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Food security in older adults: community service provider perceptions of their roles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158582
Source
Can J Aging. 2007;26(4):317-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Heather H Keller
John J M Dwyer
Vicki Edwards
Christine Senson
H. Gayle Edward
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON. hkeller@uoguelph.ca
Source
Can J Aging. 2007;26(4):317-28
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Community Health Services
Focus Groups
Food
Food Services - organization & administration
Geriatric Assessment
Health education
Health Services for the Aged
Humans
Ontario
Social Class
Social Support
Abstract
Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food security, and (c) opinions about constraints that influenced these roles. A constant comparison analysis identified key themes. The formal caregivers reported six roles for improving food security: (a) monitoring, (b) coordination, and (c) promoting services, (d) education, (e) advocacy, and (f) providing a social environment. The final theme summarizes these roles as "the need for personalization of service". Social and community service providers are involved in roles that can promote the health of older adults by addressing their food insecurity. Social service providers need to be acknowledged and supported in this health promotion role.
PubMed ID
18304920 View in PubMed
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Community well being and infectious diseases among Alaska Native communities in the Chugach Region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2986
Source
Pages 659-675 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
sense of community were all fac- tors in staying healthy. Of these, exercise was the means of staying healthy mentioned most often. Participants stated they exercised both through traditional means, such as harvest- ing traditional foods, hunting. and fishing. as well as through modem sports such as
  1 document  
Author
Speier, T.L
Author Affiliation
Alaska Comprehensive and Specialized Evaluation Services (ACSES), University of Alaska Anchorage, Department of Psychology, 99508, USA. antls1@uaa.alaska.edu
Source
Pages 659-675 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Alaska Natives
Attitude to Health
Communicable diseases - ethnology
Female
Focus Groups
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infectious diseases
Interviews
Male
Mental health
Prospective Studies
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Substance abuse
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine how Native people of the Chugach Region of Alaska perceive their own communities' health and well being, particularly in regard to infectious diseases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective focus group interview survey. METHODS: During September to December 1999, 12 focus groups were conducted in seven communities in the Chugach Region of Alaska with 97 participants. Using a set of eight questions, information gathered provided insights into the participants' health-related perceptions and provided previously nonexistent baseline data pertaining toTB and hepatitis. RESULTS: Participants showed a good working knowledge of common infectious diseases. There were misconceptions and a potential for increased knowledge in highly prevalent diseases, but more recently delineated infections in rural Alaska, e.g., respiratory syncvtial virus (RSV), Helicobacter pylori, and less prevalent diseases, e.g., Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The participants expressed a desire for further infectious disease information and dialogue. CONCLUSIONS: This process can be used to develop a risk assessment tool for medical and clinical providers' use in an effort to increase testing for such infectious diseases as HIV, TB, Hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this case the authors also produced a STD prevention video for rural Alaska Natives, entitled, Summer Sun Winter Moon.
PubMed ID
11768448 View in PubMed
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Reconciling traditional knowledge, food security, and climate change: experience from Old Crow, YT, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104280
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Vasiliki Douglas
Hing Man Chan
Sonia Wesche
Cindy Dickson
Norma Kassi
Lorraine Netro
Megan Williams
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods - organization & administration
Culture
Focus Groups
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Preservation - economics - methods
Food Storage - economics - methods
Food Supply - economics - methods
Gardening - education - methods
Humans
Indians, North American - education
Nutritional Sciences - education
Transportation - economics - methods
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Because of a lack of transportation infrastructure, Old Crow has the highest food costs and greatest reliance on traditional food species for sustenance of any community in Canada's Yukon Territory. Environmental, cultural, and economic change are driving increased perception of food insecurity in Old Crow.
To address community concerns regarding food security and supply in Old Crow and develop adaptation strategies to ameliorate their impact on the community.
A community adaptation workshop was held on October 13, 2009, in which representatives of different stakeholders in the community discussed a variety of food security issues facing Old Crow and how they could be dealt with. Workshop data were analyzed using keyword, subject, and narrative analysis techniques to determine community priorities in food security and adaptation.
Community concern is high and favored adaptation options include agriculture, improved food storage, and conservation through increased traditional education. These results were presented to the community for review and revision, after which the Vuntut Gwitchin Government will integrate them into its ongoing adaptation planning measures.
PubMed ID
24859099 View in PubMed
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Adapting to Environmental and Social Change: Subsistence in Three Aleutian Communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294080
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. 17 p.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2018
amount and share it with other community members (Wolfe and Walker 1987). These high-harvesting households are extremely important for food security and for preserving local knowledge. There is earlier data about high-harvesters only for Akutan; the number of households harvesting 70% of the
  1 document  
Author
Schmidt J
Marchioni M
Berman M
Source
Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. 17 p.
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1155017
Keywords
Alaska
Atka
Akutan
Nikolski
Subsistence
Environmental change
Abstract
Our surroundings and society are both constantly evolving. Some changes are due to natural processes. People are responsible for other changes, because of what we do—for example, increasing the size of the population, expanding technology, and increasing mobility and connectivity. And some changes—like climate change—are due to a combination of natural processes and actions of people. In the Arctic, including the Aleutian Islands, marine and coastal ecosystems have seen the largest number of regime shifts with direct and indirect consequences for subsistence activities, commercial fisheries, and coastal communities (Council 2016). This paper describes current subsistence activities and changes local residents have observed over time in three Aleutian Island communities—Akutan, Nikolski, and Atka. As described more later, we did initial household surveys in 2016 and a second round in 2017, as well as more detailed interviews with some residents.
Documents

2018_04-AdaptingToEnviroSocialChange.pdf

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Food security: what the community wants. Learning through focus groups.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216722
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1994;55(4):188-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
D. Hargrove
J A Dewolfe
L. Thompson
Author Affiliation
Kingston, Frontenac and Lennox and Addington Health Unit, Ontario.
Source
J Can Diet Assoc. 1994;55(4):188-91
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Planning - methods
Educational Status
Focus Groups
Food Services - organization & administration
Humans
Income
Interviews as Topic
Mental health
Ontario
Public Health Administration
Self Concept
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.
PubMed ID
10139320 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Inuit women exacerbated by socioeconomic stresses and climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141282
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201
Publication Type
Article
Author
Maude C Beaumier
James D Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Room 308C Burnside Hall, 805 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, QC H3A 2K6.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):196-201
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Climate change
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Financing, Personal
Focus Groups
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - psychology
Middle Aged
Nunavut - ethnology
Socioeconomic Factors
Women's health
Abstract
To identify and characterize the determinants of food insecurity among Inuit women.
A community-based study in Igloolik, Nunavut, using semi-structured interviews (n = 36) and focus groups (n = 5) with Inuit women, and key informants interviews with health professionals (n = 13).
There is a high prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit females in Igloolik, with women in the study reporting skipping meals and reducing food intake on a regular basis. Food insecurity is largely transitory in nature and influenced by food affordability and budgeting; food knowledge; education and preferences; food quality and availability; absence of a full-time hunter in the household; cost of harvesting; poverty; and addiction. These determinants are operating in the context of changing livelihoods and climate-related stresses.
Inuit women's food insecurity in Igloolik is the outcome of multiple determinants operating at different spatial-temporal scales. Climate change and external socio-economic stresses are exacerbating difficulties in obtaining sufficient food. Coping strategies currently utilized to manage food insecurity are largely reactive and short-term in nature, and could increase food system vulnerability to future stresses. Intervention by local, territorial and federal governments is required to implement, coordinate and monitor strategies to enhance women's food security, strengthen the food system, and reduce vulnerability to future stressors.
PubMed ID
20737808 View in PubMed
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Assessment of the potential health impacts of climate change in Alaska

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287905
Source
Bulletin. State of Alaska Epidemiology. Recommendations and Reports. 2018 Jan 8; 20(1)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2018
wider range of agricultural crops, resulting in increased food security in some areas. Warmer winter temperatures might also lead to fewer injuries and fatalities related to cold temperatures. Big Picture Overview What is already known about this topic? Alaska is experiencing
  1 document  
Author
Yoder, Sarah
Author Affiliation
Alaska Section of Epidemiology
Source
Bulletin. State of Alaska Epidemiology. Recommendations and Reports. 2018 Jan 8; 20(1)
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Alaska
Climate change
Sea levels
Permafrost
Glaciers
Weather patterns
Sea ice
Temperature
Subsistence
Infectious disease
Sanitation
Health services
Abstract
Background: Over the past century, the air and water temperatures in Alaska have warmed considerably faster than in the rest of the United States. Because Alaska is the only Arctic state in the Nation, Alaskans are likely to face some climate change challenges that will be different than those encountered in other states. For example, permafrost currently underlies 80% of Alaska and provides a stable foundation for the physical infrastructure of many Alaska communities. As has already been seen in numerous villages, the groundcover that overlies permafrost is vulnerable to sinking or caving if the permafrost thaws, resulting in costly damage to physical infrastructure. The reliance on subsistence resources is another contrast to many other states. Many Alaskans depend upon subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife resources for food and to support their way of life. Some Alaskans report that the changing environment has already impacted their traditional practices. Many past efforts to characterize the potential impacts of climate change in Alaska have focused primarily on describing expected changes to the physical environment and the ecosystem, and less on describing how these changes, in addition to changes in animal and environmental health, could affect human health. Thus, a careful analysis of how climate change could affect the health of people living in Alaska is warranted. The Alaska Division of Public Health has conducted such an assessment using the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework; the assessment is based on the current National Climate Assessment (NCA) predictions for Alaska. The document is intended to provide a broad overview of the potential adverse human health impacts of climate change in Alaska and to present examples of adaptation strategies for communities to consider when planning their own response efforts. This document does not present a new model for climate change in Alaska, and it does not offer a critique of the NCA predictions for Alaska.
Documents

AssessmentofthePotentialHealthImpactsof.pdf

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Sustainability and vulnerability: Aboriginal arctic food security in a toxic world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295949
Source
Breaking Ice: Renewable Resource and Ocean Management in the Canadian North : University of Calgary Press : Chapter 3. p 47-69.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2005
47 CH A PTER 3 SUSTAINABILITY AND VULNERABILITY: ABORIGINAL ARCTIC FOOD SECURITY IN A TOXIC WORLD Shirley Thompson (University of Manitoba) It is not so much that humanity is trying to sustain the natural world, but rather that humanity is trying to sustain itself. The precariousness of
  1 document  
Author
Thompson, Shirley
Author Affiliation
University of Manitoba
Source
Breaking Ice: Renewable Resource and Ocean Management in the Canadian North : University of Calgary Press : Chapter 3. p 47-69.
Date
2005
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
834259
Keywords
Food security
Subsistence
Traditional diet
Documents
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Local observations of climate change and impacts on traditional food security in two northern Aboriginal communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95657
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Guyot Melissa
Dickson Cindy
Paci Chris
Furgal Chris
Chan Hing Man
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Climate
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Fresh Water
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Water supply
Weather
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to record participant observations of changes in the local environment, harvesting situations and traditional food species and to explore what impact these may have on traditional food. STUDY DESIGN: A participatory study with 2 northern Aboriginal communities in Canada. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in both communities. Both specific and open-ended questions were asked, to gather information about the traditional food harvest and a qualitative analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Members from both communities are witnessing variable changes in climate that are affecting their traditional food harvest. New species and changes in migration of species being observed by community members have the potential to affect the consumption of traditional food. Similarly, changes in water levels in and around harvesting areas are affecting access to harvest areas, which in turn affects the traditional food harvest. CONCLUSIONS: Community members have been required to change their harvest mechanisms to adapt to changes in climate and ensure an adequate supply of traditional food. A strong commitment to programs that will ensure the protection of traditional food systems is necessary.
PubMed ID
17319085 View in PubMed
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Community-based health research led by the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131709
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Sonia Wesche
Roseanne C Schuster
Pam Tobin
Cindy Dickson
Darcie Matthiessen
Shel Graupe
Megan Williams
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Community Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Health Services Research
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories
Questionnaires
Abstract
This paper documents an exceptional research partnership developed between the Vuntut Gwitchin Government (VGG) in Old Crow, Yukon, with a group of scientists to examine northern food security and health as part of a larger, multidisciplinary International Polar Year (IPY) research program. We focus on the elements that enabled a successful community-researcher relationship. Study design. The VGG led the development of the research and acted as Principal Investigator on the IPY grant. The multidisciplinary collaboration spanned the physical, biological and health sciences, including issues related to food security.
The food security and health component of this research was carried out using a series of complementary methods, including focus groups, structured interviews, a household questionnaire, an interactive workshop, community meetings, transcript analysis and a caribou flesh exposure assessment.
Results from the food security component are informing local and regional adaptation planning. The legacy of the research collaboration includes a number of results-based outputs for a range of stakeholders, a community-based environmental monitoring program, long-term research relationships and improved community capacity.
The type of collaboration described here provides a useful model for new types of participatory health research with northern communities.
PubMed ID
21884655 View in PubMed
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Food security in Nunavut, Canada: barriers and recommendations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165008
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Hing Man Chan
Karen Fediuk
Sue Hamilton
Laura Rostas
Amy Caughey
Harriet Kuhnlein
Grace Egeland
Eric Loring
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Canada. lchan@unbc.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-31
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Humans
Income
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
The food supply of Inuit living in Nunavut, Canada, is characterized by market food of relatively low nutritional value and nutrient-dense traditional food. The objective of this study is to assess community perceptions about the availability and accessibility of traditional and market foods in Nunavut.
A qualitative study using focus group methodology.
Focus groups were conducted in 6 communities in Nunavut in 2004 and collected information was analyzed.
Barriers to increased traditional food consumption included high costs of hunting and changes in lifestyle and cultural practices. Participants suggested that food security could be gained through increased economic support for local community hunts, freezers and education programs, as well as better access to cheaper and higher quality market food.
Interventions to improve the dietary quality of Nunavut residents are discussed.
PubMed ID
17319086 View in PubMed
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Climate change in Pilot Point, Alaska: strategies for community healht

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294104
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Center, Center for Climate and Health.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
September 2013
rate, and consequentially, vulnerability to flooding is increasing. Identified health concerns include food security, damage to health-critical infrastructure, injury and behavioral health issues related to extreme and unusual weather conditions. The process for these health assessments began with
  1 document  
Author
Brubaker, Michael
Flensburg, Susan
Shanigan, Nikki
Skarada, Jennifer
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Center, Center for Climate and Health.
Date
September 2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
6152241
Keywords
Alaska
Temperature
Precipitation
Storms
Erosion
Landscape
Wildlife
Subsistence
Notes
This report documents climate change impacts and potential impacts as described by the local people and interpreted through the lens of public health. It is the sixth report in a series describing climate change across Alaska, and the first report to focus on the Bristol Bay Region.
Documents

CCH_AR_092013_Climate-Change-in-PilotPoint.pdf

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"We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116942
Source
J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:130945
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bethany Elliott
Deepthi Jayatilaka
Contessa Brown
Leslie Varley
Kitty K Corbett
Author Affiliation
Population and Public Health, Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, Canada. bethany.elliott@phsa.ca
Source
J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:130945
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Focus Groups
Food
Food Supply
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Population Groups
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.
Notes
Cites: Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:595-62610940347
Cites: J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):155-628557942
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1504-1119144239
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2004 Nov-Dec;95(6):465-915622799
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):46-5415776992
Cites: J Nutr. 1997 Nov;127(11):2179-869349845
PubMed ID
23346118 View in PubMed
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Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107731
Source
Pages 759-765 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):759-765
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
advances local, rather than academic, use of traditional knowledge. Keywords: qualitative methods; climate change; adaptation; vulnerability; food security; indigenous CQ\C-~ION T he Bering Strait Region is facing both rapid climactic changes and accelerating industrial de- velopment (1), which
  1 document  
Author
Lily Gadamus
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources Division, Kawerak, Inc., Nome, Alaska AK-99762, USA
Source
Pages 759-765 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):759-765
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Focus Groups
Food Safety
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Oceans and Seas
Seals, Earless
Walruses
Abstract
Indigenous residents of Alaska's Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them.
To document: (a) local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b) traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c) marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated.
Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions.
Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a) greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b) documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat.
Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes. Participant interest in documenting traditional knowledge for local use also indicates that funding agencies could support climate change adaptation by awarding more grants for tribal research that advances local, rather than academic, use of traditional knowledge.
Notes
Cites: Science. 2007 May 11;316(5826):847-5117495163
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 25;104(39):15188-9317881580
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 8;100(14):8074-912792023
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2012 Sep;75(6):1067-7722703884
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21;107(51):22026-3121135232
PubMed ID
23984268 View in PubMed
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Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143057
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71(2):79-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Brendine Partyka
Susan Whiting
Deanna Grunerud
Karen Archibald
Kara Quennell
Author Affiliation
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2010;71(2):79-84
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding - psychology
Child Health Services
Female
Focus Groups
Food Services
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health promotion
Humans
Infant
Infant Food - economics
Infant Formula - administration & dosage - economics
Male
Nutritional Status
Parents - psychology
Poverty - psychology
Saskatchewan
Abstract
We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon.
Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon.
Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty.
Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.
PubMed ID
20525419 View in PubMed
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Climate change in the Arctic: current and future vulnerability in two Inuit communities in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295945
Source
The Geographical Journal , Vol. 174 , No. 1, March 2008, pp. 45–62
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
the food security of those who do not have the time, money or knowledge to hunt in light of changing exposure. Equipment, such as GPS, radios, and other safety equipment, is shared within the extended family unit and occasionally with friends. In coping with changing climatic conditions, this is
  1 document  
Author
Ford, James D
Smit, Barry
Wandel, Johanna
Allurut, Mishak
Shappa, Kik
Ittusarjuat, Harry
Qrunnut, Kevin
Source
The Geographical Journal , Vol. 174 , No. 1, March 2008, pp. 45–62
Date
2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
343960
Keywords
Inuit
Climate change
Nunavut
Subsistence
Traditional diet
Vulnerability
Participatory research
Resource management
Abstract
Climate change is already occurring in the Arctic and the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment recently concluded that future climate change could be devastating for Inuit. This paper characterises vulnerability to climate change in two Inuit communities in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, focusing on the resource harvesting sector. In both communities, Inuit have demonstrated significant adaptability in the face of current changes in climatic conditions. This adaptability is facilitated by traditional Inuit knowledge, strong social networks, flexibility in resource use, and institutional support. Changing Inuit livelihoods, however, have undermined certain aspects of adaptive capacity and have resulted in emerging vulnerabilities. Global and regional climate projections indicate that climatic conditions which currently pose risks are expected to be negatively affected by future climate change. These projections are not without precedent and analysis of current vulnerability and identification of adaptation constraints by Inuit in the two communities indicate the continued importance of traditional coping mechanisms. The ability to draw on these coping mechanisms in light of future climate change, however, will be unequal and the research indicates that young Inuit and those without access to economic resources, in particular, are vulnerable.
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Climate-change-in-the-Arctic---current-and-future-vulnerability-in-two-Inuit-communities-in-Canada.pdf

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Review of Co-management Efforts in Alaska: Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, 6–8 February 2008, Anchorage, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297014
Source
Marine Mammal Commission. vi, 62 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2008
  1 document  
Source
Marine Mammal Commission. vi, 62 p.
Date
2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
641735
Keywords
Alaska
Marine mammals
Subsistence
Education
Climate change
Documents

Marine-Mammal-Commission-Review-of-Co-Management-Efforts-in-Alaska.pdf

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Ethnographic summary: The Chukotka region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102057
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
and servicemen were having difficulty Social Transition in the North Chukotka Ethnography, Page 10 obtaining walrus tusks, furs and food. As a result of their misfortune, they pressured the governor of Yakutia province, Voevode A. Barnashlev, to send a petition to Moscow with a request to
  1 document  
Author
Pika, AI
Terentyeva, LP
Bogoyavlensky, DD
Author Affiliation
Social Research Institute, Anchorage, AK
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 4
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Christianity
Chukchis
Chukotka
Economy
Eskimos
Ethnography
Ethnohistory
Fur breeding
Geography
Health care
Hunting
Indigenous populations
Kinship
Marriage
Reindeer breeding
Sea mammal harvest
Social organization
Subsistence
Traditional culture
Whaling
Abstract
The Providenski district (covering 26.8 thousand square kilometers) occupies the southeastern portion of the Chukotski Peninsula. The southeastern coast of the district is surrounded by the Bering Sea, while the northeast boundary borders the Chukotka district and the western edge neighbors the Yiultinsky district. Prior to 1957, the Providenski district was incorporated into the Chukotka district.
Notes
The entire collection of working papers from the Social Transition in the North project is available at UAA Archives & Special Collections in the Consortium Library.
Documents

STN_Vol 1_No 4_Ethnographic Summary_Chukotka Region_May 1993.pdf

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Ethnographic summary: The Kamchatka region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102058
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Communities 66 V.A. Indexes of Birthrate. Mortality Rates and Population Growth . . . . . . . . 68 V.B. Social Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 V.C. The Demography of the Indigenous Population of Karaga . . . . . . . . . . . 77
  1 document  
Author
Mourashko, OA
Pika, AI
Bogoyavlenski, DD
Author Affiliation
Social Research Institute, Anchorage, AK
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 5
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Bering Sea
Communication
Demographic behavior
Economy
Ethnic composition
Evens
Fish harvests
Indigenous populations
Itelmens
Kamchadals
Kamchatka Peninsula
Mortality
Orthodox Church
Reindeer
Settlement
Shamanism
Social structure
Subsistence
Traditional use
Abstract
The Kamchatka Administrative Region is made up of the Tigilsky, Karaginsky, and Bystrinsky districts. These districts share common boundaries, which extend from latitude 55°45' to 60°45'north to longitude 153°45' to 165° east. Together, they cover 108,300 square kilometers, with the Tigilsky District spreading out over 68,200 square kilometers, the Karaginsky District spanning 29,500 square kilometers, and the Bystrinsky District occupying 20,600 square kilometers. From south to north, the boundaries between the districts are divided by the Sredinny Mountain Ridge. This ridge descends towards the isthmus of the Kamchatka Peninsula and becomes a watershed (made by rivers flowing into the Okhotsky and Bering seas). Between the Tigilsky and Bystrinsky districts, there is the Ichinsky volcano (3,621 meters), which is extinct. To the west of the Sredinny Ridge lies the West Kamchatka Lowland. This lowland makes up a major part of the Tigilsky District; but because it is so badly bogged it keeps the development of land traffic and communications in the Tigilsky District greatly hindered. It is only in the coastal area that there are still old pathways linking separate villages, and trails which lead up to the passes over the Sredinny Ridge. The northern part of the Tigilsky District and the entire Karaginsky District are located in the southern edge of the Eternal Congelation Zone. Located in this zone are the villages of Tigil, Sedanka, Elovka, and Uka. Farther north, in the narrowest part of the neck where the valleys of the Anapka and Pustaya rivers meet, is Parapolsky Dol.the southern edge of the Eternal Congelation Zone. Located in this zone are the villages of Tigil, Sedanka, Elovka, and Uka. Fuirther north, in the narrowest part of the neck where the valleys of the Anapka and Pustay rivers meet, is Parapoolsky Dol.
Notes
The entire collection of working papers from the Social Transition in the North project is available at UAA Archives & Special Collections in the Consortium Library.
Documents

STN_Vol 1_No 5_Ethnographic Summary_Kamchatka Region_Aug 1993.pdf

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Climate change in Kivalina, Alaska: strategies for community health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296263
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and United State Indian Health Service Cooperative.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2011
. Sea ice is diminishing, making travel and hunting more difficult and more dangerous. New species of plants, insects, fish, birds, and other wildlife are observed, while successful harvest of endemic species, such as walrus, is less frequent. These changes are influencing food and water security
  1 document  
Author
Brubaker, Michael
Berner, James
Bell, Jacob
Warren, John
Source
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and United State Indian Health Service Cooperative.
Date
2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
7989753
Keywords
Alaska
Kivalina
Climate change
Subsistence
Health web
Sanitation
Documents

Climate-Change-HIA-Report_Kivalina.pdf

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