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Assessing the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics to the household food security of low-income Toronto families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145125
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Boulevard EPN 4005, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. sharon.kirkpatrick@nih.gov
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Although the sociodemographic characteristics of food-insecure households have been well documented, there has been little examination of neighbourhood characteristics in relation to this problem. In the present study we examined the association between household food security and neighbourhood features including geographic food access and perceived neighbourhood social capital.
Cross-sectional survey and mapping of discount supermarkets and community food programmes.
Twelve high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Respondents from 484 low-income families who had children and who lived in rental accommodations.
Food insecurity was pervasive, affecting two-thirds of families with about a quarter categorized as severely food insecure, indicative of food deprivation. Food insecurity was associated with household factors including income and income source. However, food security did not appear to be mitigated by proximity to food retail or community food programmes, and high rates of food insecurity were observed in neighbourhoods with good geographic food access. While low perceived neighbourhood social capital was associated with higher odds of food insecurity, this effect did not persist once we accounted for household sociodemographic factors.
Our findings raise questions about the extent to which neighbourhood-level interventions to improve factors such as food access or social cohesion can mitigate problems of food insecurity that are rooted in resource constraints. In contrast, the results reinforce the importance of household-level characteristics and highlight the need for interventions to address the financial constraints that underlie problems of food insecurity.
PubMed ID
20196916 View in PubMed
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Putting food on the public health table: Making food security relevant to regional health authorities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168392
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):233-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Karen Rideout
Barbara Seed
Aleck Ostry
Author Affiliation
Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. krideout@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):233-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Family Characteristics
Food Supply - standards
Health promotion
Humans
Hunger
Models, organizational
Nutrition Policy
Nutritive Value
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Public Health - trends
Regional Health Planning - methods
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
Food security is emerging as an increasingly important public health issue. The purpose of this paper is to describe a conceptual model and five classes of food security indicators for regional health authorities (RHAs): direct, indirect, consequence, process, and supra-regional. The model was developed after a review of the food security literature and interviews with British Columbia community nutritionists and public health officials. We offer this conceptual model as a practical tool to help RHAs develop a comprehensive framework and use specific indicators, in conjunction with public health nutritionists and other community stakeholders. We recommend using all five classes of indicator together to ensure a complete assessment of the full breadth of food security. This model will be useful for Canadian health authorities wishing to take a holistic community-based approach to public health nutrition to develop more effective policies and programs to maximize food security. The model and indicators offer a rational process that could be useful for collaborative multi-stakeholder initiatives to improve food security.
PubMed ID
16827415 View in PubMed
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Predictors and outcomes of household food insecurity among inner city families with preschool children in Vancouver.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168395
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Margaret A Broughton
Patricia S Janssen
Clyde Hertzman
Sheila M Innis
C James Frankish
Author Affiliation
Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. margaret_broughton@telus.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Cooking - instrumentation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Income
Male
Malnutrition - epidemiology - etiology
Nutritive Value
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to measure household food security and to determine its association with potential predictor variables related to household and community environments, as well as the relationship between household food insecurity and preschool children's nutritional status.
In this cross-sectional study, household food security was measured in a convenience sample of households (n=142) with children aged 2-5 years in Vancouver in March 2004. We assessed the association between environmental predictors and household food security status, adjusted for household income. Indicators of children's nutrition were compared between categories of household food security.
Household food insecurity was associated with indicators of suboptimal health status in preschoolers. After controlling for household income, parents with less access to food of reasonable quality, fewer kitchen appliances and a lower rating of their cooking skills had greater odds of experiencing household food insecurity.
Our study results support the need to test interventions involving collaborative efforts among government, social planners and public health practitioners to remove barriers to food security for families. Multiple measures, including opportunities to gain practical food skills and household resources that enable convenient preparation of nutrient-dense foods, could be examined. Our findings suggest the need for improved selection and quality at existing small stores and an increase in the number of food outlets in low-income neighbourhoods.
PubMed ID
16827410 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and severity of household food insecurity of First Nations people living in an on-reserve, sub-Arctic community within the Mushkegowuk Territory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259196
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):31-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Leonard J S Tsuji
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):31-9
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Ontario
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Vulnerable Populations - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To measure and describe the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity in a remote on-reserve First Nations community using the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) and to evaluate the perceived relevance of the HFSSM for this population.
Household food security status was determined from the eighteen-item HFSSM following the classifications developed by Health Canada for the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2 Nutrition. One adult from each household in the community was invited to complete the HFSSM and to comment on its relevance as a tool to measure food security for First Nations communities.
Sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada.
Households (n 64).
Seventy per cent of households were food insecure, 17% severely and 53% moderately. The prevalence of food insecurity in households with children was 76%. Among respondents from homes rated as having severe food insecurity, all (100 %) reported worrying that food would run out, times when food didn't last and there wasn't money to buy more, and times when they couldn't afford to eat balanced meals. The majority of respondents felt the HFSSM did not capture an accurate picture of food security for their situation. Aspects missing from the HFSSM included the high cost of market food and the incorporation of traditional food practices.
A high prevalence of household food insecurity was reported in this community. On-reserve remote First Nations communities may be more susceptible to food insecurity than off-reserve Aboriginal populations. Initiatives that promote food security for this vulnerable population are needed.
PubMed ID
23806766 View in PubMed
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Food-based approaches to combat the double burden among the poor: challenges in the Asian context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157021
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Geok Lin Khor
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia. khorgl@medic.upm.edu.my
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - methods - standards
Asia - epidemiology
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Malnutrition - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nutritional Status
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Poverty
Abstract
Estimates of FAO indicate that 14% of the population worldwide or 864 million in 2002-2004 were undernourished in not having enough food to meet basic daily energy needs. Asia has the highest number of undernourished people, with 163 million in East Asia and 300 million in South Asia. Meanwhile obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases continue to escalate in the region. The double burden of malnutrition also affects the poor, which is a serious problem in Asia, as it has the largest number of poor subsisting on less than $1/day. As poverty in the region is predominantly rural, agriculture-based strategies are important for improving household food security and nutritional status. These measures include shifting toward production of high-value products for boosting income, enhancing agricultural biodiversity, increasing consumption of indigenous food plants and biofortified crops. Urban poor faces additional nutritional problems being more sensitive to rising costs of living, lack of space for home and school gardening, and trade-offs between convenience and affordability versus poor diet quality and risk of contamination. Time constraints faced by working couples in food preparation and child care are also important considerations. Combating the double burden among the poor requires a comprehensive approach including adequate public health services, and access to education and employment skills, besides nutrition interventions.
PubMed ID
18296315 View in PubMed
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Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114426
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;103(6):e433-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Adrian C Gould
Philippe Apparicio
Marie-Soleil Cloutier
Author Affiliation
Centre Urbanisation Culture Société, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Montréal, QC.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;103(6):e433-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Fruit
Geographic Mapping
Humans
Quebec
Residence Characteristics - classification
Socioeconomic Factors
Vegetables
Abstract
Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation.
Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas.
Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km).
In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.
PubMed ID
23618023 View in PubMed
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Use of traditional environmental knowledge to assess the impact of climate change on subsistence fishing in the James Bay Region of Northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125539
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:1878
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Yukari Hori
Benita Tam
William A Gough
Elise Ho-Foong
Jim D Karagatzides
Eric N Liberda
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. y.hori@utoronto.ca
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:1878
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Culture
Ecosystem
Environmental Health - education
Fishes
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Interviews as Topic
Knowledge
Male
Ontario
Temperature
Abstract
In Canada, unique food security challenges are being faced by Aboriginal people living in remote-northern communities due to the impacts of climate change on subsistence harvesting. This study used traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) to investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between extreme climatic events in the summer of 2005, and fish die-offs in the Albany River, northern Ontario, Canada. Also, TEK was utilized to examine a potential shift in subsistence fish species distribution due to climate change.
To investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between the fish die-offs of July 2005 (as identified by TEK) and an extreme climatic event, temperature and daily precipitation data for Moosonee weather station were utilized. To determine if there was an increasing trend in mean maximal summer temperatures with year, temperature data were examined, using regression analysis. Present-day fish distributions were determined using unpublished TEK data collated from previous studies and purposive, semi-directive interviews with elders and experienced bushman.
Fish die-offs in 2005 occurred during the time period 11-18 July, as reported by participants. Recorded air-temperature maxima of the two July 2005 heat waves delineate exactly the time period of fish die-offs. Two heat waves occurring during the same summer season and so close together has never before been recorded for this region. A highly significant (p
PubMed ID
22471525 View in PubMed
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Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary health services.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125688
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;42(4):947-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Katrina C Duncan
Kate Salters
Jamie I Forrest
Alexis K Palmer
Hong Wang
Nadia O'Brien
Surita Parashar
Angela M Cescon
Hasina Samji
Julio Sg Montaner
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada and Division of AIDS, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;42(4):947-55
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Body Image
British Columbia - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Viral
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Internet
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Medication Adherence
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stereotyping
Translational Medical Research - statistics & numerical data
Truth Disclosure
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary health services (LISA) study is a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS who have ever accessed anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in British Columbia, Canada. The LISA study was developed to better understand the outcomes of people living with HIV with respect to supportive services use, socio-demographic factors and quality of life. Between July 2007 and January 2010, 1000 participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that included questions concerning medical history, substance use, social and medical support services, food and housing security and other social determinants of health characteristics. Of the 1000 participants, 917 were successfully linked to longitudinal clinical data through the provincial Drug Treatment Program. Within the LISA cohort, 27% of the participants are female, the median age is 39 years and 32% identify as Aboriginal. Knowledge translation activities for LISA include the creation of plain language summaries, internet resources and arts-based engagement activities such as Photovoice.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22461127 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of food insecurity in a Greenlandic community and the importance of social, economic and environmental stressors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143145
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Christina Goldhar
James D Ford
Lea Berrang-Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Memorial University St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. christina.goldhar@mun.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diet
Environment
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Characterize and examine the prevalence of food insecurity in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, and identify stressors affecting the food system.
A mixed-methods study using quantitative food security surveys and semi-structured interviews.
Food security surveys (n=61) were conducted with a random sample of 6% of Qeqertarsuaq's population. Semi-structured interviews (n=75) allowed participants to describe in their own words their experience of food insecurity and permitted in-depth examination of determinants. Key informant interviews were used to provide context to local perspectives.
Prevalence of food insecurity (8%) is low. However, interviews reveal a more nuanced picture, with women, adults aged 55+, and non-hunters reporting constrained access to Greenlandic foods. Barriers restricting traditional food access include changing sea ice conditions, reduced availability of some species, high costs of hunting and purchasing food, tightening food sharing networks, and hunting and fishing regulations.
While the Qeqertarsuaq food system is relatively secure, the research highlights susceptibility to social, economic and environmental stressors which may become more prevalent in the future.
PubMed ID
20519090 View in PubMed
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Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011-12.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298422
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-03-2019
Author
Valerie Tarasuk
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain
Andrew Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Date
Jan-03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Geography
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Household food insecurity is a potent social determinant of health and health care costs in Canada, but understanding of the social and economic conditions that underlie households' vulnerability to food insecurity is limited.
Data from the 2011-12 Canadian Community Health Survey were used to determine predictors of household food insecurity among a nationally-representative sample of 120,909 households. Household food insecurity over the past 12?months was assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately, or severely food insecure based on the number of affirmative responses. Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to determine geographic and socio-demographic predictors of presence and severity of household food insecurity.
The prevalence of household food insecurity ranged from 11.8% in Ontario to 41.0% in Nunavut. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, households' odds of food insecurity were lower in Quebec and higher in the Maritimes, territories, and Alberta, compared to Ontario. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were also higher among households reliant on social assistance, Employment Insurance or workers' compensation, those without a university degree, those with children under 18, unattached individuals, renters, and those with an Aboriginal respondent. Higher income, immigration, and reliance on seniors' income sources were protective against food insecurity. Living in Nunavut and relying on social assistance were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity, but severity was also associated with income, education, household composition, Aboriginal status, immigration status, and place of residence. The relation between income and food insecurity status was graded, with every $1000 increase in income associated with 2% lower odds of marginal food insecurity, 4% lower odds of moderate food insecurity, and 5% lower odds of severe food insecurity.
The probability of household food insecurity in Canada and the severity of the experience depends on a household's province or territory of residence, income, main source of income, housing tenure, education, Aboriginal status, and household structure. Our findings highlight the intersection of household food insecurity with public policy decisions in Canada and the disproportionate burden of food insecurity among Indigenous peoples.
PubMed ID
30606152 View in PubMed
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The assessment of food security in homeless individuals: a comparison of the Food Security Survey Module and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133107
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2254-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Anna C Holland
Matthew C Kennedy
Stephen W Hwang
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W8, Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2254-9
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Guidelines as Topic
Homeless Persons
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Software
United States
Abstract
To compare the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the US Food Security Survey Module (US FSSM) and a modified version of the US FSSM in which references to buying food were changed to references to getting food, in terms of their classification of food security levels among homeless individuals, and to determine which of these instruments was most preferred by homeless individuals.
A cross-sectional survey.
Recruitment of participants took place at seven shelters and from three drop-in programmes that serve homeless individuals in Toronto, Canada.
Fifty individuals who were =18 years of age, able to communicate in English and currently homeless.
The modified US FSSM assigned 20% of participants to a lower ordinal food security category compared with the US FSSM, and only 8% to a higher food security category. The HFIAS assigned 30% of participants to a lower food security category compared with either the US FSSM or the modified US FSSM, and only 10-16% of participants to a higher food security category. When asked to compare all three instruments, the majority of respondents (62%) selected the HFIAS as the best instrument for people who are homeless.
A majority of homeless individuals selected the HFIAS as the best food security instrument for people who are homeless. Our findings suggest that the HFIAS is a more appropriate instrument than the US FSSM for measuring food security in the homeless population.
PubMed ID
21740619 View in PubMed
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The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123211
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:464
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
James Ford
Marie-Pierre Lardeau
Will Vanderbilt
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. james.ford@mcgill.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:464
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Educational Status
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Assistance - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nunavut - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Community food programs (CFPs), including soup kitchens and food banks, are a recent development in larger settlements in the Canadian Arctic. Our understanding of utilization of these programs is limited as food systems research has not studied the marginalised and transient populations using CFPs, constraining service planning for some of the most vulnerable community members. This paper reports on a baseline study conducted with users of CFPs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, to identify and characterize utilization and document their food security experience.
Open ended interviews and a fixed-choice survey on a census (n?=?94) were conducted with of users of the food bank, soup kitchen, and friendship centre over a 1?month period, along with key informant interviews.
Users of CFPs are more likely to be Inuit, be unemployed, and have not completed high school compared to the general Iqaluit population, while also reporting high dependence on social assistance, low household income, and an absence of hunters in the household. The majority report using CFPs for over a year and on a regular basis.
The inability of users to obtain sufficient food must be understood in the context of socio-economic transformations that have affected Inuit society over the last half century as former semi-nomadic hunting groups were resettled into permanent settlements. The resulting livelihood changes profoundly affected how food is produced, processed, distributed, and consumed, and the socio-cultural relationships surrounding such activities. Consequences have included the rising importance of material resources for food access, the weakening of social safety mechanisms through which more vulnerable community members would have traditionally been supported, and acculturative stress. Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22720722 View in PubMed
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A health and nutritional evaluation of changes in agriculture in the past quarter century in British Columbia: implications for food security.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142054
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jun;7(6):2653-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Aleck Ostry
Kathryn Morrison
Author Affiliation
Social Sciences, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada. ostry@uvic.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jun;7(6):2653-65
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history - statistics & numerical data
Animals
British Columbia
Cattle
Cereals
Dietary Fats
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Policy - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Nutritional Status
Poultry
Vegetables
Abstract
This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists' advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20644694 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Inuit women exacerbated by socioeconomic stresses and climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141282
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201
Publication Type
Article
Author
Maude C Beaumier
James D Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Room 308C Burnside Hall, 805 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, QC H3A 2K6.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Climate change
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Financing, Personal
Focus Groups
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - psychology
Middle Aged
Nunavut - ethnology
Socioeconomic Factors
Women's health
Abstract
To identify and characterize the determinants of food insecurity among Inuit women.
A community-based study in Igloolik, Nunavut, using semi-structured interviews (n = 36) and focus groups (n = 5) with Inuit women, and key informants interviews with health professionals (n = 13).
There is a high prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit females in Igloolik, with women in the study reporting skipping meals and reducing food intake on a regular basis. Food insecurity is largely transitory in nature and influenced by food affordability and budgeting; food knowledge; education and preferences; food quality and availability; absence of a full-time hunter in the household; cost of harvesting; poverty; and addiction. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate-related stresses.
Inuit women's food insecurity in Igloolik is the outcome of multiple determinants operating at different spatial-temporal scales. Climate change and external socio-economic stresses are exacerbating difficulties in obtaining sufficient food. Coping strategies currently utilized to manage food insecurity are largely reactive and short-term in nature, and could increase food system vulnerability to future stresses. Intervention by local, territorial and federal governments is required to implement, coordinate and monitor strategies to enhance women's food security, strengthen the food system, and reduce vulnerability to future stressors.
PubMed ID
20737808 View in PubMed
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Climate change and environmental impacts on maternal and newborn health with focus on Arctic populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129632
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:48-58.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas. Results: The total number of environmental
  1 document  
Author
Charlotta Rylander
Jon Ø Odland
Torkjel M Sandanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:48-58.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
813640
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenhouse Effect
Housing
Humans
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Welfare
Pregnancy
Abstract
In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presented a report on global warming and the impact of human activities on global warming. Later the Lancet commission identified six ways human health could be affected. Among these were not environmental factors which are also believed to be important for human health. In this paper we therefore focus on environmental factors, climate change and the predicted effects on maternal and newborn health. Arctic issues are discussed specifically considering their exposure and sensitivity to long range transported contaminants.
Considering that the different parts of pregnancy are particularly sensitive time periods for the effects of environmental exposure, this review focuses on the impacts on maternal and newborn health. Environmental stressors known to affects human health and how these will change with the predicted climate change are addressed. Air pollution and food security are crucial issues for the pregnant population in a changing climate, especially indoor climate and food security in Arctic areas.
The total number of environmental factors is today responsible for a large number of the global deaths, especially in young children. Climate change will most likely lead to an increase in this number. Exposure to the different environmental stressors especially air pollution will in most parts of the world increase with climate change, even though some areas might face lower exposure. Populations at risk today are believed to be most heavily affected. As for the persistent organic pollutants a warming climate leads to a remobilisation and a possible increase in food chain exposure in the Arctic and thus increased risk for Arctic populations. This is especially the case for mercury. The perspective for the next generations will be closely connected to the expected temperature changes; changes in housing conditions; changes in exposure patterns; predicted increased exposure to Mercury because of increased emissions and increased biological availability.
A number of environmental stressors are predicted to increase with climate change and increasingly affecting human health. Efforts should be put on reducing risk for the next generation, thus global politics and research effort should focus on maternal and newborn health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22084626 View in PubMed
Documents

Rylander-Vulnerable_populations.pdf

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Women's dietary intakes in the context of household food insecurity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202843
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):672-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
V S Tarasuk
G H Beaton
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):672-9
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Energy intake
Female
Folic Acid - administration & dosage
Food Services
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Iron - administration & dosage
Magnesium - administration & dosage
Nutritional Status
Ontario
Vitamin A - administration & dosage
Women's health
Abstract
A study of food insecurity and nutritional adequacy was conducted with a sample of 153 women in families receiving emergency food assistance in Toronto, Canada. Contemporaneous data on dietary intake and household food security over the past 30 d were available for 145 of the women. Analyses of these data revealed that women who reported hunger in their households during the past 30 d also reported systematically lower intakes of energy and a number of nutrients. The effect of household-level hunger on intake persisted even when other economic, socio-cultural, and behavioral influences on reported dietary intake were considered. Estimated prevalences of inadequacy in excess of 15% were noted for Vitamin A, folate, iron, and magnesium in this sample, suggesting that the low levels of intake associated with severe household food insecurity are in a range that could put women at risk of nutrient deficiencies.
PubMed ID
10082773 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203007
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
A M Hamelin
J P Habicht
M. Beaudry
Author Affiliation
Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Family
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Social Alienation
Social Values
Stress, Psychological
Urban Population
Abstract
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.
PubMed ID
10064323 View in PubMed
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Household food insecurity with hunger is associated with women's food intakes, health and household circumstances.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193081
Source
J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2670-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001
Author
V S Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2670-6
Date
Oct-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - etiology
Data Collection
Diet Records
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Services
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Middle Aged
Ontario
Poverty
Social Support
Abstract
This study investigated food intake patterns and contextual factors related to household food insecurity with hunger among a sample of 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance in Toronto. Women in households characterized by food insecurity with severe or moderate hunger over the past 30 d (as assessed by the Food Security Module) reported lower intakes of vegetables and fruit, and meat and alternatives than those in households with no hunger evident. Women were more likely to report household food insecurity with hunger over the past 12 mo and 30 d if they also reported longstanding health problems or activity limitations, or if they were socially isolated. The circumstances that women identified as precipitating acute food shortages in their households included chronically inadequate incomes; the need to meet additional, unusual expenditures; and the need to pay for other services or accumulated debts. Women who reported delaying payments of bills, giving up services, selling or pawning possessions, or sending children elsewhere for a meal when threatened with acute food shortages were more likely to report household food insecurity with hunger. These findings suggest that expenditures on other goods and services were sometimes foregone to free up money for food, but the reverse was also true. Household food insecurity appears inextricably linked to financial insecurity.
PubMed ID
11584089 View in PubMed
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Associations between household food insecurity and health outcomes in the Aboriginal population (excluding reserves).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132094
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Noreen Willows
Paul Veugelers
Kim Raine
Stefan Kuhle
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2T4. willows@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Nutrition Surveys
Quality of Life
Smoking - ethnology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal people are more vulnerable to food insecurity and morbidity than is the Canadian population overall. However, little information is available about the association between food insecurity and health in Aboriginal households.
Data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to examine the relationships between household food security and self-reported health, well-being and health behaviours in a sample of 837 Aboriginal adults living off reserve. Household food security status was based on Health Canada's interpretation of the United States Household Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders.
An estimated 29% of Aboriginal people aged 18 or older lived in food-insecure households. They were more likely to report poor general and mental health, life dissatisfaction, a very weak sense of community belonging, high stress and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts in food-secure households. When age, gender and household education were taken into account, respondents from food-insecure households had significantly higher odds of poor general health, high stress, life dissatisfaction, and a very weak community belonging.
Reductions in household food insecurity may improve the health and well-being of Aboriginals living off-reserve.
PubMed ID
21848128 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity and nutritional biomarkers in relation to stature in Inuit children from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261557
Source
Can J Public Health. 2014 Jul-Aug;105(4):e233-8
Publication Type
Article
children. Prevalence of short stature was 18.7%. Food-insecure children were an average of 2 cm shorter (95% CI: -0.48, -3.17) than food-secure children (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: In this population, food-insecure children have greater burdens of nutritional deficiencies and slower linear growth
  1 document  
Author
Catherine M Pirkle
Michel Lucas
Renée Dallaire
Pierre Ayotte
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Source
Can J Public Health. 2014 Jul-Aug;105(4):e233-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
295913
Keywords
Adolescent
Anemia - epidemiology
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - epidemiology
Biological Markers - blood
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Cohort Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Growth Disorders - epidemiology
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Iron - blood - deficiency
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Nutritional Status
Abstract
Inuit in Canada experience alarming levels of food insecurity, but nutritional and physiological consequences are poorly documented, especially in school-age children. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of food insecurity to iron deficiency and stature in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Quebec).
Food insecurity, iron deficiency, and stature were assessed in a cohort of children. Food insecurity was determined by interviewing the children's mothers. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of food insecurity to iron deficiency and short stature. We defined short stature as a height in the lowest tertile for age and sex, based on Canadian growth charts. The relation of food insecurity to height (cm) was analyzed with a general linear model. Statistical models controlled for age, sex, normal/overweight/obese status, prenatal lead exposure and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyls exposure.
Half of the children (49.7%, n=145) were food insecure, while one third were iron depleted, 12.6% had anaemia, and 8.7% had iron-deficiency anaemia. The multivariate odds ratio of anaemia was 1.82 (95% CI: 0.97, 3.42, p=0.06) for food-insecure children. Prevalence of short stature was 18.7%. Food-insecure children were an average of 2 cm shorter (95% CI: -0.48, -3.17) than food-secure children (p
PubMed ID
25166123 View in PubMed
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