
Linda Larcombe
Chris Green
Caroline Slivinski
Matthew Singer
Lizette Denechezhe
Chris Whaley
Peter Nickerson
Pamela Orr
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Nutritional Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
Source
Pages 766-773 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):766-773
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Diet Surveys
Female
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Seasons
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
Increased awareness of the wide spectrum of activity of vitamin D has focused interest on its role in the health of Canada's Aboriginal peoples, who bear a high burden of both infectious and chronic disease. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis is limited at northern latitudes, and the transition from nutrient-dense traditional to nutrient-poor market foods has left many Canadian Aboriginal populations food insecure and nutritionally vulnerable.
The study was undertaken to determine the level of dietary vitamin D in a northern Canadian Aboriginal (Dené) community and to determine the primary food sources of vitamin D.
Cross-sectional study.
Dietary vitamin D intakes of 46 adult Dené men and women were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and compared across age, gender, season and body mass index. The adequacy of dietary vitamin D intake was assessed using the 2007 Adequate Intake (AI) and the 2011 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).
Mean daily vitamin D intake was 271.4 IU in winter and 298.3 IU in summer. Forty percent and 47.8% of participants met the vitamin D 1997 AI values in winter and summer, respectively; this dropped to 11.1 and 13.0% in winter and summer using 2011 RDA values. Supplements, milk, and local fish were positively associated with adequate vitamin D intake. Milk and local fish were the major dietary sources of vitamin D.
Dietary intake of vitamin D in the study population was low. Only 2 food sources, fluid milk and fish, provided the majority of dietary vitamin D. Addressing low vitamin D intake in this population requires action aimed at food insecurity present in northern Aboriginal populations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984265 View in PubMed
Documents
Less detail

Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107704
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
49. Paci CJ, Dickson C, Nickels S, Chan L, Furgal C, editors. Food Security of Northern Indigenous Peoples in a Time of Uncertainty 3rd Northern Research Forum Open Meeting, Yellowknife; 2004. *Anna Godduhn Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Alaska Fairbanks PO Box 756160
  1 document  
Author
Anna Godduhn
Lawrence Duffy
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Wild
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - history
Fishes
Food Contamination
Health status
History, 20th Century
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP).
The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS), which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS), which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems.
This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no) personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no) consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined) with a two-tailed Fisher's Exact Test in SAS (n = 325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist).
The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems.
Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional investigation. This article presents our findings, with discussion of limitations related to study design and limitations that are inherent to such research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984298 View in PubMed
Documents
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Reliance on others for food-related activities of daily living.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168008
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2005;25(1):43-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Heather H Keller
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada. hkeller@uoguelph.ca
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2005;25(1):43-59
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aging - physiology - psychology
Canada
Dependency (Psychology)
Diet Records
Female
Food
Food Habits - physiology - psychology
Food Handling - methods
Food Services - statistics & numerical data
Geriatric Assessment
Health status
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Social Support
Abstract
Reliance on others for help with food-related activities (grocery shopping and meal preparation) [FADL] can influence food intake and can be considered part of the concept of food security for older adults. Data collected from 193 community-living seniors identified that 29.5% of these seniors required help with these activities. Covariates independently associated with FADL were: muscle strength/size, gender, avoidance of activities due to a fear of falling and occurrence of functionally limiting diagnoses. Mediation analysis identified variables that explain the "how and why" of the association between FADL and food intake. Mediators included informal supports, frequency of informal support, perceived health status, and number of medications. By specifically analyzing covariates and mediators of reliance for FADL, there is further understanding of the relationship between this reliance and food intake in older adults.
PubMed ID
16891262 View in PubMed
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