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The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145075
Source
Can J Aging. 2010 Mar;29(1):39-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald
Doug Andrews
Robert L Brown
Author Affiliation
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. BonnieJeanne_MacDonald@hotmail.com
Source
Can J Aging. 2010 Mar;29(1):39-56
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Income Tax
Male
Needs Assessment - economics
Poverty - classification
Retirement
Social Security - economics
Social Welfare
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.
PubMed ID
20202264 View in PubMed
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Predictors and outcomes of household food insecurity among inner city families with preschool children in Vancouver.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168395
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Margaret A Broughton
Patricia S Janssen
Clyde Hertzman
Sheila M Innis
C James Frankish
Author Affiliation
Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. margaret_broughton@telus.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Cooking - instrumentation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Income
Male
Malnutrition - epidemiology - etiology
Nutritive Value
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to measure household food security and to determine its association with potential predictor variables related to household and community environments, as well as the relationship between household food insecurity and preschool children's nutritional status.
In this cross-sectional study, household food security was measured in a convenience sample of households (n=142) with children aged 2-5 years in Vancouver in March 2004. We assessed the association between environmental predictors and household food security status, adjusted for household income. Indicators of children's nutrition were compared between categories of household food security.
Household food insecurity was associated with indicators of suboptimal health status in preschoolers. After controlling for household income, parents with less access to food of reasonable quality, fewer kitchen appliances and a lower rating of their cooking skills had greater odds of experiencing household food insecurity.
Our study results support the need to test interventions involving collaborative efforts among government, social planners and public health practitioners to remove barriers to food security for families. Multiple measures, including opportunities to gain practical food skills and household resources that enable convenient preparation of nutrient-dense foods, could be examined. Our findings suggest the need for improved selection and quality at existing small stores and an increase in the number of food outlets in low-income neighbourhoods.
PubMed ID
16827410 View in PubMed
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Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264982
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:28436
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
much less, and nurses much more often, than non-Aboriginal people in the North (21), Table IV. Coverage of measures of health determinants in selected surveys APS RHS Content CCHS 2001 2006 2012 2002/03 2008/10 Socio-economic status Education Employment Income Housing Food security Obesity
  1 document  
Author
T Kue Young
Carmina Ng
Susan Chatwood
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:28436
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
975329
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Care Surveys/methods
Humans
Male
Northwest Territories
Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
Sensitivity and specificity
Young Adult
Abstract
Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care.
This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care.
Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS).
Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North-South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations.
A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to provide reliable estimates for its subpopulations - urban and remote, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, and First Nations, Inuit and Métis - would provide useful information to decision-makers and service providers. Analytical studies can also be conducted to investigate the correlations and interactions among health status, health determinants and health care and assess whether such relationships differ among the different population groups.
PubMed ID
26214103 View in PubMed
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Barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity for First Nation youths in northern Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82158
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Skinner Kelly
Hanning Rhona M
Tsuji Leonard J S
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Diet - economics - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Rural Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity in youths in a remote sub-arctic community, Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative multi-method participatory approach. METHODS: The study included a purposive convenience sample of two adult (n = 22) and three youths (n = 30; students in grades 6 to 8) focus groups, unstructured one-on-one interviews with adult key informants (n = 7), and a scan of the community environment. Data were coded and analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Hurricane thinking and concept mapping were used to illustrate findings and relationships between concepts. RESULTS: Dominant emerging themes included empowerment, trust, resources, barriers and opportunities, while major sub-themes included food security, cost, accessibility/availability, capacity building, community support, programs/training and the school snack/breakfast program. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers to healthy nutrition and physical activity exist in this community and are possibly similar in other remote communities. Empowerment is a core issue that should be considered in the design of public health interventions for First Nations youths in remote sub-arctic communities.
PubMed ID
16711466 View in PubMed
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Associations between household food insecurity and health outcomes in the Aboriginal population (excluding reserves).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132094
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Noreen Willows
Paul Veugelers
Kim Raine
Stefan Kuhle
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2T4. willows@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Nutrition Surveys
Quality of Life
Smoking - ethnology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal people are more vulnerable to food insecurity and morbidity than is the Canadian population overall. However, little information is available about the association between food insecurity and health in Aboriginal households.
Data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to examine the relationships between household food security and self-reported health, well-being and health behaviours in a sample of 837 Aboriginal adults living off reserve. Household food security status was based on Health Canada's interpretation of the United States Household Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders.
An estimated 29% of Aboriginal people aged 18 or older lived in food-insecure households. They were more likely to report poor general and mental health, life dissatisfaction, a very weak sense of community belonging, high stress and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts in food-secure households. When age, gender and household education were taken into account, respondents from food-insecure households had significantly higher odds of poor general health, high stress, life dissatisfaction, and a very weak community belonging.
Reductions in household food insecurity may improve the health and well-being of Aboriginals living off-reserve.
PubMed ID
21848128 View in PubMed
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[Significance of socio-hygienic conditions at food-processing plants for securing the quality of food products].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232874
Source
Gig Sanit. 1988 Jul;(7):77-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1988

Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114202
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:427
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Ellen Desjardins
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. kskinner@uwaterloo.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:427
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Diet
Female
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Population Groups - ethnology - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Resilience, Psychological
Resource Allocation - methods
Rural Population
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity.
A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach.
Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested.
Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the strategies and solutions participants suggested for coping with food insecurity. Public health policies to improve food security for FN populations are urgently needed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23639143 View in PubMed
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Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129632
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:48-58.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. Results: The total number of environmental
  1 document  
Author
Charlotta Rylander
Jon Ø Odland
Torkjel M Sandanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:48-58.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
813640
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenhouse Effect
Housing
Humans
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Welfare
Pregnancy
Abstract
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants.
Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas.
The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to Mercury because of increased emissions and increased biological availability.
A number of environmental stressors are predicted to increase with climate change and increasingly affecting human health. Efforts should be put on reducing risk for the next generation, thus global politics and research effort should focus on maternal and newborn health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22084626 View in PubMed
Documents

Rylander-Vulnerable_populations.pdf

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Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130016
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011; 4:91-98.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
, Arkhangelsk has contributed substantially in the collection of samples. Conflict of interest and funding The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. References 1. AMAP (2004). Persistent toxic substances, food security and indigenous peoples of
  1 document  
Author
Charlotta Rylander
Torkjel M Sandanger
Natalya Petrenya
Alexei Konoplev
Evgeny Bojko
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011; 4:91-98.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
309186
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Arctic Regions
Child
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Male
Metals - blood - toxicity
Middle Aged
Organic Chemicals - blood - toxicity
Pesticides - blood - toxicity
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Russia
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001-2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community.
During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals.
PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p'-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p'-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p'-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study group from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of Cd when controlling for age and gender and the study group from Usinsk had higher concentrations of Se than the others. Compared to the results from Nelmin-Nos in 2001-2003, a clear decrease in p,p'-DDE concentrations for both women and men was observed.
The current study indicates a significant reduction of several PTSs in human blood samples from North West Russia over the past 10 years.
Notes
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Cites: Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Oct 16;184(3):219-262611996
PubMed ID
22043215 View in PubMed
Documents

Rylander-Vulnerable_populations.pdf

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Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263579
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
Science of the Total Environment 509–510 (2015) 248–259 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Science of the Total Environment j ourna l homepage: www.e lsev ie r .com/ locate /sc i totenv Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern
  1 document  
Author
M. Lemire
M. Kwan
A E Laouan-Sidi
G. Muckle
C. Pirkle
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1238368
Keywords
Animals
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Female
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Methylmercury compounds - analysis
Quebec
Selenium - analysis
Abstract
Country foods are central to Inuit culture and replete in selenium (Se) and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, some marine country foods bioaccumulate high concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg). Se and n-3 are associated with several health benefits in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, but, recent studies show that prenatal MeHg exposure is associated with visual, cognitive and behavioral deficit later in childhood. The study objectives are to identify contemporary country food sources of MeHg, Se and long-chain n-3 PUFA in Nunavik, particularly among childbearing-age women, taking into account regional differences in consumption profiles. The contribution of different country foods to daily MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (µg/kg body weight/day) was estimated using: (i) country food consumption and blood biomarkers data from the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey (387 women, 315 men), and (ii) data on MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in Nunavik wildlife species. In the region where most traditional beluga hunting takes place in Nunavik, the prevalence of at-risk blood Hg (= 8 µg/L) in childbearing-age women was 78.4%. While most country foods presently consumed contain low MeHg, beluga meat, not a staple of the Inuit diet, is the most important contributor to MeHg: up to two-thirds of MeHg intake in the beluga-hunting region (0.66 of MeHg intake) and to about one-third in other regions. In contrast, seal liver and beluga mattaaq - beluga skin and blubber - only mildly contributed to MeHg (between 0.06 and 0.15 of MeHg intake), depending on the region. Beluga mattaaq also highly contributed to Se intake (0.30 of Se intake). Arctic char, beluga blubber and mattaaq, and seal blubber contributed to most long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. This study highlights the importance of considering interconnections between local ecosystems and dietary habits to develop recommendations and interventions promoting country foods' benefits, while minimizing the risk of MeHg from beluga meat, especially for childbearing-age women.
PubMed ID
25135671 View in PubMed
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1-s2.0-S0048969714011395-main.pdf

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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Exploring food security with collective kitchens participants in three Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166067
Source
Qual Health Res. 2007 Jan;17(1):75-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Rachel Engler-Stringer
Shawna Berenbaum
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Canada.
Source
Qual Health Res. 2007 Jan;17(1):75-84
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cooking - standards
Diet - standards
Female
Food Services - organization & administration
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Poverty
Residence Characteristics
Social Welfare
Abstract
Collective kitchens are small groups of people who pool their resources to cook large quantities of food. With the help of semi-participant observation and in-depth individual interviews, this study is an exploration of participants' perceptions of changes in food security since becoming involved in a collective kitchen. Several important themes emerged, including Increased Variety, Making Ends Meet, and Comparisons to Food Banks. Participants in groups that cooked large quantities of food (upwards of five meals monthly) reported some increases in their food resources. Participants also reported increased dignity associated with not having to access charitable resources to feed their families. Some participants reported decreased psychological distress associated with food insecurity. Overall, participants reported increases in food security; however, collective kitchens are not a long-term solution to the income-related food insecurity experienced by many Canadian families.
PubMed ID
17170245 View in PubMed
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The structure of a factory closure: individual responses to job-loss and unemployment in a 10-year controlled follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73805
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1301-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
S. Westin
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1301-11
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Aged
Employment
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Norway
Pensions
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retirement
Salaries and Fringe Benefits
Social Adjustment
Unemployment - psychology
Abstract
A prospective study has been conducted of 85 employees (72 women and 13 men) made redundant when a brisling sardine factory on the west coast of Norway was shut down in 1975. 87 employees (66 women and 21 men) in a 'sister factory' which was not shut down, were used as controls. Previous analyses have shown a substantial reduction in future employment of the study group, a two-fold increase in time consumed on sick leave during the first follow-up year, and a more than three-fold increase in the life-table based rates of disability pensions (invalidity) during the first four follow-up years compared to the controls. In this paper the follow-up data regarding six mutually exclusive and inclusive conditions related to employment and health have been analysed on a weeks per person per year basis, permitting the effects of job-loss over 10 years to be compared with what could have been expected had the factory not been closed. For those not subjected to old age pension or death, three kinds of long-term adaptation showed a marked differential effect among study subjects and controls: a substantial long-term reduction in mean time spent in job, an increase in consumption of time on disability pension, and an increase in time spent outside the labour force without social security coverage, the latter being mostly confined to women. These follow-up data provide a comprehensive picture of individual long-term adaptation to involuntary job-loss, emphasizing its effects on future employment, health, social readjustment and social security benefit consumption.
PubMed ID
2287959 View in PubMed
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Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104271
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Helga Bjørnøy Urke
Zhirong R Cao
Grace M Egeland
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
PubMed ID
24864166 View in PubMed
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Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138900
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Stacey Marjerrison
Elizabeth A Cummings
N Theresa Glanville
Sara F L Kirk
Mary Ledwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Diet
Disease Management
Female
Health Behavior
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of food insecurity in households with a child with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (DM), investigate whether food insecurity is associated with poorer DM control, and describe the household characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families with a child with DM.
Telephone interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting families over a 16-month period. Food insecurity was assessed through a validated questionnaire; additional questions elicited demographic information and DM management strategies. Charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.
A total of 183 families were interviewed. Food insecurity was present in 21.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.87%-27.85%), significantly higher than the overall prevalences in Nova Scotia (14.6%) and Canada (9.2%). Food insecurity was associated with higher HbA1c level; however, in multivariate analysis, only child's age and parents' education were independent predictors of HbA1c. Children from food-insecure families had higher rates of hospitalization, for which food security status was the only independent predictor. Common characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families were identified.
Food insecurity was more common in families with a child with DM, and the presence of food insecurity was predictive of the child's hospitalization. Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM.
PubMed ID
21126743 View in PubMed
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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257212
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Bogdan Cristescu
Gordon B Stenhouse
Mark S Boyce
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Choice Behavior
Ecosystem
Female
Food chain
Humans
Male
Ursidae
Abstract
On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e2790522194798
Cites: Oecologia. 2009 Mar;159(3):669-7819089457
Cites: Q Rev Biol. 1995 Jun;70(2):165-917610234
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 22;272(1581):2627-3416321785
Cites: Ecology. 2011 Feb;92(2):398-40721618919
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2008 Apr;23(4):194-20118308423
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e3169922363710
Cites: PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e1195420694139
Cites: Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-6721298447
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Aug;22(8):394-40017590476
PubMed ID
24367549 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011-12.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298422
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-03-2019
Author
Valerie Tarasuk
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain
Andrew Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Date
Jan-03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Geography
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Household food insecurity is a potent social determinant of health and health care costs in Canada, but understanding of the social and economic conditions that underlie households' vulnerability to food insecurity is limited.
Data from the 2011-12 Canadian Community Health Survey were used to determine predictors of household food insecurity among a nationally-representative sample of 120,909 households. Household food insecurity over the past 12?months was assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately, or severely food insecure based on the number of affirmative responses. Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to determine geographic and socio-demographic predictors of presence and severity of household food insecurity.
The prevalence of household food insecurity ranged from 11.8% in Ontario to 41.0% in Nunavut. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, households' odds of food insecurity were lower in Quebec and higher in the Maritimes, territories, and Alberta, compared to Ontario. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were also higher among households reliant on social assistance, Employment Insurance or workers' compensation, those without a university degree, those with children under 18, unattached individuals, renters, and those with an Aboriginal respondent. Higher income, immigration, and reliance on seniors' income sources were protective against food insecurity. Living in Nunavut and relying on social assistance were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity, but severity was also associated with income, education, household composition, Aboriginal status, immigration status, and place of residence. The relation between income and food insecurity status was graded, with every $1000 increase in income associated with 2% lower odds of marginal food insecurity, 4% lower odds of moderate food insecurity, and 5% lower odds of severe food insecurity.
The probability of household food insecurity in Canada and the severity of the experience depends on a household's province or territory of residence, income, main source of income, housing tenure, education, Aboriginal status, and household structure. Our findings highlight the intersection of household food insecurity with public policy decisions in Canada and the disproportionate burden of food insecurity among Indigenous peoples.
PubMed ID
30606152 View in PubMed
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A questionnaire to examine food service satisfaction of elderly residents in long-term care facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175652
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2004;24(2):5-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Christina O Lengyel
Joan T Smith
Susan J Whiting
Gordon A Zello
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA.
Source
J Nutr Elder. 2004;24(2):5-18
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Food Services - standards
Homes for the Aged
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient satisfaction
Personal Autonomy
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Saskatchewan
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a survey tool for assessing the satisfaction of elderly long-term care (LTC) residents with the meals and food services they receive, as well as to assess quality of life issues related to eating. Food service delivery should be provided in an environment that fosters autonomy, interpersonal relations, and security. The questionnaire was administered as face-to-face interviews with 205 residents (> or = 65 years of age) of 13 LTC facilities in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (participation rate = 67%). Residents expressed some concern with food variety, quality, taste, and appearance, and with the posting of menus. Quality of life issues were mostly positive; however, residents were less satisfied with areas related to their autonomy such as food choice and snack availability.
PubMed ID
15778154 View in PubMed
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