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Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138900
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Stacey Marjerrison
Elizabeth A Cummings
N Theresa Glanville
Sara F L Kirk
Mary Ledwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Diet
Disease Management
Female
Health Behavior
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of food insecurity in households with a child with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (DM), investigate whether food insecurity is associated with poorer DM control, and describe the household characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families with a child with DM.
Telephone interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting families over a 16-month period. Food insecurity was assessed through a validated questionnaire; additional questions elicited demographic information and DM management strategies. Charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.
A total of 183 families were interviewed. Food insecurity was present in 21.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.87%-27.85%), significantly higher than the overall prevalences in Nova Scotia (14.6%) and Canada (9.2%). Food insecurity was associated with higher HbA1c level; however, in multivariate analysis, only child's age and parents' education were independent predictors of HbA1c. Children from food-insecure families had higher rates of hospitalization, for which food security status was the only independent predictor. Common characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families were identified.
Food insecurity was more common in families with a child with DM, and the presence of food insecurity was predictive of the child's hospitalization. Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM.
PubMed ID
21126743 View in PubMed
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Hospital care for heart attacks among First Nations, Inuit and Métis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294128
Source
Canadian Institute for Health Information. viii,
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2013
contexts, shape their social determinants of health (such as income, education, food security and housing);7 these factors can create barriers to adequate, timely and culturally appropriate health care .7, 8 Aboriginal peoples are disproportionally represented among socio-economically disadvantaged
  1 document  
Source
Canadian Institute for Health Information. viii,
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
3886956
Keywords
Canada
Humans
Inuits
First Nations
Métis
Heart attacks
Hospital care
Intervention
Prevention
Treatment
Statistics
Notes
ISBN 978-1-77109-154-1
Documents

HeartAttacksFirstNationsEn-Web.pdf

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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257212
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Bogdan Cristescu
Gordon B Stenhouse
Mark S Boyce
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Choice Behavior
Ecosystem
Female
Food chain
Humans
Male
Ursidae
Abstract
On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e2790522194798
Cites: Oecologia. 2009 Mar;159(3):669-7819089457
Cites: Q Rev Biol. 1995 Jun;70(2):165-917610234
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 22;272(1581):2627-3416321785
Cites: Ecology. 2011 Feb;92(2):398-40721618919
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2008 Apr;23(4):194-20118308423
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e3169922363710
Cites: PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e1195420694139
Cites: Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-6721298447
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Aug;22(8):394-40017590476
PubMed ID
24367549 View in PubMed
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Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186436
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
N J Stern
K L Hiett
G A Alfredsson
K G Kristinsson
J. Reiersen
H. Hardardottir
H. Briem
E. Gunnarsson
F. Georgsson
R. Lowman
E. Berndtson
A M Lammerding
G M Paoli
M T Musgrove
Author Affiliation
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, 950 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30604-5677, USA.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abattoirs
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Chickens - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Risk assessment
Seasons
Abstract
We describe the observed relationship of campylobacter in poultry operations to human cases in a closed environment. During 1999 in Iceland, domestic cases of campylobacteriosis reached peak levels at 116/100,000 and in 2000 dropped to 33/100,000. Approximately 62% of broiler carcass rinses were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in 1999. During 2000, only 15% of the broiler flocks tested Campylobacter spp. positive. In 2000, carcasses from flocks which tested positive on the farms at 4 weeks of age were subsequently frozen prior to distribution. We suggest that public education, enhanced on-farm biological security measures, carcass freezing and other unidentified factors, such as variations in weather, contributed to the large reduction in poultry-borne campylobacteriosis. There is no immediate basis for assigning credit to any specific intervention. We continue to seek additional information to understand the decline in campylobacteriosis and to create a risk assessment model for Campylobacter spp. transmission through this well defined system.
PubMed ID
12613742 View in PubMed
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Barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity for First Nation youths in northern Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82158
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Skinner Kelly
Hanning Rhona M
Tsuji Leonard J S
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Diet - economics - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Rural Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity in youths in a remote sub-arctic community, Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative multi-method participatory approach. METHODS: The study included a purposive convenience sample of two adult (n = 22) and three youths (n = 30; students in grades 6 to 8) focus groups, unstructured one-on-one interviews with adult key informants (n = 7), and a scan of the community environment. Data were coded and analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Hurricane thinking and concept mapping were used to illustrate findings and relationships between concepts. RESULTS: Dominant emerging themes included empowerment, trust, resources, barriers and opportunities, while major sub-themes included food security, cost, accessibility/availability, capacity building, community support, programs/training and the school snack/breakfast program. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers to healthy nutrition and physical activity exist in this community and are possibly similar in other remote communities. Empowerment is a core issue that should be considered in the design of public health interventions for First Nations youths in remote sub-arctic communities.
PubMed ID
16711466 View in PubMed
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Military small group performance under isolation and stress - an annotated bibliography. I. Basic psychology of group behavior.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298801
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-61-19. 150 p.
Publication Type
Bibliography/Resource List
Date
October 1961
was specially admired when exposing more than that, except for situations, where the security of the whole community was threatened. Thus the volunteers to unnecessary patrols were by no means admired as heroes. 5. "The cowards • • • were never deeply despised; the men rather laughed at the few
  1 document  
Author
Sells, S.B.
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-61-19. 150 p.
Date
October 1961
Language
English
Publication Type
Bibliography/Resource List
File Size
26502038
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Humans
Military Personnel
Group behavior
Environmental stress
Organizational management
Leadership
Abstract
The annotated bibliographies in this series include the following titles issued as separate publications: I. The Basic Psychology of Group Behavior. II. Dimensions of Group Structure and Group Behavior. III. Environmental Stress and Behavior Ecology. IV. Organizational Staffing. V. Organizational Management and Leadership, VI. Leadership in Formal Groups.
In addition, a special methodological review of approaches to the analysis of sociometric data has been prepared as a separate report.
The present report, Basic Psychology of Group Behavior, is organized in six sections: A. General Studies and Reviews, B. Roles, Status and Intra-Group Interactions, C. Communication and Information, D. Individual Perceptions in Group Behavior, E. Attitudes and Attitude Change, and F. Methodological Studies.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.61-19
Documents
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Cold, casualties, and conquests: the effect of cold on warfare.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298806
Source
Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments, Volume 1. Chapter 12. p.313-349.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2002
has had a greater effect on mechanized warfare than the fro- zen terrain of winter,5 countless wars have been started in summer and brought to a slower pace during winter. The best-laid plans often came to naught if armies were caught in the grip of winter,6 ill-equipped and unable to obtain food
  1 document  
Author
Paton, Bruce C.
Author Affiliation
Clinical Professor of Surgery, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver
Source
Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments, Volume 1. Chapter 12. p.313-349.
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
411415
Keywords
Humans
Cold Temperature
Exposure
Cold injuries
Military Personnel
Documents
Less detail
Source
Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments, Volume 1. Chapter 13. p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2002
response to cold was the wind chill in- dex, which related to the cooling effect of wind on bare skin at different wind speeds. When cold weather clothing is worn correctly and all bare skin is covered, and all other logistical material (eg, food water, tents) are accounted for, there is no limit for
  1 document  
Author
Roberts, Donald E.
Hamlet, Murray P.
Source
Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments, Volume 1. Chapter 13. p.
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
499195
Keywords
Humans
Cold Temperature
Exposure
Cold injury
Military Personnel
Documents
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Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104271
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Helga Bjørnøy Urke
Zhirong R Cao
Grace M Egeland
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
PubMed ID
24864166 View in PubMed
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Reconciling traditional knowledge, food security, and climate change: experience from Old Crow, YT, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104280
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Vasiliki Douglas
Hing Man Chan
Sonia Wesche
Cindy Dickson
Norma Kassi
Lorraine Netro
Megan Williams
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods - organization & administration
Culture
Focus Groups
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Preservation - economics - methods
Food Storage - economics - methods
Food Supply - economics - methods
Gardening - education - methods
Humans
Indians, North American - education
Nutritional Sciences - education
Transportation - economics - methods
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Because of a lack of transportation infrastructure, Old Crow has the highest food costs and greatest reliance on traditional food species for sustenance of any community in Canada's Yukon Territory. Environmental, cultural, and economic change are driving increased perception of food insecurity in Old Crow.
To address community concerns regarding food security and supply in Old Crow and develop adaptation strategies to ameliorate their impact on the community.
A community adaptation workshop was held on October 13, 2009, in which representatives of different stakeholders in the community discussed a variety of food security issues facing Old Crow and how they could be dealt with. Workshop data were analyzed using keyword, subject, and narrative analysis techniques to determine community priorities in food security and adaptation.
Community concern is high and favored adaptation options include agriculture, improved food storage, and conservation through increased traditional education. These results were presented to the community for review and revision, after which the Vuntut Gwitchin Government will integrate them into its ongoing adaptation planning measures.
PubMed ID
24859099 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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Food security: what the community wants. Learning through focus groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216722
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1994;55(4):188-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
D. Hargrove
J A Dewolfe
L. Thompson
Author Affiliation
Kingston, Frontenac and Lennox and Addington Health Unit, Ontario.
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1994;55(4):188-91
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Planning - methods
Educational Status
Focus Groups
Food Services - organization & administration
Humans
Income
Interviews as Topic
Mental health
Ontario
Public Health Administration
Self Concept
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.
PubMed ID
10139320 View in PubMed
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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290437
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
a Department of Anthropology , University of Toronto Mississauga , Mississauga , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Commerce
Eligibility Determination
Food Assistance - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Program Evaluation
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jul 05;75:31127 PMID 27388896
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of food insecurity in a Greenlandic community and the importance of social, economic and environmental stressors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143145
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Christina Goldhar
James D Ford
Lea Berrang-Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Memorial University St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. christina.goldhar@mun.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diet
Environment
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Characterize and examine the prevalence of food insecurity in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, and identify stressors affecting the food system.
A mixed-methods study using quantitative food security surveys and semi-structured interviews.
Food security surveys (n=61) were conducted with a random sample of 6% of Qeqertarsuaq's population. Semi-structured interviews (n=75) allowed participants to describe in their own words their experience of food insecurity and permitted in-depth examination of determinants. Key informant interviews were used to provide context to local perspectives.
Prevalence of food insecurity (8%) is low. However, interviews reveal a more nuanced picture, with women, adults aged 55+, and non-hunters reporting constrained access to Greenlandic foods. Barriers restricting traditional food access include changing sea ice conditions, reduced availability of some species, high costs of hunting and purchasing food, tightening food sharing networks, and hunting and fishing regulations.
While the Qeqertarsuaq food system is relatively secure, the research highlights susceptibility to social, economic and environmental stressors which may become more prevalent in the future.
PubMed ID
20519090 View in PubMed
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Source
Tidsskr Sykepl. 1997 Apr 22;85(7):19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-22-1997
Author
E. Gjelsvik
Source
Tidsskr Sykepl. 1997 Apr 22;85(7):19
Date
Apr-22-1997
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Norway
Poverty
Social Security
PubMed ID
9464130 View in PubMed
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Climate change and water security with a focus on the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130014
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:65-68.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
country foods. The industries also use large quantities of surface water during winter to build ice roads and maintain infra- structure. For all of these reasons, it is critical to understand the impacts of climate change on water security in the Arctic with its specific demands. Arctic warming
  1 document  
Author
Birgitta Evengard
Jim Berner
Michael Brubaker
Gert Mulvad
Boris Revich
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. birgitta.evengard@climi.umu.se
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:65-68.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
216402
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Health status
Humans
Water Cycle
Water supply
Abstract
Water is of fundamental importance for human life; access to water of good quality is of vital concern for mankind. Currently however, the situation is under severe pressure due to several stressors that have a clear impact on access to water. In the Arctic, climate change is having an impact on water availability by melting glaciers, decreasing seasonal rates of precipitation, increasing evapotranspiration, and drying lakes and rivers existing in permafrost grounds. Water quality is also being impacted as manmade pollutants stored in the environment are released, lowland areas are flooded with salty ocean water during storms, turbidity from permafrost-driven thaw and erosion is increased, and the growth or emergence of natural pollutants are increased. By 2030 it is estimated that the world will need to produce 50% more food and energy which means a continuous increase in demand for water. Decisionmakers will have to very clearly include life quality aspects of future generations in the work as impact of ongoing changes will be noticeable, in many cases, in the future. This article will focus on effects of climate-change on water security with an Arctic perspective giving some examples from different countries how arising problems are being addressed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Jun;70(3):266-7321703129
Cites: J Exp Bot. 2011 Jun;62(10):3263-7121515638
Cites: Nature. 2010 Sep 30;467(7315):555-6120882010
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2008 Nov;98(11):2072-818382002
Cites: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006 Jan;63(1):100-716399161
PubMed ID
22043217 View in PubMed
Documents

Evengard-Climate-change.pdf

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Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130016
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011; 4:91-98.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
, Arkhangelsk has contributed substantially in the collection of samples. Conflict of interest and funding The authors have not received any funding or benefits from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study. References 1. AMAP (2004). Persistent toxic substances, food security and indigenous peoples of
  1 document  
Author
Charlotta Rylander
Torkjel M Sandanger
Natalya Petrenya
Alexei Konoplev
Evgeny Bojko
Jon Øyvind Odland
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011; 4:91-98.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
309186
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Arctic Regions
Child
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Male
Metals - blood - toxicity
Middle Aged
Organic Chemicals - blood - toxicity
Pesticides - blood - toxicity
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Russia
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001-2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community.
During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals.
PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p'-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p'-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p'-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study group from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of Cd when controlling for age and gender and the study group from Usinsk had higher concentrations of Se than the others. Compared to the results from Nelmin-Nos in 2001-2003, a clear decrease in p,p'-DDE concentrations for both women and men was observed.
The current study indicates a significant reduction of several PTSs in human blood samples from North West Russia over the past 10 years.
Notes
Cites: Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):410-721364465
Cites: Chemosphere. 2011 Apr;83(6):851-6121440286
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Sep;117(9):1380-619750101
Cites: Crit Rev Toxicol. 2009;39(3):228-6919280433
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2009 Sep 15;407(19):5216-2219608216
Cites: Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Oct 16;184(3):219-262611996
PubMed ID
22043215 View in PubMed
Documents

Rylander-Vulnerable_populations.pdf

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