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Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290437
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
a Department of Anthropology , University of Toronto Mississauga , Mississauga , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Commerce
Eligibility Determination
Food Assistance - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Program Evaluation
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jul 05;75:31127 PMID 27388896
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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Public Health Practice Report: water supply and sanitation in Chukotka and Yakutia, Russian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298113
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1423826
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2018
–event—back ground–and–topics.html [5] Water Innovations for Health Arctic Homes, conference in Anchorage. Alaska [cited 2017 Dec 22]. Proceedings available from: http://wihah2016.com/ [6] Dudarev AA, Dushkina EV, Sladkova YN, et al. Food and water security issues in Russia II: water security in
  1 document  
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Author Affiliation
a Hygiene Department , Northwest Public Health Research Center , St-Petersburg , Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1423826
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Journal Article
File Size
1349088
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Housing
Humans
Russia
Sanitation - standards
Sewage
Water Purification
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
Information from 2013-2015 have been analysed on water accessibility, types of water service to households, use of water pretreatment, availability of sewerage, use of sewage treatment in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Yakutia Republic, based on evaluation information accessible in open sources, such as regional statistics and sanitary-epidemiologic reports. The main causes of the poor state of water supply and sanitation in the study regions include: very limited access to in-home running water (one-quarter of settlements in Chukotka and half of settlements in Yakutia have no regular water supply) and lack of centralised sewerage (78% and 94% of settlements correspondingly have no sewerage); lack of water pretreatment and sewage treatment, outdated technologies and systems; serious deterioration of facilities and networks, frequent accidents; secondary pollution of drinking water. Lack of open objective information on Russian Arctic water supply and sanitation in the materials of the regional and federal statistics hampers the assessment of the real state of affairs. The situation for water and sanitation supply in these Russian Arctic regions remains steadily unfavourable. A comprehensive intervention from national and regional governmental levels is urgently needed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013 Dec 09;72:21856 PMID 24350064
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013 Dec 09;72:22646 PMID 24350065
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Apr 29;75:31149 PMID 27132632
PubMed ID
29384013 View in PubMed
Documents

Public-Health-Practice-Report-water-supply-and-sanitation-in-Chukotka-and-Yakutia-Russian-Arctic.pdf

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A scoping review of traditional food security in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298121
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1419678
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Date
12-2018
Author
Amanda Walch
Philip Loring
Rhonda Johnson
Melissa Tholl
Andrea Bersamin
Author Affiliation
a Department of Biology & Wildlife , University of Alaska Fairbanks , Fairbanks , AK , USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1419678
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Keywords
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Food
Food Supply
Humans
Abstract
Food insecurity is a public health concern. The pillars of food security include food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, the pillars may focus on traditional foods.
To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska.
Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: “traditional foods”, “food security”, “access”, “availability”, “utilisation”, “Alaska”, “Alaska Native” and “indigenous”.
Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents met the inclusion criteria. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8).
Studies that estimate the prevalence of traditional food insecurity in Alaska are virtually absent from the literature. Instead most studies provide a review of factors related to food security. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.
PubMed ID
29292675 View in PubMed
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Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011-12.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298422
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-03-2019
Author
Valerie Tarasuk
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain
Andrew Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Date
Jan-03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Geography
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Household food insecurity is a potent social determinant of health and health care costs in Canada, but understanding of the social and economic conditions that underlie households' vulnerability to food insecurity is limited.
Data from the 2011-12 Canadian Community Health Survey were used to determine predictors of household food insecurity among a nationally-representative sample of 120,909 households. Household food insecurity over the past 12?months was assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately, or severely food insecure based on the number of affirmative responses. Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to determine geographic and socio-demographic predictors of presence and severity of household food insecurity.
The prevalence of household food insecurity ranged from 11.8% in Ontario to 41.0% in Nunavut. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, households' odds of food insecurity were lower in Quebec and higher in the Maritimes, territories, and Alberta, compared to Ontario. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were also higher among households reliant on social assistance, Employment Insurance or workers' compensation, those without a university degree, those with children under 18, unattached individuals, renters, and those with an Aboriginal respondent. Higher income, immigration, and reliance on seniors' income sources were protective against food insecurity. Living in Nunavut and relying on social assistance were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity, but severity was also associated with income, education, household composition, Aboriginal status, immigration status, and place of residence. The relation between income and food insecurity status was graded, with every $1000 increase in income associated with 2% lower odds of marginal food insecurity, 4% lower odds of moderate food insecurity, and 5% lower odds of severe food insecurity.
The probability of household food insecurity in Canada and the severity of the experience depends on a household's province or territory of residence, income, main source of income, housing tenure, education, Aboriginal status, and household structure. Our findings highlight the intersection of household food insecurity with public policy decisions in Canada and the disproportionate burden of food insecurity among Indigenous peoples.
PubMed ID
30606152 View in PubMed
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Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and Inuit Nutrition Security in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294373
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2018
Author
Tiff-Annie Kenny
Myriam Fillion
Sarah Simpkin
Sonia D Wesche
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Date
Sep-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) has been fundamental to the diet and culture of Arctic Indigenous Peoples for thousands of years. Although caribou populations observe natural cycles of abundance and scarcity, several caribou herds across the Circumpolar North have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades due to a range of interrelated factors. Broadly, the objectives of this study are to examine food and nutrition security in relation to wildlife population and management status across Inuit Nunangat (the Inuit homeland, consisting of four regions across the Canadian Arctic). Specifically, we: (1) characterize the contribution of caribou to Inuit nutrition across northern Canada and (2) evaluate the population and management status of caribou herds/populations harvested by Inuit. Dietary data were derived from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey, which included dietary information for Inuit adults (n?=?2097) residing in thirty-six communities, spanning three regions (the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut) of the Canadian North. Published information regarding the range, abundance, status, and management status of caribou herds/populations was collected through document analysis and was validated through consultation with northern wildlife experts (territorial governments, co-management, and/or Inuit organizations). While caribou contributed modestly to total diet energy (3-11% of intake) across the regions, it was the primary source of iron (14-37%), zinc (18-41%), copper (12-39%), riboflavin (15-39%), and vitamin B12 (27-52%), as well as a top source of protein (13-35%). Restrictions on Inuit subsistence harvest (harvest quotas or bans) are currently enacted on at least six northern caribou herds/populations with potential consequences for country food access for over twenty-five Inuit communities across Canada. A holistic multi-sectorial approach is needed to ensure the sustainability of wildlife populations, while supporting Inuit food and nutrition security in the interim.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30116999 View in PubMed
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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294629
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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Red blood cell folate levels in Canadian Inuit women of childbearing years: influence of food security, body mass index, smoking, education, and vitamin use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293007
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 May 09; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-09-2018
Author
Kait Duncan
Anders C Erickson
Grace M Egeland
Hope Weiler
Laura T Arbour
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Island Medical Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 May 09; :
Date
May-09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The benefits of folic acid for prevention of congenital anomalies are well known. For the Inuit of Canada, where vitamin use is low and access to folate-rich foods limited, fortification is likely a major source of intake. We sought to determine whether red blood cell folate (RBCF) levels of Inuit women reached accepted target levels.
The Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, included evaluation of RBCF levels among 249 randomly selected non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using descriptive statistics and linear regression analyses, RBCF levels were assessed and compared across several socio-demographic variables to evaluate the characteristics associated with RBCF status.
Mean (SD) RBCF levels of 935.5 nmol/L (±?192) reached proposed target levels (>?906 nmol/L); however, 47% of women had lower than target levels. In bivariate analysis, non-smoking, higher education, higher income, food security, increased body mass index, and vitamin use were each significantly associated with higher RBCF. Increased levels of smoking had a negative association with RBCF levels (-?5.8 nmol/L per cigarette smoked per day (p?=?0.001)). A total of 6.8% of women reported taking vitamin supplements, resulting in a 226 nmol/L higher RBCF level on average compared to non-users (p?
PubMed ID
29981096 View in PubMed
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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Adaptation in Arctic circumpolar communities: food and water security in a changing climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289270
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33820
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2016
Author
James Berner
Michael Brubaker
Boris Revitch
Eva Kreummel
Moses Tcheripanoff
Jake Bell
Author Affiliation
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, USA; jberner@anthc.org.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33820
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Communicable diseases
Community-Based Participatory Research
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Inuits
Rural Health
Socioeconomic Factors
Water supply
Abstract
The AMAP Human Health Assessment Group has developed different adaptation strategies through a long-term collaboration with all Arctic countries. Different adaptation strategies are discussed, with examples mainly from native population groups in Alaska.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27974139 View in PubMed
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Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289309
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:31127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2016
Author
Renata Rosol
Stephanie Powell-Hellyer
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:31127
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Animals, Wild
Arctic Regions
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fats
Edible Grain
Female
Food Preferences
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Nutritional Status
Abstract
The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species.
Data collected during the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used.
A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet.
If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27388896 View in PubMed
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Network Experiences from a Cross-Sector Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory Collaboration: A Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291140
Source
Health Secur. 2017 Jul/Aug; 15(4):384-391
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Johanna Thelaus
Anna Lindberg
Susanne Thisted Lambertz
Mona Byström
Mats Forsman
Hans Lindmark
Rickard Knutsson
Viveca Båverud
Andreas Bråve
Pontus Jureen
Annelie Lundin Zumpe
Öjar Melefors
Source
Health Secur. 2017 Jul/Aug; 15(4):384-391
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animal Diseases - diagnosis - prevention & control - transmission
Animals
Bioterrorism
Consumer Product Safety
Cooperative Behavior
Europe
Health Resources
Humans
Laboratories - standards
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Safety - standards
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Sweden
United States
World Health Organization
Abstract
The Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics (FBD) is a network that fosters collaboration among the 4 agencies with responsibility for the laboratory diagnostics of high-consequence pathogens, covering animal health and feed safety, food safety, public health and biodefense, and security. The aim of the network is to strengthen capabilities and capacities for diagnostics at the national biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories to improve Sweden's biopreparedness, in line with recommendations from the EU and WHO. Since forming in 2007, the FBD network has contributed to the harmonization of diagnostic methods, equipment, quality assurance protocols, and biosafety practices among the national BSL-3 laboratories. Lessons learned from the network include: (1) conducting joint projects with activities such as method development and validation, ring trials, exercises, and audits has helped to build trust and improve communication among participating agencies; (2) rotating the presidency of the network steering committee has fostered trust and commitment from all agencies involved; and (3) planning for the implementation of project outcomes is important to maintain gained competencies in the agencies over time. Contacts have now been established with national agencies of the other Nordic countries, with an aim to expanding the collaboration, broadening the network, finding synergies in new areas, strengthening the ability to share resources, and consolidating long-term financing in the context of harmonized European biopreparedness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28805472 View in PubMed
Less detail

Temporal trends, lake-to-lake variation, and climate effects on Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) mercury concentrations from six High Arctic lakes in Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299998
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 May 02; 678:801-812
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-02-2019
Author
Karista E Hudelson
Derek C G Muir
Paul E Drevnick
Günter Köck
Deborah Iqaluk
Xiaowa Wang
Jane L Kirk
Benjamin D Barst
Alice Grgicak-Mannion
Rebecca Shearon
Aaron T Fisk
Author Affiliation
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada; Centre Eau Terre Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université du Québec, Québec, QC G1K 9A9, Canada. Electronic address: karistaeh@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 May 02; 678:801-812
Date
May-02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Climate warming and mercury (Hg) are concurrently influencing Arctic ecosystems, altering their functioning and threatening food security. Non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in small lakes were used to biomonitor these two anthropogenic stressors, because this iconic Arctic species is a long-lived top predator in relatively simple food webs, and yet population characteristics vary greatly, reflecting differences between lake systems. Mercury concentrations in six landlocked Arctic char populations on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut have been monitored as early as 1989, providing a novel dataset to examine differences in muscle [Hg] among char populations, temporal trends, and the relationship between climate patterns and Arctic char [Hg]. We found significant lake-to-lake differences in length-adjusted Arctic char muscle [Hg], which varied by up to 9-fold. Arctic char muscle [Hg] was significantly correlated to dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations in water; neither watershed area or vegetation cover explained differences. Three lakes exhibited significant temporal declines in length-adjusted [Hg] in Arctic char; the other three lakes had no significant trends. Though precipitation, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice duration were tested, no single climate variable was significantly correlated to length-adjusted [Hg] across populations. However, Arctic char Hg in Resolute Lake exhibited a significant correlation with sea ice duration, which is likely closely linked to lake ice duration, and which may impact Hg processing in lakes. Additionally, Arctic char [Hg] in Amituk Lake was significantly correlated to snow fall, which may be linked to Hg deposition. The lack of consistent temporal trends in neighboring char populations indicates that currently, within lake processes are the strongest drivers of [Hg] in char in the study lakes and potentially in other Arctic lakes, and that the influence of climate change will likely vary from lake to lake.
PubMed ID
31085496 View in PubMed
Less detail

Red blood cell folate levels in Canadian Inuit women of childbearing years: influence of food security, body mass index, smoking, education, and vitamin use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302180
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 12; 109(5-6):684-691
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2018
Author
Kait Duncan
Anders C Erickson
Grace M Egeland
Hope Weiler
Laura T Arbour
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Island Medical Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 12; 109(5-6):684-691
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Folic Acid - blood
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Smoking - ethnology
Vitamins - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
The benefits of folic acid for prevention of congenital anomalies are well known. For the Inuit of Canada, where vitamin use is low and access to folate-rich foods limited, fortification is likely a major source of intake. We sought to determine whether red blood cell folate (RBCF) levels of Inuit women reached accepted target levels.
The Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, included evaluation of RBCF levels among 249 randomly selected non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using descriptive statistics and linear regression analyses, RBCF levels were assessed and compared across several socio-demographic variables to evaluate the characteristics associated with RBCF status.
Mean (SD) RBCF levels of 935.5 nmol/L (±?192) reached proposed target levels (>?906 nmol/L); however, 47% of women had lower than target levels. In bivariate analysis, non-smoking, higher education, higher income, food security, increased body mass index, and vitamin use were each significantly associated with higher RBCF. Increased levels of smoking had a negative association with RBCF levels (-?5.8 nmol/L per cigarette smoked per day (p?=?0.001)). A total of 6.8% of women reported taking vitamin supplements, resulting in a 226 nmol/L higher RBCF level on average compared to non-users (p?
PubMed ID
29981096 View in PubMed
Less detail

Temporal trends, lake-to-lake variation, and climate effects on Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) mercury concentrations from six High Arctic lakes in Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302596
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 15; 678:801-812
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-15-2019
Author
Karista E Hudelson
Derek C G Muir
Paul E Drevnick
Günter Köck
Deborah Iqaluk
Xiaowa Wang
Jane L Kirk
Benjamin D Barst
Alice Grgicak-Mannion
Rebecca Shearon
Aaron T Fisk
Author Affiliation
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada; Centre Eau Terre Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université du Québec, Québec, QC G1K 9A9, Canada. Electronic address: karistaeh@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 15; 678:801-812
Date
Aug-15-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Climate change
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Lakes - chemistry
Mercury - chemistry - metabolism
Nunavut
Seasons
Trout - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
Climate warming and mercury (Hg) are concurrently influencing Arctic ecosystems, altering their functioning and threatening food security. Non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in small lakes were used to biomonitor these two anthropogenic stressors, because this iconic Arctic species is a long-lived top predator in relatively simple food webs, and yet population characteristics vary greatly, reflecting differences between lake systems. Mercury concentrations in six landlocked Arctic char populations on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut have been monitored as early as 1989, providing a novel dataset to examine differences in muscle [Hg] among char populations, temporal trends, and the relationship between climate patterns and Arctic char [Hg]. We found significant lake-to-lake differences in length-adjusted Arctic char muscle [Hg], which varied by up to 9-fold. Arctic char muscle [Hg] was significantly correlated to dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations in water; neither watershed area or vegetation cover explained differences. Three lakes exhibited significant temporal declines in length-adjusted [Hg] in Arctic char; the other three lakes had no significant trends. Though precipitation, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice duration were tested, no single climate variable was significantly correlated to length-adjusted [Hg] across populations. However, Arctic char Hg in Resolute Lake exhibited a significant correlation with sea ice duration, which is likely closely linked to lake ice duration, and which may impact Hg processing in lakes. Additionally, Arctic char [Hg] in Amituk Lake was significantly correlated to snow fall, which may be linked to Hg deposition. The lack of consistent temporal trends in neighboring char populations indicates that currently, within lake processes are the strongest drivers of [Hg] in char in the study lakes and potentially in other Arctic lakes, and that the influence of climate change will likely vary from lake to lake.
PubMed ID
31085496 View in PubMed
Less detail

Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295550
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
Notes
Cites: Public Health Nutr. 2018 Jan;21(1):5-17 PMID 28322183
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Cites: Environ Res. 2018 Feb;161:409-417 PMID 29197759
PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
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"I worry if I will have food tomorrow": a study on food insecurity among asylum seekers living in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302008
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 May 17; 19(1):592
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-17-2019
Author
Sigrun Henjum
Marianne Sandsmark Morseth
Charles D Arnold
Dawid Mauno
Laura Terragni
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130, Oslo, Norway. shenjum@oslomet.no.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 May 17; 19(1):592
Date
May-17-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety - epidemiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Income
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Refugees - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
High prevalence of food insecurity has been observed among asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries. Economic constraints, lack of knowledge about new foods, difficulties with shopping, challenges with language, as well as problems complying with various religious food rules are associated with the occurrence and severity of food insecurity. However, no data on food security among asylum seekers in Norway currently exist. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess food security among asylum seekers living in Norwegian reception centers.
Using convenience sampling, we selected eight reception centers in the southeastern part of Norway and included 205 asylum seekers, including 41 families with children
PubMed ID
31101092 View in PubMed
Less detail

Determining Student Food Insecurity at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302037
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2019 03 01; 80(1):14-21
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
03-01-2019
Author
Lisa Blundell
Maria Mathews
Claire Bowley
Barbara Roebothan
Author Affiliation
Division of Community Health & Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2019 03 01; 80(1):14-21
Date
03-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Income
Logistic Models
Male
Marital status
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Students - statistics & numerical data
Surveys and Questionnaires
Universities - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Our study compared the prevalence of food insecurity among 3 student groups attending Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN): International (INT), Canadian out-of-province (OOP), and Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Factors associated with food insecurity were also investigated.
Data were collected via an online survey distributed to an estimated 10 400 returning MUN students registered at a campus in St. John's, NL. Respondents were recruited through e-mails, posters, and social media. Ten questions from the Canadian Household Food Security Survey Module adult scale were asked to assess food security. Logistic regression was used to compare rates of food insecurity between the three population subgroups.
Of the 971 eligible student respondents, 39.9% were food insecure (moderate or severe). After controlling for program type, parental status, living arrangement, and primary income source, OOP and INT students were 1.63 (95% CI?=?1.11-2.40) and 3.04 (95% CI?=?1.89-4.88) times more likely, respectively, to be food insecure than NL students.
Approximately 40% of participating MUN students experienced food insecurity, a higher proportion than reported for the overall provincial population. Groups at high risk of food insecurity include INT students, students with children, and those relying on government funding as their primary income.
PubMed ID
30280913 View in PubMed
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MicroFEWs: A Food-Energy-Water Systems Approach to Renewable Energy Decisions in Islanded Microgrid Communities in Rural Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302107
Source
Environ Eng Sci. 2019 Jul 01; 36(7):843-849
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-01-2019
Author
Erin Whitney
William E Schnabel
Srijan Aggarwal
Daisy Huang
Richard W Wies
Justus Karenzi
Henry P Huntington
Jennifer I Schmidt
Aaron D Dotson
Author Affiliation
Alaska Center for Energy and Power, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska.
Source
Environ Eng Sci. 2019 Jul 01; 36(7):843-849
Date
Jul-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
In recent years, there has been increased recognition of the importance of a nexus approach to optimize food, energy, and water (FEW) security at regional and global scales. Remote communities in the Arctic and Subarctic regions in Alaska provide unique examples of closed and isolated systems, wherein the FEW nexus not only needs to be examined to lend resilience to these vulnerable communities but that could also serve as small-scale test beds for a wider and systematic understanding of the FEW nexus. In this short communication, looking at the FEW nexus in Cordova, Alaska, through an energy lens, we introduce an approach (referred to as the "MicroFEWs approach") that may assist remote communities in Alaska in making informed decisions regarding the use of renewable energy to increase FEW security. Our example uses the MicroFEWs approach to assess the impacts of increased renewable energy generation on FEW security in the community, more specifically to food security through potential changes to the community's fish processing industry. This approach can serve as a basis for investigating the FEW nexus in varying contexts and locales.
PubMed ID
31346306 View in PubMed
Less detail

Destination specific risks of acquisition of notifiable food- and waterborne infections or sexually transmitted infections among Finnish international travellers, 1995-2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296113
Source
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Sep - Oct; 25:35-41
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Viktor Zöldi
Jussi Sane
Anu Kantele
Ruska Rimhanen-Finne
Saara Salmenlinna
Outi Lyytikäinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland; European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: viktor.zoldi@thl.fi.
Source
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Sep - Oct; 25:35-41
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Disease Notification
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Travel
Waterborne Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics.
Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions.
Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics.
Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas.
PubMed ID
29030321 View in PubMed
Less detail

Implementation of human biomonitoring in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada (2016-2017).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296489
Source
Arch Public Health. 2018; 76:73
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Mylène Ratelle
Kelly Skinner
Matthew J Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Danielle Brandow
Sara Packull-McCormick
Michèle Bouchard
Denis Dieme
Ken D Stark
Juan Jose Aristizabal Henao
Rhona Hanning
Brian D Laird
Author Affiliation
1School of Public Health and Health Systems, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON Canada.
Source
Arch Public Health. 2018; 76:73
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Human biomonitoring represents an important tool for health risk assessment, supporting the characterization of contaminant exposure and nutrient status. In communities where country foods (locally harvested foods: land animals, fish, birds, plants) are integrated in the daily diet, as is the case in remote northern regions where food security is a challenge, such foods can potentially be a significant route of contaminant exposure. To assess this issue, a biomonitoring project was implemented among Dene/Métis communities of the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.
Participants completed dietary surveys (i.e., a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall) to estimate food consumption patterns as well as a Health Messages Survey to evaluate the awareness and perception of contaminants and consumption notices. Biological sampling of hair, urine and blood was conducted. Toxic metals (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium), essential metals (e.g., copper, nickel, zinc), fatty acids, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in samples.
The levels of contaminants in blood, hair and urine for the majority of participants were below the available guidance values for mercury, cadmium, lead and uranium. However, from the 279 participants, approximately 2% were invited to provide follow up samples, mainly for elevated mercury level. Also, at the population level, blood lead (GM: 11 µg/L) and blood cadmium (GM: 0.53 µg/L) were slightly above the Canadian Health Measures Survey data. Therefore, although country foods occasionally contain elevated levels of particular contaminants, human exposures to these metals remained similar to those seen in the Canadian general population. In addition, dietary data showed the importance and diversity of country foods across participating communities, with the consumption of an average of 5.1% of total calories from wild-harvested country foods.
This project completed in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories fills a data gap across other biomonitoring studies in Canada as it integrates community results, will support stakeholders in the development of public health strategies, and will inform environmental health issue prioritization.
PubMed ID
30524727 View in PubMed
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