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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Community-based health research led by the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131709
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Sonia Wesche
Roseanne C Schuster
Pam Tobin
Cindy Dickson
Darcie Matthiessen
Shel Graupe
Megan Williams
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Community Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Health Services Research
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories
Questionnaires
Abstract
This paper documents an exceptional research partnership developed between the Vuntut Gwitchin Government (VGG) in Old Crow, Yukon, with a group of scientists to examine northern food security and health as part of a larger, multidisciplinary International Polar Year (IPY) research program. We focus on the elements that enabled a successful community-researcher relationship. Study design. The VGG led the development of the research and acted as Principal Investigator on the IPY grant. The multidisciplinary collaboration spanned the physical, biological and health sciences, including issues related to food security.
The food security and health component of this research was carried out using a series of complementary methods, including focus groups, structured interviews, a household questionnaire, an interactive workshop, community meetings, transcript analysis and a caribou flesh exposure assessment.
Results from the food security component are informing local and regional adaptation planning. The legacy of the research collaboration includes a number of results-based outputs for a range of stakeholders, a community-based environmental monitoring program, long-term research relationships and improved community capacity.
The type of collaboration described here provides a useful model for new types of participatory health research with northern communities.
PubMed ID
21884655 View in PubMed
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Use of traditional environmental knowledge to assess the impact of climate change on subsistence fishing in the James Bay Region of Northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125539
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:1878
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Yukari Hori
Benita Tam
William A Gough
Elise Ho-Foong
Jim D Karagatzides
Eric N Liberda
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. y.hori@utoronto.ca
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:1878
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Culture
Ecosystem
Environmental Health - education
Fishes
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Interviews as Topic
Knowledge
Male
Ontario
Temperature
Abstract
In Canada, unique food security challenges are being faced by Aboriginal people living in remote-northern communities due to the impacts of climate change on subsistence harvesting. This study used traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) to investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between extreme climatic events in the summer of 2005, and fish die-offs in the Albany River, northern Ontario, Canada. Also, TEK was utilized to examine a potential shift in subsistence fish species distribution due to climate change.
To investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between the fish die-offs of July 2005 (as identified by TEK) and an extreme climatic event, temperature and daily precipitation data for Moosonee weather station were utilized. To determine if there was an increasing trend in mean maximal summer temperatures with year, temperature data were examined, using regression analysis. Present-day fish distributions were determined using unpublished TEK data collated from previous studies and purposive, semi-directive interviews with elders and experienced bushman.
Fish die-offs in 2005 occurred during the time period 11-18 July, as reported by participants. Recorded air-temperature maxima of the two July 2005 heat waves delineate exactly the time period of fish die-offs. Two heat waves occurring during the same summer season and so close together has never before been recorded for this region. A highly significant (p
PubMed ID
22471525 View in PubMed
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Local observations of climate change and impacts on traditional food security in two northern Aboriginal communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95657
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Guyot Melissa
Dickson Cindy
Paci Chris
Furgal Chris
Chan Hing Man
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Climate
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Fresh Water
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Water supply
Weather
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to record participant observations of changes in the local environment, harvesting situations and traditional food species and to explore what impact these may have on traditional food. STUDY DESIGN: A participatory study with 2 northern Aboriginal communities in Canada. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in both communities. Both specific and open-ended questions were asked, to gather information about the traditional food harvest and a qualitative analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Members from both communities are witnessing variable changes in climate that are affecting their traditional food harvest. New species and changes in migration of species being observed by community members have the potential to affect the consumption of traditional food. Similarly, changes in water levels in and around harvesting areas are affecting access to harvest areas, which in turn affects the traditional food harvest. CONCLUSIONS: Community members have been required to change their harvest mechanisms to adapt to changes in climate and ensure an adequate supply of traditional food. A strong commitment to programs that will ensure the protection of traditional food systems is necessary.
PubMed ID
17319085 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299315
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Arctic Regions
Blood glucose
Blood pressure
Body Weights and Measures
Diet - ethnology
Female
Food Supply - methods
Health Behavior
Humans
Indians, North American
Language
Lipids - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299330
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Communication
Community Participation - methods
Cooperative Behavior
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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The social construction of anemia in school shelters for indigenous children in Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170413
Source
Qual Health Res. 2006 Apr;16(4):503-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Bernardo Turnbull
Gloria Martínez-Andrade
Miguel Klünder
Tania Carranco
Ximena Duque-López
Rosa Isela Ramos-Hernández
Marco González-Unzaga
Sergio Flores-Hernández
Homero Martínez-Salgado
Author Affiliation
Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Nutricional (UIEN), Instituto Méxicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), México D.F., México.
Source
Qual Health Res. 2006 Apr;16(4):503-16
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - epidemiology - ethnology
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Cultural Characteristics
Diet
Food Supply
Humans
Indians, North American
Malnutrition - epidemiology
Mexico - epidemiology
Poverty Areas
Schools - organization & administration
Abstract
Indigenous children in school shelters in Mexico suffer from anemia in spite of food that is subsidized, prepared, and served to them. Economically and biomedically centered strategies to reduce anemia have achieved only partial and short-term success. An interdisciplinary team investigated the food security system of the school shelters and collected data through interviews and participant observation. The analysis revealed that the children's nutrition depends on a frail chain of events in which a single link's failure can lead to nutritional insecurity. The authors conclude that the social actors involved in the process are mainly considering the economic aspects of nutrition, but anemia persists as a social construction of the faulty relationship between the institution that runs the shelters and the indigenous culture. The authors make suggestions for an intervention that empowers the community by involving it actively in solving the problem.
Notes
Comment In: Qual Health Res. 2006 Dec;16(10):1315-617079795
PubMed ID
16513993 View in PubMed
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Collaborating toward improving food security in Nunavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107695
Source
Pages 803-810 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):803-810
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
NUTRITION CQ\C-~ION Collaborating toward improving food security in Nunavut Jennifer Wakegijig, Geraldine Osborne, Sara Statham and Michelle Doucette lssaluk* Government of Nunavut Department of Health, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada Background. Community members, Aboriginal organizations
  1 document  
Author
Jennifer Wakegijig
Geraldine Osborne
Sara Statham
Michelle Doucette Issaluk
Author Affiliation
Government of Nunavut Department of Health, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada.
Source
Pages 803-810 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):803-810
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Food Supply - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Nunavut
Poverty - prevention & control
Quality Improvement
Abstract
Community members, Aboriginal organizations, public servants and academics have long been describing a desperate situation of food insecurity in the Eastern Canadian Arctic.
The Nunavut Food Security Coalition, a partnership of Inuit Organizations and the Government of Nunavut, is collaborating to develop a territorial food security strategy to address pervasive food insecurity in the context of poverty reduction.
The Nunavut Food Security Coalition has carried out this work using a community consultation model. The research was collected through community visits, stakeholder consultation and member checking at the Nunavut Food Security Symposium.
In this paper, we describe a continuous course of action, based on community engagement and collective action, that has led to sustained political interest in and public mobilization around the issue of food insecurity in Nunavut.
The process described in this article is a unique collaboration between multiple organizations that has led to the development of a sustainable partnership that will inform policy development while representing the voice of Nunavummiut.
Notes
Cites: Rural Remote Health. 2010 Apr-Jun;10(2):137020568912
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-30320519090
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-20120737808
Cites: CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):243-820100848
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Sep;65(4):331-4017131971
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-1517319085
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-3117319086
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005 Nov 29;360(1463):2139-4816433099
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2005 May-Jun;96(3):I1-40 following 20015913085
Cites: Ecohealth. 2010 Sep;7(3):361-7320680394
Cites: J Nutr. 2011 Sep;141(9):1746-5321753059
Cites: Geogr J. 2011;177(1):44-6121560272
PubMed ID
23984307 View in PubMed
Documents
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Preliminary report of the Indian Health Service Task Force on Alcoholism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291683
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1969
necessities such as food, clothing, shelter and fuel. The cost to the taxpayer of community services such as medical care, welfare and police must aJ.so of course be reckoned in esti- mating the price of alcoholism. If alcoholism could even in part be prevented, a significant amount of scarce public
  1 document  
Author
United States. Indian Health Service. Task Force on Alcoholism.
Date
1969
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
2632655
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Indians, North American
Alcoholism
Alcohol
History
Notes
Alaskana Reference RC565.U54 1969
Documents
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Traditional and market food access in Arctic Canada is affected by economic factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79628
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Sep;65(4):331-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
participants said they could not afford to go hunting or fishing. Conclusions. Affordability of market food and accessibility to hunting and fishing in Arctic Canada were major barriers to Indigenous women’s food security. (Int J Circumpolar Health 2006: 65(4): 331-340.) Keywords: food security, Arctic
  1 document  
Author
Lambden Jill
Receveur Olivier
Marshall Joan
Kuhnlein Harriet V
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Sep;65(4):331-40
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
358177
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Arctic Regions
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Culture
Diet - economics - ethnology
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Middle Aged
Nutritional Requirements
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the access that Indigenous women have to traditional and market foods in 44 communities across Arctic Canada. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis used a cross-sectional survey of 1771 Yukon First Nations, Dene/Métis and Inuit women stratified by age. METHODS: Socio-cultural questionnaires were used to investigate food access and chi-square testing was used to ascertain the distribution of subject responses by age and region. RESULTS: There was considerable regional variation in the ability to afford adequate food, with between 40% and 70% saying they could afford enough food. Similarly, regional variation was reflected in the percentage of the population who could afford, or had access to, hunting or fishing equipment. Up to 50% of the responses indicated inadequate access to fishing and hunting equipment, and up to 46% of participants said they could not afford to go hunting or fishing. CONCLUSIONS: Affordability of market food and accessibility to hunting and fishing in Arctic Canada were major barriers to Indigenous women's food security.
PubMed ID
17131971 View in PubMed
Documents

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Community-based participatory process--climate change and health adaptation program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124412
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71(0):1-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Diane McClymont Peace
Erin Myers
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Research Division, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. diane.mcclymontpeace@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71(0):1-8
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Canada
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research
Health planning
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Abstract
Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities.
The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment.
Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements.
Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine.
Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.
PubMed ID
22584509 View in PubMed
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Conceptualizing food security or aboriginal people in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157388
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Mar-Apr;99(2):95-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Elaine M Power
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON. power@queensu.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Mar-Apr;99(2):95-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Food
Food Supply
Health education
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Indians, North American
Nutrition Policy
Public Health
Abstract
Food insecurity is an urgent public health issue for Aboriginal people in Canada because of high rates of poverty; the effects of global climate change and environmental pollution on traditional food systems; and high rates of diet-related diseases. However, to date, public health has operated with conceptualizations of food security that were developed in non-Aboriginal contexts; they do not take full account of the traditional food practices of Aboriginal people or Aboriginal conceptualizations of food security. In this paper, I argue that there are unique food security considerations for Aboriginal people related to the harvesting, sharing and consumption of country or traditional foods, which impact the four pillars of food security: access, availability, supply and utilization. Thus food security conceptualizations, policies, and programs for Aboriginal people must consider both the market food system and traditional food system. Given the centrality of traditional food practices to cultural health and survival, I propose that cultural food security is an additional level of food security beyond individual, household and community levels. Conceptualizations of food security for Aboriginal people will be incomplete without qualitative research to understand Aboriginal perspectives; such research must take account of the diversity of Aboriginal people.
PubMed ID
18457280 View in PubMed
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Polyaromatic hydrocarbons of smoked cured muscle foods prepared by Canadian Tl'azt'en and Llheidli T'enneh First Nation communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120213
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75(21):1249-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
David D Kitts
Xiu-Min Chen
Paul Broda
Author Affiliation
Food, Nutrition, and Health, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ddkitts@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75(21):1249-52
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Benzo(a)pyrene - analysis
British Columbia
Deer
Food Handling
Humans
Indians, North American
Meat - analysis
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis
Salmon
Abstract
Tl'azt'en and Lheidli T'enneh First Nation communities have traditionally used smoking, drying, and salting of fish and game as preservation methods to enhance food security. Our results showed that levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were significantly higher in smoked salmon samples compared to moose meats, and further, that PAH contents were also dependent on the duration of smoke processing. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was not detected in fresh or partially smoked foods, but was present in both fully smoked moose (1.4 µg/kg) and fully smoked salmon (3.6 µg/kg) meats, respectively. The total concentrations of PAH present in fully smoked meats using traditional smoke processing methods employed by Tl'azt'en and Lheidli T'enneh nations indicate that a risk assessment is required to determine the safety of these smoke-processed foods.
PubMed ID
23030651 View in PubMed
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Alternative perspectives on the sustainability of Alaska's commercial fisheries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120599
Source
Conserv Biol. 2013 Feb;27(1):55-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Philip A Loring
Author Affiliation
The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755910, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. ploring@alaska.edu
Source
Conserv Biol. 2013 Feb;27(1):55-63
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Conservation of Natural Resources
Fisheries
Food Supply
Humans
Indians, North American
Models, Theoretical
Social Marginalization
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Many believe commercial fisheries in Alaska (U.S.A.) are sustainability success stories, but ongoing socioeconomic problems across the state raise questions about how this sustainability is being defined and evaluated. Problems such as food insecurity and the disenfranchisement of Alaska Natives from fishing rights are well documented, yet these concerns are obscured by marketing campaigns that convey images of flourishing fishing communities and initiatives to certify Alaska's fisheries as responsibly managed. Fisheries management mandates and approaches built on such metrics and technologies as maximum sustainable yield and systems of tradable quotas actually serve to constrain, circumscribe, and marginalize some Alaskans' opportunities for effecting change in how the benefits of these fisheries are allocated. Beneath the narrative of sustainability, these management technologies perpetuate a cognitive ecological model of sustainability that is oriented to single-species outcomes, that casts people as parasites, and thus assumes the necessity of trade-offs between biological and social goals. Alternative cognitive models are available that draw metaphors from different ecological concepts such as keystone species and mutualisms. Such models, when used to inform management approaches, may improve societal outcomes in Alaska and elsewhere by promoting food security and sustainability through diversified natural resource harvest strategies that are more flexible and responsive to environmental variability and change.
PubMed ID
22988912 View in PubMed
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Household food insecurity and Canadian Aboriginal women's self-efficacy in food preparation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120899
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2012;73(3):134-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Genevieve Mercille
Olivier Receveur
Louise Potvin
Author Affiliation
Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2012;73(3):134-40
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cooking - economics
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Linear Models
Middle Aged
Obesity - ethnology
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Self Efficacy
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Determinants of self-efficacy related to food preparation using store-bought food were examined in women belonging to the Atikamekw Nation. Also examined was whether self-efficacy was associated with household food insecurity.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 107 women responsible for household food supplies. Two self-efficacy scores were calculated, one for healthy food preparation and one for food preparation in general. Household food insecurity was measured with an adapted version of the United States Food Security Core Module. The other variables were household composition, income sources, food supplies, tobacco use, participants' health status, and lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze associations between self-efficacy and household food insecurity in 99 participants.
Severe household food insecurity was associated with significantly lower healthy food preparation scores in Atikamekw women. Other associated variables were food supplies, marital status, alcohol consumption, weight status, and understanding of the native language.
Application of the concept of self-efficacy contributes to a better understanding of the factors influencing food preparation in Atikamekw women. In this study, self-efficacy in healthy food preparation was linked to food insecurity and obesity, particularly in the most serious cases. Efforts to improve diet will require not only behavioural interventions, but public policies.
PubMed ID
22958631 View in PubMed
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