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Barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity for First Nation youths in northern Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82158
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Skinner Kelly
Hanning Rhona M
Tsuji Leonard J S
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Diet - economics - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Rural Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity in youths in a remote sub-arctic community, Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative multi-method participatory approach. METHODS: The study included a purposive convenience sample of two adult (n = 22) and three youths (n = 30; students in grades 6 to 8) focus groups, unstructured one-on-one interviews with adult key informants (n = 7), and a scan of the community environment. Data were coded and analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Hurricane thinking and concept mapping were used to illustrate findings and relationships between concepts. RESULTS: Dominant emerging themes included empowerment, trust, resources, barriers and opportunities, while major sub-themes included food security, cost, accessibility/availability, capacity building, community support, programs/training and the school snack/breakfast program. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers to healthy nutrition and physical activity exist in this community and are possibly similar in other remote communities. Empowerment is a core issue that should be considered in the design of public health interventions for First Nations youths in remote sub-arctic communities.
PubMed ID
16711466 View in PubMed
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Food and nutrient intake of Inuit adults and the development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to evaluate a nutritional and lifestyle intervention program aimed at improving dietary intake and health: Results from Healthy Foods North

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256655
Source
Pages 331-332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
FOOD AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF INUIT ADULTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE TO EVALUATE A NUTRITIONAL AND LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING DIETARY INTAKE AND HEAL TH, RES UL TS FROM HEAL THY FOODS NORTH 5. Sharma, X. Cao, C. Roache, R. Reid, J
  1 document  
Author
Sharma S
Cao X
Roache C
Reid R
Gittelsohn J
Author Affiliation
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, NC
Source
Pages 331-332 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Inuit
Canada
Energy
Vitamins
Nutrition
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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"We are not being heard": Aboriginal perspectives on traditional foods access and food security.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116942
Source
J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:130945
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bethany Elliott
Deepthi Jayatilaka
Contessa Brown
Leslie Varley
Kitty K Corbett
Author Affiliation
Population and Public Health, Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, Canada. bethany.elliott@phsa.ca
Source
J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:130945
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Focus Groups
Food
Food Supply
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Population Groups
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal peoples are among the most food insecure groups in Canada, yet their perspectives and knowledge are often sidelined in mainstream food security debates. In order to create food security for all, Aboriginal perspectives must be included in food security research and discourse. This project demonstrates a process in which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal partners engaged in a culturally appropriate and respectful collaboration, assessing the challenges and barriers to traditional foods access in the urban environment of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The findings highlight local, national, and international actions required to increase access to traditional foods as a means of achieving food security for all people. The paper underscores the interconnectedness of local and global food security issues and highlights challenges as well as solutions with potential to improve food security of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples alike.
Notes
Cites: Annu Rev Nutr. 2000;20:595-62610940347
Cites: J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):155-628557942
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1504-1119144239
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2004 Nov-Dec;95(6):465-915622799
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):46-5415776992
Cites: J Nutr. 1997 Nov;127(11):2179-869349845
PubMed ID
23346118 View in PubMed
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Health and nutrition in children under 2 years of age in three areas of the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213130
Source
Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74(6):605-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
K. Welch
N. Mock
B. Sorensen
O. Netrebenko
Author Affiliation
Department of International Health and Development, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112-2737, USA.
Source
Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74(6):605-12
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Feeding
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Immunization
Infant
Infant Food - standards
Infant Nutrition Disorders - prevention & control
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Morbidity
Russia
Abstract
The study objectives were to determine the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age in selected areas of the Russian Federation, to estimate the proportion of children potentially at risk for nutritional problems, and to characterize such a vulnerable group in terms of demographic variables. A cross-sectional sample of children under 2 years of age was used. Six areas-Moscow, St Petersburg, Ekaterinburg, and their surrounding oblasts-were sampled, and data were collected for approximately 800 children in each area between July and December 1993. A low prevalence of children with a weight-for-age Z-score below -2 was found, indicating that at the time of the survey protein-energy malnutrition was not a serious problem for this age group. However, other survey results indicating high morbidity, low immunization rates, the possibility of food insecurity, and poor infant-feeding practices imply that children's health could easily deteriorate. Therefore, food security and children's nutrition should be monitored to avoid serious consequences in the future. The results also show that there is ample scope for public health interventions that encourage more effective immunization coverage, emphasize prevention of childhood diseases, and promote proper infant-feeding practices.
Notes
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Mar;39(3):437-456695843
Cites: RDH. 1989 Feb;9(2):12-3, 152756133
PubMed ID
9060221 View in PubMed
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Household food insecurity with hunger is associated with women's food intakes, health and household circumstances.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193081
Source
J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2670-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2001
Author
V S Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2670-6
Date
Oct-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - etiology
Data Collection
Diet Records
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Services
Health status
Humans
Hunger
Middle Aged
Ontario
Poverty
Social Support
Abstract
This study investigated food intake patterns and contextual factors related to household food insecurity with hunger among a sample of 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance in Toronto. Women in households characterized by food insecurity with severe or moderate hunger over the past 30 d (as assessed by the Food Security Module) reported lower intakes of vegetables and fruit, and meat and alternatives than those in households with no hunger evident. Women were more likely to report household food insecurity with hunger over the past 12 mo and 30 d if they also reported longstanding health problems or activity limitations, or if they were socially isolated. The circumstances that women identified as precipitating acute food shortages in their households included chronically inadequate incomes; the need to meet additional, unusual expenditures; and the need to pay for other services or accumulated debts. Women who reported delaying payments of bills, giving up services, selling or pawning possessions, or sending children elsewhere for a meal when threatened with acute food shortages were more likely to report household food insecurity with hunger. These findings suggest that expenditures on other goods and services were sometimes foregone to free up money for food, but the reverse was also true. Household food insecurity appears inextricably linked to financial insecurity.
PubMed ID
11584089 View in PubMed
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Determinants of serum alpha-tocopherol in Finnish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232199
Source
Prev Med. 1988 Nov;17(6):725-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1988
Author
P. Knekt
R. Seppänen
R K Aaran
Author Affiliation
Research Institute Social Security, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Prev Med. 1988 Nov;17(6):725-35
Date
Nov-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Diet Surveys
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Vitamin E - blood
Abstract
The relationship between serum alpha-tocopherol level and many of its possible determinants was studied in 1,373 cancer-free Finnish men and women age 40-79 years. Dietary data were available from a subsample of 301 persons. The mean alpha-tocopherol level in the serum samples stored at -20 degrees C was 8.6 mg/liter among men and 10.5 mg/liter among women. Intake of margarine, vegetable oils, and green vegetables predicted the serum level of alpha-tocopherol. Altogether six food groups accounted for about 10% of the variation. The levels also varied with age, geographical area, type of population, occupation, socioeconomic status, and marital status. They were positively correlated with serum cholesterol and serum vitamin A in both sexes, and with body mass index and serum selenium in men. Altogether these variables accounted for over 40% of the variation in alpha-tocopherol levels. The level of serum alpha-tocopherol, which is associated with the dietary intake of vitamin E, is dependent upon living conditions.
PubMed ID
3244671 View in PubMed
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Food security in Nunavut, Canada: barriers and recommendations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165008
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
Author
Hing Man Chan
Karen Fediuk
Sue Hamilton
Laura Rostas
Amy Caughey
Harriet Kuhnlein
Grace Egeland
Eric Loring
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, Canada. lchan@unbc.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Dec;65(5):416-31
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Cultural Characteristics
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Humans
Income
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
The food supply of Inuit living in Nunavut, Canada, is characterized by market food of relatively low nutritional value and nutrient-dense traditional food. The objective of this study is to assess community perceptions about the availability and accessibility of traditional and market foods in Nunavut.
A qualitative study using focus group methodology.
Focus groups were conducted in 6 communities in Nunavut in 2004 and collected information was analyzed.
Barriers to increased traditional food consumption included high costs of hunting and changes in lifestyle and cultural practices. Participants suggested that food security could be gained through increased economic support for local community hunts, freezers and education programs, as well as better access to cheaper and higher quality market food.
Interventions to improve the dietary quality of Nunavut residents are discussed.
PubMed ID
17319086 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of food insecurity in a Greenlandic community and the importance of social, economic and environmental stressors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143145
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Christina Goldhar
James D Ford
Lea Berrang-Ford
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Memorial University St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. christina.goldhar@mun.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Jun;69(3):285-303
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diet
Environment
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Characterize and examine the prevalence of food insecurity in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, and identify stressors affecting the food system.
A mixed-methods study using quantitative food security surveys and semi-structured interviews.
Food security surveys (n=61) were conducted with a random sample of 6% of Qeqertarsuaq's population. Semi-structured interviews (n=75) allowed participants to describe in their own words their experience of food insecurity and permitted in-depth examination of determinants. Key informant interviews were used to provide context to local perspectives.
Prevalence of food insecurity (8%) is low. However, interviews reveal a more nuanced picture, with women, adults aged 55+, and non-hunters reporting constrained access to Greenlandic foods. Barriers restricting traditional food access include changing sea ice conditions, reduced availability of some species, high costs of hunting and purchasing food, tightening food sharing networks, and hunting and fishing regulations.
While the Qeqertarsuaq food system is relatively secure, the research highlights susceptibility to social, economic and environmental stressors which may become more prevalent in the future.
PubMed ID
20519090 View in PubMed
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Associations between household food insecurity and health outcomes in the Aboriginal population (excluding reserves).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132094
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Noreen Willows
Paul Veugelers
Kim Raine
Stefan Kuhle
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2T4. willows@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2011 Jun;22(2):15-20
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Behavior - ethnology
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Nutrition Surveys
Quality of Life
Smoking - ethnology
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal people are more vulnerable to food insecurity and morbidity than is the Canadian population overall. However, little information is available about the association between food insecurity and health in Aboriginal households.
Data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to examine the relationships between household food security and self-reported health, well-being and health behaviours in a sample of 837 Aboriginal adults living off reserve. Household food security status was based on Health Canada's interpretation of the United States Household Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders.
An estimated 29% of Aboriginal people aged 18 or older lived in food-insecure households. They were more likely to report poor general and mental health, life dissatisfaction, a very weak sense of community belonging, high stress and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts in food-secure households. When age, gender and household education were taken into account, respondents from food-insecure households had significantly higher odds of poor general health, high stress, life dissatisfaction, and a very weak community belonging.
Reductions in household food insecurity may improve the health and well-being of Aboriginals living off-reserve.
PubMed ID
21848128 View in PubMed
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The structure of a factory closure: individual responses to job-loss and unemployment in a 10-year controlled follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73805
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1301-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
S. Westin
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1301-11
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Aged
Employment
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Norway
Pensions
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retirement
Salaries and Fringe Benefits
Social Adjustment
Unemployment - psychology
Abstract
A prospective study has been conducted of 85 employees (72 women and 13 men) made redundant when a brisling sardine factory on the west coast of Norway was shut down in 1975. 87 employees (66 women and 21 men) in a 'sister factory' which was not shut down, were used as controls. Previous analyses have shown a substantial reduction in future employment of the study group, a two-fold increase in time consumed on sick leave during the first follow-up year, and a more than three-fold increase in the life-table based rates of disability pensions (invalidity) during the first four follow-up years compared to the controls. In this paper the follow-up data regarding six mutually exclusive and inclusive conditions related to employment and health have been analysed on a weeks per person per year basis, permitting the effects of job-loss over 10 years to be compared with what could have been expected had the factory not been closed. For those not subjected to old age pension or death, three kinds of long-term adaptation showed a marked differential effect among study subjects and controls: a substantial long-term reduction in mean time spent in job, an increase in consumption of time on disability pension, and an increase in time spent outside the labour force without social security coverage, the latter being mostly confined to women. These follow-up data provide a comprehensive picture of individual long-term adaptation to involuntary job-loss, emphasizing its effects on future employment, health, social readjustment and social security benefit consumption.
PubMed ID
2287959 View in PubMed
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An examination of at-home food preparation activity among low-income, food-insecure women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183147
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Nov;103(11):1506-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
Carey McLaughlin
Valerie Tarasuk
Nancy Kreiger
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Nov;103(11):1506-12
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cooking - methods
Diet
Energy intake
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Services
Food Supply
Health promotion
Humans
Hunger
Income
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Poverty
United States
Women's health
Abstract
A secondary analysis of data from a study of nutritional vulnerability among 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance was undertaken to estimate the extent and nutritional significance of at-home food preparation activity for these women. At-home food preparation was estimated from women's reported food intakes from three 24-hour recalls. The relationships between food preparation and energy and nutrient intake, food intake, and 30-day household food security status were characterized. Almost all participants (97%) consumed foods prepared from scratch at least once during the three days of observation; 57% did so each day. Both the frequency and complexity of at-home food preparation were positively related to women's energy and nutrient intakes and their consumption of fruits and vegetables, grain products, and meat and alternates. The intakes by women in households with food insecurity with hunger reflected less complex food preparation but no less preparation from scratch than women in households where hunger was not evident, raising questions about the extent to which food skills can protect very poor families from food insecurity and hunger. Our findings indicate the need for nutrition professionals to become effective advocates for policy reforms to lessen economic constraints on poor households.
PubMed ID
14576717 View in PubMed
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Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011-12.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298422
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-03-2019
Author
Valerie Tarasuk
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain
Andrew Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Date
Jan-03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Geography
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Household food insecurity is a potent social determinant of health and health care costs in Canada, but understanding of the social and economic conditions that underlie households' vulnerability to food insecurity is limited.
Data from the 2011-12 Canadian Community Health Survey were used to determine predictors of household food insecurity among a nationally-representative sample of 120,909 households. Household food insecurity over the past 12?months was assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately, or severely food insecure based on the number of affirmative responses. Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to determine geographic and socio-demographic predictors of presence and severity of household food insecurity.
The prevalence of household food insecurity ranged from 11.8% in Ontario to 41.0% in Nunavut. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, households' odds of food insecurity were lower in Quebec and higher in the Maritimes, territories, and Alberta, compared to Ontario. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were also higher among households reliant on social assistance, Employment Insurance or workers' compensation, those without a university degree, those with children under 18, unattached individuals, renters, and those with an Aboriginal respondent. Higher income, immigration, and reliance on seniors' income sources were protective against food insecurity. Living in Nunavut and relying on social assistance were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity, but severity was also associated with income, education, household composition, Aboriginal status, immigration status, and place of residence. The relation between income and food insecurity status was graded, with every $1000 increase in income associated with 2% lower odds of marginal food insecurity, 4% lower odds of moderate food insecurity, and 5% lower odds of severe food insecurity.
The probability of household food insecurity in Canada and the severity of the experience depends on a household's province or territory of residence, income, main source of income, housing tenure, education, Aboriginal status, and household structure. Our findings highlight the intersection of household food insecurity with public policy decisions in Canada and the disproportionate burden of food insecurity among Indigenous peoples.
PubMed ID
30606152 View in PubMed
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Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117569
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:1
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Mandana Vahabi
Cynthia Damba
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Community Services-Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada. mvahabi@ryerson.ca
Source
Int J Equity Health. 2013;12:1
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Female
Food Supply
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food.
A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique.
Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants' ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources.
The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23286318 View in PubMed
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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of a collective kitchens program: using the Population Health Promotion Model.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179482
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):72-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Tara J Fano
Sheila M Tyminski
Mary A T Flynn
Author Affiliation
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Nutrition and Active Living, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004;65(2):72-80
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alberta
Attitude of Health Personnel
Child
Consumer Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Cooperative Behavior
Female
Food Services - organization & administration - utilization
Health Promotion - organization & administration - utilization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motivation
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Social Facilitation
Social Support
Abstract
To evaluate the impact of the Calgary Health Region Collective Kitchen Program on various Population Health Promotion Model health determinants, data were collected through mail-in questionnaires that examined the members' (n=331) and coordinators' (n=58) perspectives of the program. Seventy-nine members (24%) and 26 coordinators (45%) were included in the study. Three incomplete questionnaires (from prenatal program members) were discarded. Sixty-one percent of members who reported income level and family size (n=61) had incomes below the low-income cut-off. Fifty-eight members (73%) reported improvements in their lives because of the program. Sixty-four members (81%) perceived they learned to feed their families healthier foods. The members reported their fruit and vegetable consumption before and since joining a collective kitchen, and the proportion of those consuming at least five fruit and vegetable servings a day rose from 29% to 47%. The most common reasons for joining this program concerned social interactions and support. Over 90% of the coordinators perceived that they were competent to coordinate a kitchen. The results indicate that the collective kitchens program addresses several health determinants, and may increase members' capacity to attain food security and to achieve improved nutritional health.
PubMed ID
15217525 View in PubMed
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[Foodstuff as sources of vitamin C in nutrition of the population of the Russian Federation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169132
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2006;75(2):14-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
O V Kpsheleva
A K Baturin
L N Shatniuk
Source
Vopr Pitan. 2006;75(2):14-8
Date
2006
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage - analysis
Child
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Dietary Supplements
Female
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Male
Population
Russia
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
The estimation of the contribution of foodstuff in security of the population of the Russian Federation by vitamin C in view of volumes of their consumption is lead. It is shown, that the basic sources of vitamin, borrowing in the general structure of consumption of foodstuff about 30%, do not provide sufficient volume its receipt. The real maintenance of vitamin C certain by standard analytical methods in some fruit-and-vegetable cultures, shows significant variability and difference from the given official tables of a chemical compound. The lack of the micronutrient is expedient to compensate by inclusion of biologically active additives to food or enriched foodstuff in a diet.
PubMed ID
16729753 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299315
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Arctic Regions
Blood glucose
Blood pressure
Body Weights and Measures
Diet - ethnology
Female
Food Supply - methods
Health Behavior
Humans
Indians, North American
Language
Lipids - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity among Latin American recent immigrants in Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141183
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Mandana Vahabi
Cynthia Damba
Cecilia Rocha
Elizabeth Cristina Montoya
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Community Services-Daphne Cockwell, School of Nursing, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3, Canada. mvahabi@ryerson.ca
Source
J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Oct;13(5):929-39
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Emigrants and Immigrants
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Latin America - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an increasing number of young immigrants, many of whom, despite relatively high education, are unemployed or have low wage positions. This study examines the extent of food insecurity and its correlates among recent Latin American (LA) immigrants in Toronto. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 70 adult LA recent immigrants. Participants were recruited from selected community health centres across Toronto using snow ball sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with primary household care givers. A considerably high rate of food insecurity (56%) was found among participants. Household food insecurity was highly related to: being on social assistance; limited proficiency in English; and the use of foodbanks. Our findings indicate that the primary correlate of a household's food security status is income, which suggests the potential for strategies to improve the financial power of new immigrants to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally acceptable food. Enhancing the employability of new immigrants, reforming the income structure for working adults beyond social assistance, and providing more subsidized English language and housing programs may be effective.
PubMed ID
20803253 View in PubMed
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