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Putting food on the public health table: Making food security relevant to regional health authorities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168392
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):233-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Karen Rideout
Barbara Seed
Aleck Ostry
Author Affiliation
Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. krideout@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):233-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Family Characteristics
Food Supply - standards
Health promotion
Humans
Hunger
Models, organizational
Nutrition Policy
Nutritive Value
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Public Health - trends
Regional Health Planning - methods
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
Food security is emerging as an increasingly important public health issue. The purpose of this paper is to describe a conceptual model and five classes of food security indicators for regional health authorities (RHAs): direct, indirect, consequence, process, and supra-regional. The model was developed after a review of the food security literature and interviews with British Columbia community nutritionists and public health officials. We offer this conceptual model as a practical tool to help RHAs develop a comprehensive framework and use specific indicators, in conjunction with public health nutritionists and other community stakeholders. We recommend using all five classes of indicator together to ensure a complete assessment of the full breadth of food security. This model will be useful for Canadian health authorities wishing to take a holistic community-based approach to public health nutrition to develop more effective policies and programs to maximize food security. The model and indicators offer a rational process that could be useful for collaborative multi-stakeholder initiatives to improve food security.
PubMed ID
16827415 View in PubMed
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Predictors and outcomes of household food insecurity among inner city families with preschool children in Vancouver.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168395
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Margaret A Broughton
Patricia S Janssen
Clyde Hertzman
Sheila M Innis
C James Frankish
Author Affiliation
Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. margaret_broughton@telus.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Cooking - instrumentation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Income
Male
Malnutrition - epidemiology - etiology
Nutritive Value
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to measure household food security and to determine its association with potential predictor variables related to household and community environments, as well as the relationship between household food insecurity and preschool children's nutritional status.
In this cross-sectional study, household food security was measured in a convenience sample of households (n=142) with children aged 2-5 years in Vancouver in March 2004. We assessed the association between environmental predictors and household food security status, adjusted for household income. Indicators of children's nutrition were compared between categories of household food security.
Household food insecurity was associated with indicators of suboptimal health status in preschoolers. After controlling for household income, parents with less access to food of reasonable quality, fewer kitchen appliances and a lower rating of their cooking skills had greater odds of experiencing household food insecurity.
Our study results support the need to test interventions involving collaborative efforts among government, social planners and public health practitioners to remove barriers to food security for families. Multiple measures, including opportunities to gain practical food skills and household resources that enable convenient preparation of nutrient-dense foods, could be examined. Our findings suggest the need for improved selection and quality at existing small stores and an increase in the number of food outlets in low-income neighbourhoods.
PubMed ID
16827410 View in PubMed
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An examination of at-home food preparation activity among low-income, food-insecure women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183147
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Nov;103(11):1506-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
Carey McLaughlin
Valerie Tarasuk
Nancy Kreiger
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Nov;103(11):1506-12
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cooking - methods
Diet
Energy intake
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health promotion
Humans
Hunger
Income
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Poverty
United States
Women's health
Abstract
A secondary analysis of data from a study of nutritional vulnerability among 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance was undertaken to estimate the extent and nutritional significance of at-home food preparation activity for these women. At-home food preparation was estimated from women's reported food intakes from three 24-hour recalls. The relationships between food preparation and energy and nutrient intake, food intake, and 30-day household food security status were characterized. Almost all participants (97%) consumed foods prepared from scratch at least once during the three days of observation; 57% did so each day. Both the frequency and complexity of at-home food preparation were positively related to women's energy and nutrient intakes and their consumption of fruits and vegetables, grain products, and meat and alternates. The intakes by women in households with food insecurity with hunger reflected less complex food preparation but no less preparation from scratch than women in households where hunger was not evident, raising questions about the extent to which food skills can protect very poor families from food insecurity and hunger. Our findings indicate the need for nutrition professionals to become effective advocates for policy reforms to lessen economic constraints on poor households.
PubMed ID
14576717 View in PubMed
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Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138900
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Stacey Marjerrison
Elizabeth A Cummings
N Theresa Glanville
Sara F L Kirk
Mary Ledwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Diet
Disease Management
Female
Health Behavior
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of food insecurity in households with a child with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (DM), investigate whether food insecurity is associated with poorer DM control, and describe the household characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families with a child with DM.
Telephone interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting families over a 16-month period. Food insecurity was assessed through a validated questionnaire; additional questions elicited demographic information and DM management strategies. Charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.
A total of 183 families were interviewed. Food insecurity was present in 21.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.87%-27.85%), significantly higher than the overall prevalences in Nova Scotia (14.6%) and Canada (9.2%). Food insecurity was associated with higher HbA1c level; however, in multivariate analysis, only child's age and parents' education were independent predictors of HbA1c. Children from food-insecure families had higher rates of hospitalization, for which food security status was the only independent predictor. Common characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families were identified.
Food insecurity was more common in families with a child with DM, and the presence of food insecurity was predictive of the child's hospitalization. Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM.
PubMed ID
21126743 View in PubMed
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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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Food-based approaches to combat the double burden among the poor: challenges in the Asian context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157021
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Geok Lin Khor
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia. khorgl@medic.upm.edu.my
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - methods - standards
Asia - epidemiology
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Malnutrition - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nutritional Status
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Poverty
Abstract
Estimates of FAO indicate that 14% of the population worldwide or 864 million in 2002-2004 were undernourished in not having enough food to meet basic daily energy needs. Asia has the highest number of undernourished people, with 163 million in East Asia and 300 million in South Asia. Meanwhile obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases continue to escalate in the region. The double burden of malnutrition also affects the poor, which is a serious problem in Asia, as it has the largest number of poor subsisting on less than $1/day. As poverty in the region is predominantly rural, agriculture-based strategies are important for improving household food security and nutritional status. These measures include shifting toward production of high-value products for boosting income, enhancing agricultural biodiversity, increasing consumption of indigenous food plants and biofortified crops. Urban poor faces additional nutritional problems being more sensitive to rising costs of living, lack of space for home and school gardening, and trade-offs between convenience and affordability versus poor diet quality and risk of contamination. Time constraints faced by working couples in food preparation and child care are also important considerations. Combating the double burden among the poor requires a comprehensive approach including adequate public health services, and access to education and employment skills, besides nutrition interventions.
PubMed ID
18296315 View in PubMed
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Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107728
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
- Centre for Applied Biostatistics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3 1nstitute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Background. In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is
  1 document  
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Max Petzold
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Greenlandic Branch, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Male
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level.
To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use.
The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home.
Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.06) (p
Notes
Cites: Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 May;12(3):310-619333121
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Cites: J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2009 Aug;20(3):645-6119648695
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-30320519090
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 1;172(7):809-1820716700
Cites: Soc Serv Rev. 2010;84(3):381-40120873019
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2011 May;72(9):1454-6221497429
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Cites: J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-722323760
Cites: Med Care. 1990 Jan;28(1):69-862296217
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-3117319086
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2007 Apr;10(4):364-7017362532
Cites: Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):65-7218166558
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Cites: Pediatrics. 2008 Sep;122(3):e529-4018762488
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Aug;12(8):1150-619105863
PubMed ID
23984271 View in PubMed
Documents
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Household food insecurity with hunger is associated with women's food intakes, health and household circumstances.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193081
Source
J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2670-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001
Author
V S Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2670-6
Date
Oct-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - etiology
Data Collection
Diet Records
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Services
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Middle Aged
Ontario
Poverty
Social Support
Abstract
This study investigated food intake patterns and contextual factors related to household food insecurity with hunger among a sample of 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance in Toronto. Women in households characterized by food insecurity with severe or moderate hunger over the past 30 d (as assessed by the Food Security Module) reported lower intakes of vegetables and fruit, and meat and alternatives than those in households with no hunger evident. Women were more likely to report household food insecurity with hunger over the past 12 mo and 30 d if they also reported longstanding health problems or activity limitations, or if they were socially isolated. The circumstances that women identified as precipitating acute food shortages in their households included chronically inadequate incomes; the need to meet additional, unusual expenditures; and the need to pay for other services or accumulated debts. Women who reported delaying payments of bills, giving up services, selling or pawning possessions, or sending children elsewhere for a meal when threatened with acute food shortages were more likely to report household food insecurity with hunger. These findings suggest that expenditures on other goods and services were sometimes foregone to free up money for food, but the reverse was also true. Household food insecurity appears inextricably linked to financial insecurity.
PubMed ID
11584089 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Inuit women exacerbated by socioeconomic stresses and climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141282
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201
Publication Type
Article
Author
Maude C Beaumier
James D Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Room 308C Burnside Hall, 805 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, QC H3A 2K6.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Climate change
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Financing, Personal
Focus Groups
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - psychology
Middle Aged
Nunavut - ethnology
Socioeconomic Factors
Women's health
Abstract
To identify and characterize the determinants of food insecurity among Inuit women.
A community-based study in Igloolik, Nunavut, using semi-structured interviews (n = 36) and focus groups (n = 5) with Inuit women, and key informants interviews with health professionals (n = 13).
There is a high prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit females in Igloolik, with women in the study reporting skipping meals and reducing food intake on a regular basis. Food insecurity is largely transitory in nature and influenced by food affordability and budgeting; food knowledge; education and preferences; food quality and availability; absence of a full-time hunter in the household; cost of harvesting; poverty; and addiction. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate-related stresses.
Inuit women's food insecurity in Igloolik is the outcome of multiple determinants operating at different spatial-temporal scales. Climate change and external socio-economic stresses are exacerbating difficulties in obtaining sufficient food. Coping strategies currently utilized to manage food insecurity are largely reactive and short-term in nature, and could increase food system vulnerability to future stresses. Intervention by local, territorial and federal governments is required to implement, coordinate and monitor strategies to enhance women's food security, strengthen the food system, and reduce vulnerability to future stressors.
PubMed ID
20737808 View in PubMed
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A critical examination of community-based responses to household food insecurity in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193976
Source
Health Educ Behav. 2001 Aug;28(4):487-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
V. Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca
Source
Health Educ Behav. 2001 Aug;28(4):487-99
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Charities - organization & administration
Community Health Planning - organization & administration
Consumer Participation
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Program Evaluation
Public Health
Abstract
Over the past two decades, household food insecurity has emerged as a significant social problem and serious public health concern in the "First World." In Canada, communities initially responded by establishing ad hoc charitable food assistance programs, but the programs have become institutionalized. In the quest for more appropriate and effective responses, a variety of community development programs have recently been initiated. Some are designed to foster personal empowerment through self-help and mutual support; others promote community-level strategies to strengthen local control over food production. The capacity of current initiatives to improve household food security appears limited by their inability to overcome or alter the poverty that under-pins this problem. This may relate to the continued focus on food-based responses, the ad hoc and community-based nature of the initiatives, and their origins in publicly funded health and social service sectors.
PubMed ID
11465158 View in PubMed
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Women's dietary intakes in the context of household food insecurity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202843
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):672-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
V S Tarasuk
G H Beaton
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Mar;129(3):672-9
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diet
Energy intake
Female
Folic Acid - administration & dosage
Food Services
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Iron - administration & dosage
Magnesium - administration & dosage
Nutritional Status
Ontario
Vitamin A - administration & dosage
Women's health
Abstract
A study of food insecurity and nutritional adequacy was conducted with a sample of 153 women in families receiving emergency food assistance in Toronto, Canada. Contemporaneous data on dietary intake and household food security over the past 30 d were available for 145 of the women. Analyses of these data revealed that women who reported hunger in their households during the past 30 d also reported systematically lower intakes of energy and a number of nutrients. The effect of household-level hunger on intake persisted even when other economic, socio-cultural, and behavioral influences on reported dietary intake were considered. Estimated prevalences of inadequacy in excess of 15% were noted for Vitamin A, folate, iron, and magnesium in this sample, suggesting that the low levels of intake associated with severe household food insecurity are in a range that could put women at risk of nutrient deficiencies.
PubMed ID
10082773 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203007
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
A M Hamelin
J P Habicht
M. Beaudry
Author Affiliation
Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 1999 Feb;129(2S Suppl):525S-528S
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Family
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Social Alienation
Social Values
Stress, Psychological
Urban Population
Abstract
A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.
PubMed ID
10064323 View in PubMed
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Conceptualizing and contextualizing food insecurity among Greenlandic children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113776
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:19928
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Michal Molcho
Steven Arnfjord
Christina Schnohr
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. niclasen@greennet.gl
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:19928
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Development
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Behavior
Child
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Diet
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Prevalence
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
To review the context of food insecurity in Greenlandic children, to review and compare the outcomes related to food insecurity in Greenlandic children, in other Arctic child populations and in other western societies, and to explore the measure used by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.
The study includes literature reviews, focus group interviews with children and analyses of data from the HBSC study. HBSC is an international cross-national school-based survey on child and adolescent health and health behaviour in the age groups 11, 13 and 15 years and performed in more than 40 countries. The item on food insecurity is "Some young people go to school or to bed hungry because there is not enough food in the home. How often does this happen to you?" (with the response options: "Always", "Often", "Sometimes", or "Never").
The context to food security among Inuit in Arctic regions was found to be very similar and connected to a westernization of the diet and contamination of the traditional diet. The major challenges are contamination, economic access to healthy food and socio-demographic differences in having a healthy diet. The literature on outcomes related to food insecurity in children in Western societies was reviewed and grouped based on 8 domains. Using data from the Greenlandic HBSC data from 2010, the item on food security showed negative associations on central items in all these domains. Focus group interviews with children revealed face and content validity of the HBSC item.
Triangulation of the above-mentioned findings indicates that the HBSC measure of food shortage is a reliable indicator of food insecurity in Greenlandic schoolchildren. However, more research is needed, especially on explanatory and mediating factors.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Feb;69(1):13-2420167153
Cites: CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):243-820100848
Cites: J Nutr. 2010 Jun;140(6):1167-920410087
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-30320519090
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-3117319086
PubMed ID
23687639 View in PubMed
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Discrepancies in households and other stakeholders viewpoints on the food security experience: a gap to address.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150004
Source
Health Educ Res. 2010 Jun;25(3):401-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Anne-Marie Hamelin
Céline Mercier
Annie Bédard
Author Affiliation
1Department of Food Sciences.utrition, Pavillon Paul-Comtois, Université Laval, 2425 rue de l'Agriculture, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6. anne-marie.hamelin@fsaa.ulaval.ca
Source
Health Educ Res. 2010 Jun;25(3):401-12
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Community Networks - standards
Community-Based Participatory Research
Female
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Hunger
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Needs Assessment - standards
Perception
Qualitative Research
Quebec
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper reports results from a case study on household food insecurity needs and the interventions that address them. It aimed at comparing households' perceptions on food insecurity experience and vulnerability to those of other stakeholders: community workers, programme managers and representatives from donor agencies. Semi-structured interviews with 55 households and 59 other stakeholders were conducted. Content analysis was performed, using a framework encompassing food sufficiency, characterization of household food insecurity and vulnerability of households to food insecurity. Overall, the results draw attention to a gap between households and the other stakeholders, where the later do not seem always able to assess the realities of food-insecure households. Other areas of divergences include: characteristics of food insecurity, relative importance of various risk factors related to food insecurity and the effectiveness of the community assistance to enhance the households' ability to face food insecurity. These divergent perceptions may jeopardize the implementation of sustainable solutions to food insecurity. Training of stakeholders for a better assessment of households' experience and needs, and systematic evaluation of interventions, appear urgent and highly relevant for an adequate response to households' needs. Collaboration between all stakeholders should lead to knowledge sharing and advocacy for policies dedicated to poverty reduction.
PubMed ID
19564176 View in PubMed
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Beverage consumption in low income, "milk-friendly" families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150389
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(2):95-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
N Theresa Glanville
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(2):95-8
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Beverages - economics - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Infant
Male
Mental Recall
Milk - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poverty
Questionnaires
Abstract
Beverage consumption by poor, lone mother-led, "milk-friendly" families living in Atlantic Canada was characterized over a one-month income cycle.
Beverage intake and food security status were assessed weekly, using a 24-hour dietary recall and the Cornell-Radimer food insecurity questionnaire. Families were classified as "milk friendly" if total consumption of milk was 720 mL on a single day during the month. Beverage intake was assessed using t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc comparisons, and chi-square analysis.
Milk consumption by milk-friendly families (76; total sample, 129) was highest at the time of the month when they had the most money to spend. During all time intervals, mothers consumed the least amount of milk and children aged one to three years consumed the most. Mothers consumed carbonated beverages disproportionately, while children of all ages consumed more fruit juice/drink. Mothers' coffee consumption was profoundly increased when either they or their children were hungry.
The quality of beverage intake by members of low-income households fluctuates in accordance with financial resources available to purchase foods. Mothers' beverage intake is compromised by the degree of food insecurity the family experiences.
PubMed ID
19515273 View in PubMed
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Assessing the relevance of neighbourhood characteristics to the household food security of low-income Toronto families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145125
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Boulevard EPN 4005, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. sharon.kirkpatrick@nih.gov
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul;13(7):1139-48
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Commerce - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Although the sociodemographic characteristics of food-insecure households have been well documented, there has been little examination of neighbourhood characteristics in relation to this problem. In the present study we examined the association between household food security and neighbourhood features including geographic food access and perceived neighbourhood social capital.
Cross-sectional survey and mapping of discount supermarkets and community food programmes.
Twelve high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Respondents from 484 low-income families who had children and who lived in rental accommodations.
Food insecurity was pervasive, affecting two-thirds of families with about a quarter categorized as severely food insecure, indicative of food deprivation. Food insecurity was associated with household factors including income and income source. However, food security did not appear to be mitigated by proximity to food retail or community food programmes, and high rates of food insecurity were observed in neighbourhoods with good geographic food access. While low perceived neighbourhood social capital was associated with higher odds of food insecurity, this effect did not persist once we accounted for household sociodemographic factors.
Our findings raise questions about the extent to which neighbourhood-level interventions to improve factors such as food access or social cohesion can mitigate problems of food insecurity that are rooted in resource constraints. In contrast, the results reinforce the importance of household-level characteristics and highlight the need for interventions to address the financial constraints that underlie problems of food insecurity.
PubMed ID
20196916 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity in Canada: considerations for monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155340
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Jul-Aug;99(4):324-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. sharon.kirkpatrick@utoronto.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2008 Jul-Aug;99(4):324-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Energy intake
Family Characteristics
Food Supply - economics
Health Policy
Humans
Hunger
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Poverty
Public Policy
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Food insecurity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of health, is estimated to have affected almost one in ten Canadian households in 2004. Analyses of indicators of household food insecurity on several recent population health surveys have shed light on markers of vulnerability and the public health implications of this problem. However, the lack of detailed information on the economic circumstances of households and inconsistent measurement across surveys thwart attempts to develop a deeper understanding of problems of food insecurity. To better inform the development and evaluation of policies to address food insecurity among Canadian households, more effective monitoring is needed. This requires the consistent administration of a well-validated measure of food security on a population survey that routinely collects detailed information on the economic circumstances of households. Health professionals can contribute to the amelioration of problems of food insecurity in Canada by advocating for improved monitoring of the problem at a population level.
PubMed ID
18767280 View in PubMed
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