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Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186436
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
N J Stern
K L Hiett
G A Alfredsson
K G Kristinsson
J. Reiersen
H. Hardardottir
H. Briem
E. Gunnarsson
F. Georgsson
R. Lowman
E. Berndtson
A M Lammerding
G M Paoli
M T Musgrove
Author Affiliation
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, 950 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30604-5677, USA.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abattoirs
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Chickens - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Risk assessment
Seasons
Abstract
We describe the observed relationship of campylobacter in poultry operations to human cases in a closed environment. During 1999 in Iceland, domestic cases of campylobacteriosis reached peak levels at 116/100,000 and in 2000 dropped to 33/100,000. Approximately 62% of broiler carcass rinses were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in 1999. During 2000, only 15% of the broiler flocks tested Campylobacter spp. positive. In 2000, carcasses from flocks which tested positive on the farms at 4 weeks of age were subsequently frozen prior to distribution. We suggest that public education, enhanced on-farm biological security measures, carcass freezing and other unidentified factors, such as variations in weather, contributed to the large reduction in poultry-borne campylobacteriosis. There is no immediate basis for assigning credit to any specific intervention. We continue to seek additional information to understand the decline in campylobacteriosis and to create a risk assessment model for Campylobacter spp. transmission through this well defined system.
PubMed ID
12613742 View in PubMed
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Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95460
Source
Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):240-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-9-2009
Author
Battisti David S
Naylor Rosamond L
Author Affiliation
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640, USA. battisti@washington.edu
Source
Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):240-4
Date
Jan-9-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Africa South of the Sahara
Agriculture - trends
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Climate
Commerce
Crops, Agricultural - economics - growth & development
Droughts
Extreme Heat
Food - economics
Food Supply - economics
Forecasting
France
Greenhouse Effect
Hot Temperature
Humans
Seasons
Tropical Climate
Ukraine
Abstract
Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.
Notes
Comment In: Science. 2009 Apr 10;324(5924):177-9; author reply 177-919359565
Comment In: Science. 2009 Jan 9;323(5911):19319131598
PubMed ID
19131626 View in PubMed
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Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:3-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
health aspects and without adequate research and appropriate research funding, the problems will overwhelm the opportunities. Food security is a central concern � and an important example. Food security requires that all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient
  1 document  
Author
Birgitta Evengard
Anthony McMichael
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:3-5
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
192216
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Ecosystem
Global warming
Health status
Humans
Ice
Transition Temperature
Vulnerable Populations
Notes
Cites: J Intern Med. 2011 Nov;270(5):401-1321682780
Cites: Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1158-6219407799
PubMed ID
22121341 View in PubMed
Documents

Evengard-Vulnerable_populations.pdf

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Climate change and water security with a focus on the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130014
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:65-68.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
country foods. The industries also use large quantities of surface water during winter to build ice roads and maintain infra- structure. For all of these reasons, it is critical to understand the impacts of climate change on water security in the Arctic with its specific demands. Arctic warming
  1 document  
Author
Birgitta Evengard
Jim Berner
Michael Brubaker
Gert Mulvad
Boris Revich
Author Affiliation
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. birgitta.evengard@climi.umu.se
Source
Glob Health Action. 2011;4:65-68.
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
216402
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate
Climate change
Environmental monitoring
Health status
Humans
Water Cycle
Water supply
Abstract
Water is of fundamental importance for human life; access to water of good quality is of vital concern for mankind. Currently however, the situation is under severe pressure due to several stressors that have a clear impact on access to water. In the Arctic, climate change is having an impact on water availability by melting glaciers, decreasing seasonal rates of precipitation, increasing evapotranspiration, and drying lakes and rivers existing in permafrost grounds. Water quality is also being impacted as manmade pollutants stored in the environment are released, lowland areas are flooded with salty ocean water during storms, turbidity from permafrost-driven thaw and erosion is increased, and the growth or emergence of natural pollutants are increased. By 2030 it is estimated that the world will need to produce 50% more food and energy which means a continuous increase in demand for water. Decisionmakers will have to very clearly include life quality aspects of future generations in the work as impact of ongoing changes will be noticeable, in many cases, in the future. This article will focus on effects of climate-change on water security with an Arctic perspective giving some examples from different countries how arising problems are being addressed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Jun;70(3):266-7321703129
Cites: J Exp Bot. 2011 Jun;62(10):3263-7121515638
Cites: Nature. 2010 Sep 30;467(7315):555-6120882010
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2008 Nov;98(11):2072-818382002
Cites: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006 Jan;63(1):100-716399161
PubMed ID
22043217 View in PubMed
Documents

Evengard-Climate-change.pdf

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Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263579
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
Science of the Total Environment 509–510 (2015) 248–259 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Science of the Total Environment j ourna l homepage: www.e lsev ie r .com/ locate /sc i totenv Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern
  1 document  
Author
M. Lemire
M. Kwan
A E Laouan-Sidi
G. Muckle
C. Pirkle
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1238368
Keywords
Animals
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Female
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Methylmercury compounds - analysis
Quebec
Selenium - analysis
Abstract
Country foods are central to Inuit culture and replete in selenium (Se) and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, some marine country foods bioaccumulate high concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg). Se and n-3 are associated with several health benefits in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, but, recent studies show that prenatal MeHg exposure is associated with visual, cognitive and behavioral deficit later in childhood. The study objectives are to identify contemporary country food sources of MeHg, Se and long-chain n-3 PUFA in Nunavik, particularly among childbearing-age women, taking into account regional differences in consumption profiles. The contribution of different country foods to daily MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (µg/kg body weight/day) was estimated using: (i) country food consumption and blood biomarkers data from the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey (387 women, 315 men), and (ii) data on MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in Nunavik wildlife species. In the region where most traditional beluga hunting takes place in Nunavik, the prevalence of at-risk blood Hg (= 8 µg/L) in childbearing-age women was 78.4%. While most country foods presently consumed contain low MeHg, beluga meat, not a staple of the Inuit diet, is the most important contributor to MeHg: up to two-thirds of MeHg intake in the beluga-hunting region (0.66 of MeHg intake) and to about one-third in other regions. In contrast, seal liver and beluga mattaaq - beluga skin and blubber - only mildly contributed to MeHg (between 0.06 and 0.15 of MeHg intake), depending on the region. Beluga mattaaq also highly contributed to Se intake (0.30 of Se intake). Arctic char, beluga blubber and mattaaq, and seal blubber contributed to most long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. This study highlights the importance of considering interconnections between local ecosystems and dietary habits to develop recommendations and interventions promoting country foods' benefits, while minimizing the risk of MeHg from beluga meat, especially for childbearing-age women.
PubMed ID
25135671 View in PubMed
Documents

1-s2.0-S0048969714011395-main.pdf

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Academic food-supply veterinarians: future demand and likely shortages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165658
Source
J Vet Med Educ. 2006;33(4):517-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
J. Bruce Prince
David M Andrus
Kevin Gwinner
Author Affiliation
College of Business Administration, Kansas State University, Calvin 101, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. jbprince@ksu.edu
Source
J Vet Med Educ. 2006;33(4):517-24
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Bioterrorism - prevention & control
Canada
Career Choice
Consumer Product Safety
Delphi Technique
Education, Veterinary - manpower - trends
Food Supply
Forecasting
Humans
Schools, Veterinary - manpower - trends
United States
Veterinary Medicine - manpower - trends
Abstract
The future demand for and potential shortages of food-supply veterinarians have been the subject of much concern. Using the Delphi forecasting method in a three-phase Web-based survey process, a panel of experts identified the trends and issues shaping the demand for and supply of academic food-animal veterinarians, then forecasted the likely future demand and shortages of food-supply veterinarians employed in academic institutions in the United States and Canada through 2016. The results indicate that there will be increasing future demand and persistent shortages of academic food-supply veterinarians unless current trends are countered with targeted, strategic action. The Delphi panel also evaluated the effectiveness of several strategies for reversing current trends and increasing the number of food-supply veterinarians entering into academic careers. Academic food-supply veterinarians are a key link in the system that produces food-supply veterinarians for all sectors (private practice, government service, etc.); shortages in the academic sector will amplify shortages wherever food-supply veterinarians are needed. Even fairly small shortages have significant public-health, food-safety, animal-welfare, and bio-security implications. Recent events demonstrate that in an increasingly interconnected global economic food supply system, national economies and public health are at risk unless an adequate supply of appropriately trained food-supply veterinarians is available to counter a wide variety of threats ranging from animal and zoonotic diseases to bioterrorism.
PubMed ID
17220489 View in PubMed
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Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257212
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Bogdan Cristescu
Gordon B Stenhouse
Mark S Boyce
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Choice Behavior
Ecosystem
Female
Food chain
Humans
Male
Ursidae
Abstract
On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e2790522194798
Cites: Oecologia. 2009 Mar;159(3):669-7819089457
Cites: Q Rev Biol. 1995 Jun;70(2):165-917610234
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 22;272(1581):2627-3416321785
Cites: Ecology. 2011 Feb;92(2):398-40721618919
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2008 Apr;23(4):194-20118308423
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e3169922363710
Cites: PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e1195420694139
Cites: Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-6721298447
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Aug;22(8):394-40017590476
PubMed ID
24367549 View in PubMed
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LC-MS-MS aboard ship: tandem mass spectrometry in the search for phycotoxins and novel toxigenic plankton from the North Sea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92886
Source
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Nov;392(5):797-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Krock Bernd
Tillmann Urban
John Uwe
Cembella Allan
Author Affiliation
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany. bernd.krock@awi.de
Source
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008 Nov;392(5):797-803
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Environmental monitoring
Food Contamination
Humans
Marine Toxins - analysis
North Sea
Plankton - physiology
Plants, Toxic - chemistry
Shellfish - analysis - toxicity
Spiro Compounds - analysis
Tandem Mass Spectrometry - methods
Abstract
Phycotoxins produced by various species of toxigenic microalgae occurring in the plankton are a global threat to the security of seafood resources and the health of humans and coastal marine ecosystems. This has necessitated the development and application of advanced methods in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for monitoring of these compounds, particularly in plankton and shellfish. Most such chemical analyses are conducted in land-based laboratories on stored samples, and thus much information on the near real-time biogeographical distribution and dynamics of phycotoxins in the plankton is unavailable. To resolve this problem, we conducted ship-board analysis of a broad spectrum of phycotoxins collected directly from the water column on an oceanographic cruise along the North Sea coast of Scotland, Norway, and Denmark. We equipped the ship with a triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap hybrid LC-MS-MS system for detection and quantitative analysis of toxins, such as domoic acid, gymnodimine, spirolides, dinophysistoxins, okadaic acid, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, and azaspiracids (AZAs). We focused particular attention on the detection of AZAs, a group of potent nitrogenous polyether toxins, because the culprit species associated with the occurrence of these toxins in shellfish has been controversial. Marine toxins were analyzed directly from size-fractionated plankton net tows (20 microm mesh size) and Niskin bottle samples from discrete depths, after rapid methanolic extraction but without any further clean-up. Almost all expected phycotoxins were detected in North Sea plankton samples, with domoic acid and 20-methylspirolide G being most abundant. Although AZA was the least abundant of these toxins, the high sensitivity of the LC-MS-MS enabled detailed quantification, indicating that the highest amounts of AZA-1 were present in the southern Skagerrak in the 3-20 microm size-fraction. The direct on-board toxin measurements enabled isolation of plankton from stations with high AZA-1 levels and from the most suspicious size-fraction, i.e. most likely to contain the AZA-producer. A large number (>100) of crude cultures were established by serial dilution and later screened for the presence of AZAs after several weeks growth. From one crude culture containing AZA, a small dinoflagellate was subsequently isolated and brought into pure culture. We have thus proved that even sophisticated mass spectrometers can be operated in ship laboratories without any limitation caused by vibrations of the ship's engine or by wave movement during heavy seas at wind forces up to nine Beaufort. On-board LC-MS-MS is a valuable method for near real-time analysis of phycotoxins in plankton for studies on bloom dynamics and the fate of toxins in the food web, and for characterization and isolation of putatively toxigenic organisms.
PubMed ID
18584156 View in PubMed
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Use of traditional environmental knowledge to assess the impact of climate change on subsistence fishing in the James Bay Region of Northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125539
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:1878
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Yukari Hori
Benita Tam
William A Gough
Elise Ho-Foong
Jim D Karagatzides
Eric N Liberda
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. y.hori@utoronto.ca
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2012;12:1878
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Culture
Ecosystem
Environmental Health - education
Fishes
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Interviews as Topic
Knowledge
Male
Ontario
Temperature
Abstract
In Canada, unique food security challenges are being faced by Aboriginal people living in remote-northern communities due to the impacts of climate change on subsistence harvesting. This study used traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) to investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between extreme climatic events in the summer of 2005, and fish die-offs in the Albany River, northern Ontario, Canada. Also, TEK was utilized to examine a potential shift in subsistence fish species distribution due to climate change.
To investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between the fish die-offs of July 2005 (as identified by TEK) and an extreme climatic event, temperature and daily precipitation data for Moosonee weather station were utilized. To determine if there was an increasing trend in mean maximal summer temperatures with year, temperature data were examined, using regression analysis. Present-day fish distributions were determined using unpublished TEK data collated from previous studies and purposive, semi-directive interviews with elders and experienced bushman.
Fish die-offs in 2005 occurred during the time period 11-18 July, as reported by participants. Recorded air-temperature maxima of the two July 2005 heat waves delineate exactly the time period of fish die-offs. Two heat waves occurring during the same summer season and so close together has never before been recorded for this region. A highly significant (p
PubMed ID
22471525 View in PubMed
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Local observations of climate change and impacts on traditional food security in two northern Aboriginal communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95657
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Guyot Melissa
Dickson Cindy
Paci Chris
Furgal Chris
Chan Hing Man
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):403-15
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Climate
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Fresh Water
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Water supply
Weather
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to record participant observations of changes in the local environment, harvesting situations and traditional food species and to explore what impact these may have on traditional food. STUDY DESIGN: A participatory study with 2 northern Aboriginal communities in Canada. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in both communities. Both specific and open-ended questions were asked, to gather information about the traditional food harvest and a qualitative analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Members from both communities are witnessing variable changes in climate that are affecting their traditional food harvest. New species and changes in migration of species being observed by community members have the potential to affect the consumption of traditional food. Similarly, changes in water levels in and around harvesting areas are affecting access to harvest areas, which in turn affects the traditional food harvest. CONCLUSIONS: Community members have been required to change their harvest mechanisms to adapt to changes in climate and ensure an adequate supply of traditional food. A strong commitment to programs that will ensure the protection of traditional food systems is necessary.
PubMed ID
17319085 View in PubMed
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Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107704
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
49. Paci CJ, Dickson C, Nickels S, Chan L, Furgal C, editors. Food Security of Northern Indigenous Peoples in a Time of Uncertainty 3rd Northern Research Forum Open Meeting, Yellowknife; 2004. *Anna Godduhn Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Alaska Fairbanks PO Box 756160
  1 document  
Author
Anna Godduhn
Lawrence Duffy
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Wild
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - history
Fishes
Food Contamination
Health status
History, 20th Century
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP).
The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS), which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS), which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems.
This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no) personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no) consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined) with a two-tailed Fisher's Exact Test in SAS (n = 325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist).
The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems.
Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional investigation. This article presents our findings, with discussion of limitations related to study design and limitations that are inherent to such research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984298 View in PubMed
Documents
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Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107731
Source
Pages 759-765 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):759-765
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
advances local, rather than academic, use of traditional knowledge. Keywords: qualitative methods; climate change; adaptation; vulnerability; food security; indigenous CQ\C-~ION T he Bering Strait Region is facing both rapid climactic changes and accelerating industrial de- velopment (1), which
  1 document  
Author
Lily Gadamus
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources Division, Kawerak, Inc., Nome, Alaska AK-99762, USA
Source
Pages 759-765 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):759-765
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Focus Groups
Food Safety
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Oceans and Seas
Seals, Earless
Walruses
Abstract
Indigenous residents of Alaska's Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them.
To document: (a) local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b) traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c) marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated.
Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions.
Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a) greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b) documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat.
Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes. Participant interest in documenting traditional knowledge for local use also indicates that funding agencies could support climate change adaptation by awarding more grants for tribal research that advances local, rather than academic, use of traditional knowledge.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984268 View in PubMed
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A health and nutritional evaluation of changes in agriculture in the past quarter century in British Columbia: implications for food security.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142054
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jun;7(6):2653-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Aleck Ostry
Kathryn Morrison
Author Affiliation
Social Sciences, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada. ostry@uvic.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Jun;7(6):2653-65
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history - statistics & numerical data
Animals
British Columbia
Cattle
Cereals
Dietary Fats
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Policy - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Nutritional Status
Poultry
Vegetables
Abstract
This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists' advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20644694 View in PubMed
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Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33144
Source
Health Phys. 1999 Oct;77(4):361-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
G H Dubreuil
J. Lochard
P. Girard
J F Guyonnet
G. Le Cardinal
S. Lepicard
P. Livolsi
M. Monroy
H. Ollagnon
A. Pena-Vega
V. Pupin
J. Rigby
I. Rolevitch
T. Schneider
Author Affiliation
Mutadis, Paris, France.
Source
Health Phys. 1999 Oct;77(4):361-72
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Animals
Byelarus
Child
Emergencies
Europe
Female
Food contamination, radioactive
Government Agencies
Health education
Humans
Meat - standards
Milk - standards
Mothers
Pilot Projects
Radioactive fallout
Ukraine
Abstract
ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into consideration the problems of acceptability of decisions and the distrust of the population towards experts. These cannot be solved merely by a better communication strategy. This paper presents the main features of the methodological approach of the ETHOS project. It also explains how it is being implemented in the village of Olmany in the district of Stolyn (Brest region) in Belarus since March 1996, as well as its initial achievements.
PubMed ID
10492342 View in PubMed
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Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4526
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jun 1;230(1-3):1-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-1999
Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 c Health Canada, Food Directorate, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Banting Research Center, Tunney’s Pasture, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0L2 d Unité de recherchen santé publique (Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec - Centre hospitalier de l’Université Laval
  1 document  
Author
Van Oostdam, J
Gilman, A
Dewailly, E
Usher, P
Wheatley, B
Kuhnlein, H
Neve, S
Walker, J
Tracy, B
Feeley, M
Jerome, V
Kwavnick, B
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Bureau of Chemical Hazards, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1999 Jun 1;230(1-3):1-82
Date
Jun-1-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
5360239
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - toxicity
Indians, North American
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Public Health
Risk factors
Abstract
This paper assesses the impact on human health of exposure to current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic, and identifies the data gaps that need to be filled by future human health research and monitoring. The concept of health in indigenous groups of the Arctic includes social, cultural, and spiritual dimensions. The harvesting, sharing and consumption of traditional foods are an integral component to good health among Aboriginal people influencing both physical health and social well-being. Traditional foods are also an economic necessity in many communities. Consequently, the contamination of country food raises problems which go far beyond the usual confines of public health and cannot be resolved by health advisories or food substitutions alone. The primary exposure pathway for the contaminants considered in this paper is through the traditional northern diet. For the Inuit, the OCs of primary concern at this time from the point of view of exposure are chlordane, toxaphene, and PCBs. Exposures are higher in the eastern than in the western region of the North. For Dene/Metis, exposure to OCs is in general below a level of concern. However, estimated intake of chlordane and toxaphene has been found to be elevated for certain groups and is a cause for concern if exposures are elevated on a regular basis. The developing foetus and breast-fed infant are likely to be more sensitive to the effects of OCs and metals than individual adults and are the age groups at greatest risk in the Arctic. Extensive sampling of human tissues in the Canadian north indicate that a significant proportion of Dene, Cree and Inuit had mean maternal hair mercury levels within the 5% risk-range proposed by the WHO for neonatal neurological damage. Based on current levels, lead does not appear to pose a health threat while cadmium is likely only a major risk factor for heavy smokers or consumers of large amounts of organ meats. Consumers of traditional foods are exposed to an approximately seven-fold higher radiation dose than non-consumers of traditional foods due predominantly to the bioaccumulation of natural radionuclides in the food chain. Risk determination for contaminants in country food involves a consideration of the type and amounts of food consumed and the sociocultural, nutritional, economic, and spiritual benefits associated with country foods. Risk management options that minimize the extent to which nutritional and sociocultural aspects of Aboriginal societies are compromised must always be considered.
PubMed ID
10466227 View in PubMed
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Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289309
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:31127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2016
Author
Renata Rosol
Stephanie Powell-Hellyer
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:31127
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Animals, Wild
Arctic Regions
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fats
Edible Grain
Female
Food Preferences
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Nutritional Status
Abstract
The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species.
Data collected during the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used.
A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet.
If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.
Notes
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Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(5):390-5 PMID 15513673
PubMed ID
27388896 View in PubMed
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Temperature regulation in the vampire bat Desodus rotundus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298782
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-64.
Publication Type
Report
Date
September 1965
such as food or adequate shelter may often be of greater importance. Certainly with the large variation in homeothermism among the order as a whole, it is not possible to predict whether a given species would be tolerant to a cold climate. The present study examines these problems in the vampire
  1 document  
Author
Lyman, Charles P.
Wimsatt, William A.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-64.
Date
September 1965
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
946526
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Bats
Cold Temperature
Exposure
Metabolism
Body temperature
Abstract
Body temperature and oxygen consumption were measured at various environmental temperatures in a series of captive and wild caught vampire bats, Desmodus rotundus. The response to changes in ambient temperatures was unpredictable and could not be correlated with the age or sex of the animals, their nutritional condition, or the length of their captivity. Body temperature varied greatly, but generally did not fall below 30° C when the ambient temperature was above 25° C. At lower ambient temperatures, some bats increased their metabolism and maintained a high body temperature for varying periods, while others showed little or no increase in metabolic rate, and their body temperatures declined. Below about 20° C body temperature, bats were unable to rewarm themselves without exogenous heat. Calculations indicate that vampires did not drink sufficient blood to maintain a homeothermic condition at the temperatures of temperate zone hibernacula. Bats could tolerate ambient temperatures of 33° C or more for only short periods. It is suggested that Desmodus is limited from spreading northward because of its inferior temperature regulation.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.
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Physiological observations on subarctic bears under winter den conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298789
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-65-15. 12 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
March 1966
were expected to initiate the state of winter rest. On November 20 the bear was given a large supply of straw in which it constructed a den. From this time on, a temperature of 30° F was maintained in the building, and the usual excess of food was provided. On November 26 two conditions were
  1 document  
Author
Folk, G. Edgar, Jr.
Simmonds, Richard C.
Folk, Mary A.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-65-15. 12 p.
Date
March 1966
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1290580
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Grizzly bears
Winter
Heart rate
Urinary output
Body temperature
Black bears
Hypothermia
Dormancy (hibernation)
Abstract
Heart rates, body temperature, and urinary output were studied in a variety of activity states in one or all of a group of four bears (two grizzly bears, Ursus horribilis, and two black bears, Ursus americanus Pallas). In addition, the cardiac activity of three black bears was studied during whole body hypothermia. The resting heart rates obtained during winter dormancy from three bears were significantly lower (75-91%) than those obtained during the summer. The physiological activity cycle of the dormant bears did not change appreciably as they continued to show a relatively high heart rate (40 beats/minute) in the morning hours. Body temperatures obtained from one black bear during winter dormancy showed only a 4° C depression. One dormant bear did not urinate for at least three months, and it was not until the third day post-arousal that voiding occurred. The three black bears subjected to whole body hypothermia experienced asystole and cardiac arrest at body temperatures of 16° - 21° C. At the time of cardiac arrest, heart rates as low as 1 beat/minute were recorded, indicating that bears could maintain low hypothermic heart rates.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.65-15
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Some metabolic aspects of tolerance to endotoxin and the effect of low temperature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298797
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-65-4. 25 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
October 1965
importance, there is no evidence of undesirable consequences. Mice were housed 10 per cage with white pine shavings as bedding, and water and pathogen-free mouse food (D and G, The Price-Wilhoite Co., Frederick, Md.) were available ad libitum, unless otherwise specified. The animal room and the
  1 document  
Author
Berry, L. Joe
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-65-4. 25 p.
Date
October 1965
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1446528
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Mice
Cold Temperature
Exposure
Endotoxin
Blood
Liver
Acclimatization
Abstract
Mice made tolerant to bacterial endotoxin show an increase in rate of carbon clearance from the blood and a greater stability of liver tryptophan pyrrolase following endotoxin poisoning compared with normal mice. Injections of actinomycin D, but not of ethionine nor 2-thiouracil, prevent these changes associated with tolerance. Animals exposed to 5° C cold are capable of being made tolerant despite their increased sensitivity to endotoxin. Acclimatization to cold reduces this sensitivity. Neither hemagglutinins against endotoxin coated erythrocytes nor bacterial agglutinins show any change of titer in tolerant animals. It is believed that the phenomenon of tolerance is dependent upon enzymatic stabilization.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.65-4
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