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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104271
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Helga Bjørnøy Urke
Zhirong R Cao
Grace M Egeland
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
PubMed ID
24864166 View in PubMed
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Food and nutrient intake of Inuit adults and the development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to evaluate a nutritional and lifestyle intervention program aimed at improving dietary intake and health: Results from Healthy Foods North

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256655
Source
Pages 331-332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
FOOD AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF INUIT ADULTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO EVALUATE A NUTRITIONAL AND LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING DIETARY INTAKE AND HEAL TH, RES UL TS FROM HEAL THY FOODS NORTH 5. Sharma, X. Cao, C. Roache, R. Reid, J
  1 document  
Author
Sharma S
Cao X
Roache C
Reid R
Gittelsohn J
Author Affiliation
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC
Source
Pages 331-332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Inuit
Canada
Energy
Vitamins
Nutrition
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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Barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity for First Nation youths in northern Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82158
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Skinner Kelly
Hanning Rhona M
Tsuji Leonard J S
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Diet - economics - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Rural Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity in youths in a remote sub-arctic community, Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative multi-method participatory approach. METHODS: The study included a purposive convenience sample of two adult (n = 22) and three youths (n = 30; students in grades 6 to 8) focus groups, unstructured one-on-one interviews with adult key informants (n = 7), and a scan of the community environment. Data were coded and analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Hurricane thinking and concept mapping were used to illustrate findings and relationships between concepts. RESULTS: Dominant emerging themes included empowerment, trust, resources, barriers and opportunities, while major sub-themes included food security, cost, accessibility/availability, capacity building, community support, programs/training and the school snack/breakfast program. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers to healthy nutrition and physical activity exist in this community and are possibly similar in other remote communities. Empowerment is a core issue that should be considered in the design of public health interventions for First Nations youths in remote sub-arctic communities.
PubMed ID
16711466 View in PubMed
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Social networks and infant feeding in Oaxaca, Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158305
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Apr;4(2):121-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Amber Wutich
Christopher McCarty
Author Affiliation
School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-2402, USA. amber.wutich@asu.edu
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Apr;4(2):121-35
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Feeding - epidemiology - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Infant
Infant Care - methods - psychology
Infant Food
Male
Mexico
Mothers - psychology
Multivariate Analysis
Social Support
Time Factors
Weaning
Abstract
The health benefits of delaying the introduction of complementary foods to infants' diets are widely known. Many studies have shown that mothers with the support of close social network members are more compliant with medical recommendations for infant feeding. In our study, we examine the effects of a broader spectrum of network members (40 people) on mothers' infant feeding decisions. The survey was conducted in Oaxaca, Mexico as part of a follow-up to a nationwide Mexican Social Security Institute survey of infant health. Sixty mothers were interviewed from a stratified random sample of the original respondents. Multivariate tests were used to compare the efficacy of network-level variables for predicting the introduction of 36 foods into infants' diets, when compared with respondent-level variables. The study yields four findings. First, network-level variables were better predictors of the timing of food introduction than socio-demographic variables. Second, mothers with more indigenous networks delayed the introduction of some grains (oatmeal, cereal, noodle soup, rice) and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers with less indigenous networks. Third, mothers who had stronger ties to their networks delayed the introduction of rice and processed pork products (sausage and ham) to the infant's diet longer than mothers who had weaker ties to their networks. Fourth, mothers who heeded the advice of distant network members introduced some grains (rice and cereal) earlier than mothers who did not heed the advice of distant network members.
PubMed ID
18336645 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158692
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2. sharon.kirkpatrick@utoronto.ca
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-12
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet
Eating
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Infant
Male
Malnutrition
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Household food insecurity constrains food selection, but whether the dietary compromises associated with this problem heighten the risk of nutrient inadequacies is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between household food security status and adults' and children's dietary intakes and to estimate the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies among adults and children, differentiating by household food security status. We analyzed 24-h recall and household food security data for persons aged 1-70 y from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 2.2). The relationship between adults' and children's nutrient and food intakes and household food security status was assessed using regression analysis. Estimates of the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes by food security status and age/sex group were calculated using probability assessment methods. Poorer dietary intakes were observed among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households and many of the differences by food security status persisted after accounting for potential confounders in multivariate analyses. Higher estimated prevalences of nutrient inadequacy were apparent among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households, with the differences most marked for protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. Among children, few differences in dietary intakes by household food security status were apparent and there was little indication of nutrient inadequacy. This study indicates that for adults and, to some degree, adolescents, food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intakes. These findings highlight the need for concerted public policy responses to ameliorate household food insecurity.
Notes
Erratum In: J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1399
PubMed ID
18287374 View in PubMed
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The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145075
Source
Can J Aging. 2010 Mar;29(1):39-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Bonnie-Jeanne MacDonald
Doug Andrews
Robert L Brown
Author Affiliation
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. BonnieJeanne_MacDonald@hotmail.com
Source
Can J Aging. 2010 Mar;29(1):39-56
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Income Tax
Male
Needs Assessment - economics
Poverty - classification
Retirement
Social Security - economics
Social Welfare
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Abstract
We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.
PubMed ID
20202264 View in PubMed
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Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114202
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:427
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Ellen Desjardins
Leonard J S Tsuji
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. kskinner@uwaterloo.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:427
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Diet
Female
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Population Groups - ethnology - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Resilience, Psychological
Resource Allocation - methods
Rural Population
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity.
A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach.
Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested.
Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the strategies and solutions participants suggested for coping with food insecurity. Public health policies to improve food security for FN populations are urgently needed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23639143 View in PubMed
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Higher n3-fatty acid status is associated with lower risk of iron depletion among food insecure Canadian Inuit women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115069
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:289
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Jennifer A Jamieson
Harriet V Kuhnlein
Hope A Weiler
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Montreal, Canada. jjamieso@stfx.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:289
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - blood
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Iron - blood - deficiency
Middle Aged
Risk assessment
Young Adult
Abstract
High rates of iron deficiency and anemia are common among Inuit and Arctic women despite a traditional diet based on animal source foods. However, representative data on iron status and relevant determinants for this population are lacking. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of anemia and depletion of iron stores, then to identify correlates of iron status in non-pregnant Canadian Inuit women.
In a cross-sectional survey of 1550 women in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), C-reactive protein (CRP), RBC fatty acid composition, and H pylori serology were analyzed on fasting venous blood. Sociodemographic, food security status, anthropometric, dietary, and health data were collected. Correlates of iron status were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic models.
Anemia was observed in 21.7% and iron deficient erythropoiesis in 3.3% of women. For women with CRP = 10 mg/L (n = 1260) 29.4% had depleted iron stores. Inadequate iron intakes were observed in 16% of premenopausal and
Notes
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PubMed ID
23547888 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and severity of household food insecurity of First Nations people living in an on-reserve, sub-Arctic community within the Mushkegowuk Territory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259196
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):31-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Kelly Skinner
Rhona M Hanning
Leonard J S Tsuji
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2014 Jan;17(1):31-9
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Ontario
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Vulnerable Populations - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To measure and describe the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity in a remote on-reserve First Nations community using the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) and to evaluate the perceived relevance of the HFSSM for this population.
Household food security status was determined from the eighteen-item HFSSM following the classifications developed by Health Canada for the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2·2 Nutrition. One adult from each household in the community was invited to complete the HFSSM and to comment on its relevance as a tool to measure food security for First Nations communities.
Sub-Arctic Ontario, Canada.
Households (n 64).
Seventy per cent of households were food insecure, 17% severely and 53% moderately. The prevalence of food insecurity in households with children was 76%. Among respondents from homes rated as having severe food insecurity, all (100 %) reported worrying that food would run out, times when food didn't last and there wasn't money to buy more, and times when they couldn't afford to eat balanced meals. The majority of respondents felt the HFSSM did not capture an accurate picture of food security for their situation. Aspects missing from the HFSSM included the high cost of market food and the incorporation of traditional food practices.
A high prevalence of household food insecurity was reported in this community. On-reserve remote First Nations communities may be more susceptible to food insecurity than off-reserve Aboriginal populations. Initiatives that promote food security for this vulnerable population are needed.
PubMed ID
23806766 View in PubMed
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Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary health services.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125688
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;42(4):947-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Katrina C Duncan
Kate Salters
Jamie I Forrest
Alexis K Palmer
Hong Wang
Nadia O'Brien
Surita Parashar
Angela M Cescon
Hasina Samji
Julio Sg Montaner
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada and Division of AIDS, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;42(4):947-55
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Body Image
British Columbia - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Viral
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Internet
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Medication Adherence
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stereotyping
Translational Medical Research - statistics & numerical data
Truth Disclosure
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary health services (LISA) study is a cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS who have ever accessed anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in British Columbia, Canada. The LISA study was developed to better understand the outcomes of people living with HIV with respect to supportive services use, socio-demographic factors and quality of life. Between July 2007 and January 2010, 1000 participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that included questions concerning medical history, substance use, social and medical support services, food and housing security and other social determinants of health characteristics. Of the 1000 participants, 917 were successfully linked to longitudinal clinical data through the provincial Drug Treatment Program. Within the LISA cohort, 27% of the participants are female, the median age is 39 years and 32% identify as Aboriginal. Knowledge translation activities for LISA include the creation of plain language summaries, internet resources and arts-based engagement activities such as Photovoice.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22461127 View in PubMed
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Associations between household food insecurity and health outcomes in the Aboriginal population (excluding reserves).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132094
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Noreen Willows
Paul Veugelers
Kim Raine
Stefan Kuhle
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2T4. willows@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Nutrition Surveys
Quality of Life
Smoking - ethnology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal people are more vulnerable to food insecurity and morbidity than is the Canadian population overall. However, little information is available about the association between food insecurity and health in Aboriginal households.
Data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to examine the relationships between household food security and self-reported health, well-being and health behaviours in a sample of 837 Aboriginal adults living off reserve. Household food security status was based on Health Canada's interpretation of the United States Household Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders.
An estimated 29% of Aboriginal people aged 18 or older lived in food-insecure households. They were more likely to report poor general and mental health, life dissatisfaction, a very weak sense of community belonging, high stress and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts in food-secure households. When age, gender and household education were taken into account, respondents from food-insecure households had significantly higher odds of poor general health, high stress, life dissatisfaction, and a very weak community belonging.
Reductions in household food insecurity may improve the health and well-being of Aboriginals living off-reserve.
PubMed ID
21848128 View in PubMed
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Community well being and infectious diseases among Alaska Native communities in the Chugach Region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2986
Source
Pages 659-675 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
sense of community were all fac- tors in staying healthy. Of these, exercise was the means of staying healthy mentioned most often. Participants stated they exercised both through traditional means, such as harvest- ing traditional foods, hunting. and fishing. as well as through modem sports such as
  1 document  
Author
Speier, T.L
Author Affiliation
Alaska Comprehensive and Specialized Evaluation Services (ACSES), University of Alaska Anchorage, Department of Psychology, 99508, USA. antls1@uaa.alaska.edu
Source
Pages 659-675 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part II, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(4)
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alaska - epidemiology
Alaska Natives
Attitude to Health
Communicable diseases - ethnology
Female
Focus Groups
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Infectious diseases
Interviews
Male
Mental health
Prospective Studies
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Substance abuse
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine how Native people of the Chugach Region of Alaska perceive their own communities' health and well being, particularly in regard to infectious diseases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective focus group interview survey. METHODS: During September to December 1999, 12 focus groups were conducted in seven communities in the Chugach Region of Alaska with 97 participants. Using a set of eight questions, information gathered provided insights into the participants' health-related perceptions and provided previously nonexistent baseline data pertaining toTB and hepatitis. RESULTS: Participants showed a good working knowledge of common infectious diseases. There were misconceptions and a potential for increased knowledge in highly prevalent diseases, but more recently delineated infections in rural Alaska, e.g., respiratory syncvtial virus (RSV), Helicobacter pylori, and less prevalent diseases, e.g., Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The participants expressed a desire for further infectious disease information and dialogue. CONCLUSIONS: This process can be used to develop a risk assessment tool for medical and clinical providers' use in an effort to increase testing for such infectious diseases as HIV, TB, Hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In this case the authors also produced a STD prevention video for rural Alaska Natives, entitled, Summer Sun Winter Moon.
PubMed ID
11768448 View in PubMed
Documents
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Dietary antioxidants and the risk of lung cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225751
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Sep 1;134(5):471-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-1991
Author
P. Knekt
R. Järvinen
R. Seppänen
A. Rissanen
A. Aromaa
O P Heinonen
D. Albanes
M. Heinonen
E. Pukkala
L. Teppo
Author Affiliation
Research Institute for Social Security, Social Insurance Institution, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Sep 1;134(5):471-9
Date
Sep-1-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antioxidants - pharmacology
Ascorbic Acid - pharmacology
Carotenoids - pharmacology
Cohort Studies
Dairy Products
Diet
Eating
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Fruit
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - prevention & control
Male
Meat products
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Retinoids - pharmacology
Risk
Selenium - pharmacology
Smoking
Vegetables
Vitamin E - pharmacology
Abstract
The relation between the intake of retinoids, carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, and selenium and the subsequent risk of lung cancer was studied among 4,538 initially cancer-free Finnish men aged 20-69 years. During a follow-up of 20 years beginning in 1966-1972, 117 lung cancer cases were diagnosed. Inverse gradients were observed between the intake of carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C and the incidence of lung cancer among nonsmokers, for whom the age-adjusted relative risks of lung cancer in the lowest tertile of intake compared with that in the highest tertile were 2.5 (p value for trend = 0.04), 3.1 (p = 0.12), and 3.1 (p less than 0.01) for the three intakes, respectively. Adjustment for various potential confounding factors did not materially alter the results, and the associations did not seem to be due to preclinical cancer. In the total cohort, there was an inverse association between intake of margarine and fruits and risk of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer for the lowest compared with the highest tertile of margarine intake was 4.0 (p less than 0.001), and that for fruits was 1.8 (p = 0.01). These associations persisted after adjustment for the micronutrient intakes and were stronger among nonsmokers. The results suggest that carotenoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C may be protective against lung cancer among nonsmokers. Food sources rich in these micronutrients may also have other constituents with independent protective effects against lung cancer.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1992 Nov 1;136(9):1167-9; author reply 1169-701462977
PubMed ID
1897503 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of a collective kitchens program: using the Population Health Promotion Model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179482
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):72-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Tara J Fano
Sheila M Tyminski
Mary A T Flynn
Author Affiliation
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Nutrition and Active Living, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):72-80
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alberta
Attitude of Health Personnel
Child
Consumer Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Food Services - organization & administration - utilization
Health Promotion - organization & administration - utilization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motivation
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Social Facilitation
Social Support
Abstract
To evaluate the impact of the Calgary Health Region Collective Kitchen Program on various Population Health Promotion Model health determinants, data were collected through mail-in questionnaires that examined the members' (n=331) and coordinators' (n=58) perspectives of the program. Seventy-nine members (24%) and 26 coordinators (45%) were included in the study. Three incomplete questionnaires (from prenatal program members) were discarded. Sixty-one percent of members who reported income level and family size (n=61) had incomes below the low-income cut-off. Fifty-eight members (73%) reported improvements in their lives because of the program. Sixty-four members (81%) perceived they learned to feed their families healthier foods. The members reported their fruit and vegetable consumption before and since joining a collective kitchen, and the proportion of those consuming at least five fruit and vegetable servings a day rose from 29% to 47%. The most common reasons for joining this program concerned social interactions and support. Over 90% of the coordinators perceived that they were competent to coordinate a kitchen. The results indicate that the collective kitchens program addresses several health determinants, and may increase members' capacity to attain food security and to achieve improved nutritional health.
PubMed ID
15217525 View in PubMed
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[Foodstuff as sources of vitamin C in nutrition of the population of the Russian Federation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169132
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2006;75(2):14-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
O V Kpsheleva
A K Baturin
L N Shatniuk
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2006;75(2):14-8
Date
2006
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage - analysis
Child
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Dietary Supplements
Female
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Male
Population
Russia
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
The estimation of the contribution of foodstuff in security of the population of the Russian Federation by vitamin C in view of volumes of their consumption is lead. It is shown, that the basic sources of vitamin, borrowing in the general structure of consumption of foodstuff about 30%, do not provide sufficient volume its receipt. The real maintenance of vitamin C certain by standard analytical methods in some fruit-and-vegetable cultures, shows significant variability and difference from the given official tables of a chemical compound. The lack of the micronutrient is expedient to compensate by inclusion of biologically active additives to food or enriched foodstuff in a diet.
PubMed ID
16729753 View in PubMed
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Community food program use in Inuvik, Northwest Territories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265833
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:970
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
James D Ford
Marie-Pierre Lardeau
Hilary Blackett
Susan Chatwood
Denise Kurszewski
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:970
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Data Collection - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Assistance - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nunavut
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Abstract
Community food programs (CFPs) provide an important safety-net for highly food insecure community members in the larger settlements of the Canadian Arctic. This study identifies who is using CFPs and why, drawing upon a case study from Inuvik, Northwest Territories. This work is compared with a similar study from Iqaluit, Nunavut, allowing the development of an Arctic-wide understanding of CFP use - a neglected topic in the northern food security literature.
Photovoice workshops (n=7), a modified USDA food security survey and open ended interviews with CFP users (n=54) in Inuvik.
Users of CFPs in Inuvik are more likely to be housing insecure, female, middle aged (35-64), unemployed, Aboriginal, and lack a high school education. Participants are primarily chronic users, and depend on CFPs for regular food access.
This work indicates the presence of chronically food insecure groups who have not benefited from the economic development and job opportunities offered in larger regional centers of the Canadian Arctic, and for whom traditional kinship-based food sharing networks have been unable to fully meet their dietary needs. While CFPs do not address the underlying causes of food insecurity, they provide an important service for communities undergoing rapid change, and need greater focus in food policy herein.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24139485 View in PubMed
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Home is where the HAART is: an examination of factors affecting neighbourhood perceptions among people with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137670
Source
AIDS Care. 2011 Feb;23(2):245-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Krisztina Vasarhelyi
Eirikka K Brandson
Alexis K Palmer
Kimberly A Fernandes
Wendy Zhang
David M Moore
Julio S G Montaner
Robert S Hogg
Author Affiliation
Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. kvasarhelyi@irmacs.sfu.ca
Source
AIDS Care. 2011 Feb;23(2):245-51
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
British Columbia - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - psychology
Housing
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Quality of Life
Residence Characteristics
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Understanding the neighbourhood perceptions of individuals living with HIV in urban and non-urban areas may help identify potential barriers to uptake and effectiveness of therapy. We evaluate how neighbourhood perceptions are influenced by socio-economic factors, such as food security and stable housing and other explanatory variables, among individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia. Neighbourhood perceptions, quality of life and socio-demographic information were collected in an interviewer-administered survey with study participants. Perception of neighbourhood problems, perception of neighbourhood cohesion and perception of relative standard of living were evaluated using previously defined scales. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine associations with neighbourhood perceptions, food security and stable housing. Our analyses were based on 457 participants, of whom 133 (29%) were food secure and 297 (65%) had stable housing. Mean scores for perceptions of neighbourhood problems and cohesion were 35 (IQR 15-58) and 57 (IQR 46-69), respectively. Being food secure and having stable housing was associated with a 9% and 11% decrease in perception of neighbourhood problems, respectively, and a 6% increase in the perception of neighbourhood cohesion in both cases. Food security and stable housing are related to neighbourhood perceptions among individuals on HAART. The results point to potential targets for intervention, involving improvements to living conditions such as housing and food security, which may promote treatment success for HAART, especially in marginalized communities.
PubMed ID
21259138 View in PubMed
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