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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274424
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Dec 15;49(24):13937-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2015
Author
Helen A Hamilton
M Samantha Peverill
Daniel B Müller
Helge Brattebø
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Dec 15;49(24):13937-45
Date
Dec-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Biomass
Energy-Generating Resources
Environment
Food - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply
Garbage
Models, Theoretical
Norway
Phosphorus - analysis
Recycling - methods
Systems Analysis
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.
PubMed ID
26496178 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145862
Source
CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):243-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-23-2010
Author
Grace M Egeland
Angela Pacey
Zirong Cao
Isaac Sobol
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, St-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec. grace.egeland@mcgill.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):243-8
Date
Feb-23-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Deprivation
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Nutritional Status
Public Health
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Food security (i.e., a condition in which all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life) has been noted to be lower in indigenous communities in Canada. We investigated the prevalence of inadequate food security, or food insecurity, among Inuit households with preschool children.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the health status of 388 randomly selected Inuit children aged three to five years in 16 Nunavut communities during the period from 2007 to 2008. From the survey data, we classified levels of food insecurity specifically among children. We also classified levels of overall food insecurity of the household of each child. We calculated the weighted prevalence of levels of child food insecurity and of household food insecurity.
Nearly 70% of Inuit preschoolers resided in households rated as food insecure (69.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 64.7%-74.6%). Overall, 31.0% of children were moderately food insecure, and 25.1% were severely food insecure, with a weighted prevalence of child food insecurity of 56.1% (95% CI 51.0%-61.3%). Primary care-givers in households in which children were severely food insecure reported experiencing times in the past year when their children skipped meals (75.8%), went hungry (90.4%) or did not eat for a whole day (60.1%). Primary caregivers in households in which children were moderately food insecure reported experiencing times in the past year when they worried food would run out (85.1%), when they fed their children less expensive food (95.1%) and when their children did not eat enough because there was no money for food (64.3%).
We observed a high prevalence of household food insecurity, with a substantial proportion of children with severely food insecure status. Interventions are needed to ensure a healthy start in life for Inuit preschoolers.
Notes
Cites: CMAJ. 2003 Mar 18;168(6):686-9112642423
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2010 Feb 23;182(3):228-920100847
Comment In: CMAJ. 2010 Apr 6;182(6):59220368294
PubMed ID
20100848 View in PubMed
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A critical examination of community-based responses to household food insecurity in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193976
Source
Health Educ Behav. 2001 Aug;28(4):487-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
V. Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca
Source
Health Educ Behav. 2001 Aug;28(4):487-99
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Charities - organization & administration
Community Health Planning - organization & administration
Consumer Participation
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Program Evaluation
Public Health
Abstract
Over the past two decades, household food insecurity has emerged as a significant social problem and serious public health concern in the "First World." In Canada, communities initially responded by establishing ad hoc charitable food assistance programs, but the programs have become institutionalized. In the quest for more appropriate and effective responses, a variety of community development programs have recently been initiated. Some are designed to foster personal empowerment through self-help and mutual support; others promote community-level strategies to strengthen local control over food production. The capacity of current initiatives to improve household food security appears limited by their inability to overcome or alter the poverty that under-pins this problem. This may relate to the continued focus on food-based responses, the ad hoc and community-based nature of the initiatives, and their origins in publicly funded health and social service sectors.
PubMed ID
11465158 View in PubMed
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Home is where the HAART is: an examination of factors affecting neighbourhood perceptions among people with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137670
Source
AIDS Care. 2011 Feb;23(2):245-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Krisztina Vasarhelyi
Eirikka K Brandson
Alexis K Palmer
Kimberly A Fernandes
Wendy Zhang
David M Moore
Julio S G Montaner
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. kvasarhelyi@irmacs.sfu.ca
Source
AIDS Care. 2011 Feb;23(2):245-51
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
British Columbia - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Housing
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Quality of Life
Residence Characteristics
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Understanding the neighbourhood perceptions of individuals living with HIV in urban and non-urban areas may help identify potential barriers to uptake and effectiveness of therapy. We evaluate how neighbourhood perceptions are influenced by socio-economic factors, such as food security and stable housing and other explanatory variables, among individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia. Neighbourhood perceptions, quality of life and socio-demographic information were collected in an interviewer-administered survey with study participants. Perception of neighbourhood problems, perception of neighbourhood cohesion and perception of relative standard of living were evaluated using previously defined scales. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine associations with neighbourhood perceptions, food security and stable housing. Our analyses were based on 457 participants, of whom 133 (29%) were food secure and 297 (65%) had stable housing. Mean scores for perceptions of neighbourhood problems and cohesion were 35 (IQR 15-58) and 57 (IQR 46-69), respectively. Being food secure and having stable housing was associated with a 9% and 11% decrease in perception of neighbourhood problems, respectively, and a 6% increase in the perception of neighbourhood cohesion in both cases. Food security and stable housing are related to neighbourhood perceptions among individuals on HAART. The results point to potential targets for intervention, involving improvements to living conditions such as housing and food security, which may promote treatment success for HAART, especially in marginalized communities.
PubMed ID
21259138 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Latin American recent immigrants in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141183
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Mandana Vahabi
Cynthia Damba
Cecilia Rocha
Elizabeth Cristina Montoya
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Community Services-Daphne Cockwell, School of Nursing, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3, Canada. mvahabi@ryerson.ca
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-39
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an increasing number of young immigrants, many of whom, despite relatively high education, are unemployed or have low wage positions. This study examines the extent of food insecurity and its correlates among recent Latin American (LA) immigrants in Toronto. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 70 adult LA recent immigrants. Participants were recruited from selected community health centres across Toronto using snow ball sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with primary household care givers. A considerably high rate of food insecurity (56%) was found among participants. Household food insecurity was highly related to: being on social assistance; limited proficiency in English; and the use of foodbanks. Our findings indicate that the primary correlate of a household's food security status is income, which suggests the potential for strategies to improve the financial power of new immigrants to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally acceptable food. Enhancing the employability of new immigrants, reforming the income structure for working adults beyond social assistance, and providing more subsidized English language and housing programs may be effective.
PubMed ID
20803253 View in PubMed
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First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study (FNFNES)

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288471
Publication Type
Website
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study
Language
English
French
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Website
Digital File Format
Web site (.html, .htm)
Keywords
Indigenous Collections
Traditional healing
Sharing & Teaching
Drinking Water
Food Supply
Food
Metals
Heavy
Canada
Abstract
Using an ecozone sampling framework, the FNFNES aims to gather information with 100 randomly selected First Nations communities across Canada about: current traditional and store-bought food use; food security; testing traditional foods for nutrient values and environmental chemical hazards; and testing drinking water for heavy metals and surface water for pharmaceutical metabolites.
Online Resources
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Climate change and national crop wild relative conservation planning.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295768
Source
Ambio. 2017 Oct; 46(6):630-643
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Jade Phillips
Joana Magos Brehm
Bob van Oort
Åsmund Asdal
Morten Rasmussen
Nigel Maxted
Author Affiliation
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. jadephill10@gmail.com.
Source
Ambio. 2017 Oct; 46(6):630-643
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Crops, Agricultural
Food Supply
Norway
Abstract
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security. We investigate the potential impact of climate change on CWR richness in Norway. The consequences of a 1.5 and 3.0 °C temperature rise were studied for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, 2080 and then compared to the present climate. The results indicate a pattern of shifting CWR richness from the south to the north, with increases in taxa turnover and in the numbers of threatened taxa. Recommendations for in situ and ex situ conservation actions over the short and long term for the priority CWRs in Norway are presented. The methods and recommendations developed here can be applied within other nations and at regional and global levels to improve the effectiveness of conservation actions and help ensure global food security.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28215020 View in PubMed
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"We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116942
Source
J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:130945
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bethany Elliott
Deepthi Jayatilaka
Contessa Brown
Leslie Varley
Kitty K Corbett
Author Affiliation
Population and Public Health, Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, Canada. bethany.elliott@phsa.ca
Source
J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:130945
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Focus Groups
Food
Food Supply
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Population Groups
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.
Notes
Cites: Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:595-62610940347
Cites: J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):155-628557942
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1504-1119144239
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2004 Nov-Dec;95(6):465-915622799
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):46-5415776992
Cites: J Nutr. 1997 Nov;127(11):2179-869349845
PubMed ID
23346118 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005;66(1):3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Dawna Royall
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2005;66(1):3
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger - physiology
Poverty
PubMed ID
15780149 View in PubMed
Less detail

Animistic pragmatism and native ways of knowing: adaptive strategies for overcoming the struggle for food in the sub-Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107659
Source
Pages 811-817 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):811-817
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
environmental challenges like food security. Results. Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition,1 for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. Th ey are human "supercomputers," historical
  1 document  
Author
Raymond Anthony
Author Affiliation
Department of Philosophy, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
Source
Pages 811-817 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):811-817
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Culture
Environment
Food Supply
Humans
Indians, North American - ethnology - psychology
Philosophy
Abstract
Subsistence norms are part of the "ecosophy" or ecological philosophy of Alaska Native Peoples in the sub-Arctic, such as the Inupiat of Seward Peninsula. This kind of animistic pragmatism is a special source of practical wisdom that spans over thousands of years and which has been instrumental in the Iñupiat's struggle to survive and thrive in harsh and evolving environments.
I hope to show how narrative in relationship to the "ecosophy" of Alaska Native peoples can help to promote a more ecological orientation to address food insecurity in rural communities in Alaska. Alaska Native ecosophy recommends central values and virtues necessary to help address concerns in Alaska's rural communities.
Here, I will tease out the nature of this "ecosophy" in terms of animistic pragmatism and then show why this form of pragmatism can be instrumental for problematizing multi-scalar, intergenerational, uncertain and complex environmental challenges like food security.
Native elders have been the embodiment of trans-generational distributed cognition, for example, collective memory, norms, information, knowledge, technical skills and experimental adaptive strategies. They are human "supercomputers," historical epistemologists and moral philosophers of a sort who use narrative, a form of moral testimony, to help their communities face challenges and seize opportunities in the wake of an ever-changing landscape.
The "ecosophy" of the Iñupiat of Seward Peninsula offers examples of "focal practices", which are essential for environmental education. These focal practices instil key virtues, namely humility, gratitude, self-reliance, attentiveness, responsibility and responsiveness, that are necessary for subsistence living.
Notes
Cites: J Med Philos. 1996 Jun;21(3):303-208803811
PubMed ID
23986900 View in PubMed
Documents
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A scoping review of traditional food security in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298121
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1419678
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Date
12-2018
Author
Amanda Walch
Philip Loring
Rhonda Johnson
Melissa Tholl
Andrea Bersamin
Author Affiliation
a Department of Biology & Wildlife , University of Alaska Fairbanks , Fairbanks , AK , USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1419678
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Keywords
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Food
Food Supply
Humans
Abstract
Food insecurity is a public health concern. The pillars of food security include food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, the pillars may focus on traditional foods.
To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska.
Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: “traditional foods”, “food security”, “access”, “availability”, “utilisation”, “Alaska”, “Alaska Native” and “indigenous”.
Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents met the inclusion criteria. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8).
Studies that estimate the prevalence of traditional food insecurity in Alaska are virtually absent from the literature. Instead most studies provide a review of factors related to food security. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.
PubMed ID
29292675 View in PubMed
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An examination of at-home food preparation activity among low-income, food-insecure women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183147
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Nov;103(11):1506-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
Carey McLaughlin
Valerie Tarasuk
Nancy Kreiger
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Nov;103(11):1506-12
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cooking - methods
Diet
Energy intake
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health promotion
Humans
Hunger
Income
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Poverty
United States
Women's health
Abstract
A secondary analysis of data from a study of nutritional vulnerability among 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance was undertaken to estimate the extent and nutritional significance of at-home food preparation activity for these women. At-home food preparation was estimated from women's reported food intakes from three 24-hour recalls. The relationships between food preparation and energy and nutrient intake, food intake, and 30-day household food security status were characterized. Almost all participants (97%) consumed foods prepared from scratch at least once during the three days of observation; 57% did so each day. Both the frequency and complexity of at-home food preparation were positively related to women's energy and nutrient intakes and their consumption of fruits and vegetables, grain products, and meat and alternates. The intakes by women in households with food insecurity with hunger reflected less complex food preparation but no less preparation from scratch than women in households where hunger was not evident, raising questions about the extent to which food skills can protect very poor families from food insecurity and hunger. Our findings indicate the need for nutrition professionals to become effective advocates for policy reforms to lessen economic constraints on poor households.
PubMed ID
14576717 View in PubMed
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Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165658
Source
J Vet Med Educ. 2006;33(4):517-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
J. Bruce Prince
David M Andrus
Kevin Gwinner
Author Affiliation
College of Business Administration, Kansas State University, Calvin 101, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. jbprince@ksu.edu
Source
J Vet Med Educ. 2006;33(4):517-24
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Bioterrorism - prevention & control
Canada
Career Choice
Consumer Product Safety
Delphi Technique
Education, Veterinary - manpower - trends
Food Supply
Forecasting
Humans
Schools, Veterinary - manpower - trends
United States
Veterinary Medicine - manpower - trends
Abstract
The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.
PubMed ID
17220489 View in PubMed
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Source
Tidsskr Sykepl. 1997 Apr 22;85(7):19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-22-1997
Author
E. Gjelsvik
Source
Tidsskr Sykepl. 1997 Apr 22;85(7):19
Date
Apr-22-1997
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Norway
Poverty
Social Security
PubMed ID
9464130 View in PubMed
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Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131583
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):133-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Rachel Engler-Stringer
Bernadette Stringer
Ted Haines
Author Affiliation
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):133-6
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cooking
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Income
Interviews as Topic
Poverty
Quebec
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status.
This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients.
Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently.
Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.
PubMed ID
21896250 View in PubMed
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Community-based health research led by the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131709
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Sonia Wesche
Roseanne C Schuster
Pam Tobin
Cindy Dickson
Darcie Matthiessen
Shel Graupe
Megan Williams
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Community Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Health Services Research
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories
Questionnaires
Abstract
This paper documents an exceptional research partnership developed between the Vuntut Gwitchin Government (VGG) in Old Crow, Yukon, with a group of scientists to examine northern food security and health as part of a larger, multidisciplinary International Polar Year (IPY) research program. We focus on the elements that enabled a successful community-researcher relationship. Study design. The VGG led the development of the research and acted as Principal Investigator on the IPY grant. The multidisciplinary collaboration spanned the physical, biological and health sciences, including issues related to food security.
The food security and health component of this research was carried out using a series of complementary methods, including focus groups, structured interviews, a household questionnaire, an interactive workshop, community meetings, transcript analysis and a caribou flesh exposure assessment.
Results from the food security component are informing local and regional adaptation planning. The legacy of the research collaboration includes a number of results-based outputs for a range of stakeholders, a community-based environmental monitoring program, long-term research relationships and improved community capacity.
The type of collaboration described here provides a useful model for new types of participatory health research with northern communities.
PubMed ID
21884655 View in PubMed
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Local observations of climate change and impacts on traditional food security in two northern Aboriginal communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95657
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Guyot Melissa
Dickson Cindy
Paci Chris
Furgal Chris
Chan Hing Man
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Climate
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Fresh Water
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Water supply
Weather
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to record participant observations of changes in the local environment, harvesting situations and traditional food species and to explore what impact these may have on traditional food. STUDY DESIGN: A participatory study with 2 northern Aboriginal communities in Canada. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in both communities. Both specific and open-ended questions were asked, to gather information about the traditional food harvest and a qualitative analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Members from both communities are witnessing variable changes in climate that are affecting their traditional food harvest. New species and changes in migration of species being observed by community members have the potential to affect the consumption of traditional food. Similarly, changes in water levels in and around harvesting areas are affecting access to harvest areas, which in turn affects the traditional food harvest. CONCLUSIONS: Community members have been required to change their harvest mechanisms to adapt to changes in climate and ensure an adequate supply of traditional food. A strong commitment to programs that will ensure the protection of traditional food systems is necessary.
PubMed ID
17319085 View in PubMed
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Workshop 4 (synthesis): securing food production under climate variability--exploring the options.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95854
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2004;49(7):147-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Björklund G.
Author Affiliation
GeWa Consulting, Marmorvägen 16A, 75244 Uppsala, Sweden. gunilla.bjorklund@telia.com
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2004;49(7):147-9
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bangladesh
Climate
Disasters
Food Supply
Forecasting
Humans
Rivers
Water supply
Abstract
Climate variabilities may result in different types of dry spells, droughts or flood situations, having harmful effects on agricultural productivity and food security. Long-term trends in climate variabilities and climate extremes may be a consequence of an on-going climate change and would thus result in a more permanent change in the pre-conditions for food production. The presentations and discussion during the workshop concentrated on some different measures to be taken in addressing these kind of situations and in particularly on the adverse effects of dry spells, droughts and to some extent also floods. The different areas presented were examples from Bangladesh, the indus river and delta region, examples from India (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh), Israel, Sri Lanka and Uzbekistan.
PubMed ID
15195431 View in PubMed
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Food-based approaches to combat the double burden among the poor: challenges in the Asian context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157021
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Geok Lin Khor
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia. khorgl@medic.upm.edu.my
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - methods - standards
Asia - epidemiology
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Malnutrition - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nutritional Status
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Poverty
Abstract
Estimates of FAO indicate that 14% of the population worldwide or 864 million in 2002-2004 were undernourished in not having enough food to meet basic daily energy needs. Asia has the highest number of undernourished people, with 163 million in East Asia and 300 million in South Asia. Meanwhile obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases continue to escalate in the region. The double burden of malnutrition also affects the poor, which is a serious problem in Asia, as it has the largest number of poor subsisting on less than $1/day. As poverty in the region is predominantly rural, agriculture-based strategies are important for improving household food security and nutritional status. These measures include shifting toward production of high-value products for boosting income, enhancing agricultural biodiversity, increasing consumption of indigenous food plants and biofortified crops. Urban poor faces additional nutritional problems being more sensitive to rising costs of living, lack of space for home and school gardening, and trade-offs between convenience and affordability versus poor diet quality and risk of contamination. Time constraints faced by working couples in food preparation and child care are also important considerations. Combating the double burden among the poor requires a comprehensive approach including adequate public health services, and access to education and employment skills, besides nutrition interventions.
PubMed ID
18296315 View in PubMed
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41 records – page 1 of 3.