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Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290128
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Kathryn E McIsaac
David C Stock
Wendy Lou
Author Affiliation
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health,University of Toronto,30 Bond Street,Toronto,Ontario,Canada,M5B 1W8.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jan; 20(1):64-71
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Lost to Follow-Up
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
PubMed ID
27465413 View in PubMed
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Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290437
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Author Affiliation
a Department of Anthropology , University of Toronto Mississauga , Mississauga , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017; 76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Canada
Commerce
Eligibility Determination
Food Assistance - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Food Supply - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Program Evaluation
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jul 05;75:31127 PMID 27388896
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and Inuit Nutrition Security in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294373
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2018
Author
Tiff-Annie Kenny
Myriam Fillion
Sarah Simpkin
Sonia D Wesche
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.
Source
Ecohealth. 2018 Sep; 15(3):590-607
Date
Sep-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) has been fundamental to the diet and culture of Arctic Indigenous Peoples for thousands of years. Although caribou populations observe natural cycles of abundance and scarcity, several caribou herds across the Circumpolar North have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades due to a range of interrelated factors. Broadly, the objectives of this study are to examine food and nutrition security in relation to wildlife population and management status across Inuit Nunangat (the Inuit homeland, consisting of four regions across the Canadian Arctic). Specifically, we: (1) characterize the contribution of caribou to Inuit nutrition across northern Canada and (2) evaluate the population and management status of caribou herds/populations harvested by Inuit. Dietary data were derived from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey, which included dietary information for Inuit adults (n?=?2097) residing in thirty-six communities, spanning three regions (the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut) of the Canadian North. Published information regarding the range, abundance, status, and management status of caribou herds/populations was collected through document analysis and was validated through consultation with northern wildlife experts (territorial governments, co-management, and/or Inuit organizations). While caribou contributed modestly to total diet energy (3-11% of intake) across the regions, it was the primary source of iron (14-37%), zinc (18-41%), copper (12-39%), riboflavin (15-39%), and vitamin B12 (27-52%), as well as a top source of protein (13-35%). Restrictions on Inuit subsistence harvest (harvest quotas or bans) are currently enacted on at least six northern caribou herds/populations with potential consequences for country food access for over twenty-five Inuit communities across Canada. A holistic multi-sectorial approach is needed to ensure the sustainability of wildlife populations, while supporting Inuit food and nutrition security in the interim.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30116999 View in PubMed
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Destination specific risks of acquisition of notifiable food- and waterborne infections or sexually transmitted infections among Finnish international travellers, 1995-2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296113
Source
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Sep - Oct; 25:35-41
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Viktor Zöldi
Jussi Sane
Anu Kantele
Ruska Rimhanen-Finne
Saara Salmenlinna
Outi Lyytikäinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland; European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: viktor.zoldi@thl.fi.
Source
Travel Med Infect Dis. 2018 Sep - Oct; 25:35-41
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Disease Notification
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Travel
Waterborne Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics.
Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions.
Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics.
Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas.
PubMed ID
29030321 View in PubMed
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Implementation of human biomonitoring in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada (2016-2017).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296489
Source
Arch Public Health. 2018; 76:73
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Mylène Ratelle
Kelly Skinner
Matthew J Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Danielle Brandow
Sara Packull-McCormick
Michèle Bouchard
Denis Dieme
Ken D Stark
Juan Jose Aristizabal Henao
Rhona Hanning
Brian D Laird
Author Affiliation
1School of Public Health and Health Systems, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON Canada.
Source
Arch Public Health. 2018; 76:73
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Human biomonitoring represents an important tool for health risk assessment, supporting the characterization of contaminant exposure and nutrient status. In communities where country foods (locally harvested foods: land animals, fish, birds, plants) are integrated in the daily diet, as is the case in remote northern regions where food security is a challenge, such foods can potentially be a significant route of contaminant exposure. To assess this issue, a biomonitoring project was implemented among Dene/Métis communities of the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.
Participants completed dietary surveys (i.e., a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall) to estimate food consumption patterns as well as a Health Messages Survey to evaluate the awareness and perception of contaminants and consumption notices. Biological sampling of hair, urine and blood was conducted. Toxic metals (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium), essential metals (e.g., copper, nickel, zinc), fatty acids, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in samples.
The levels of contaminants in blood, hair and urine for the majority of participants were below the available guidance values for mercury, cadmium, lead and uranium. However, from the 279 participants, approximately 2% were invited to provide follow up samples, mainly for elevated mercury level. Also, at the population level, blood lead (GM: 11 µg/L) and blood cadmium (GM: 0.53 µg/L) were slightly above the Canadian Health Measures Survey data. Therefore, although country foods occasionally contain elevated levels of particular contaminants, human exposures to these metals remained similar to those seen in the Canadian general population. In addition, dietary data showed the importance and diversity of country foods across participating communities, with the consumption of an average of 5.1% of total calories from wild-harvested country foods.
This project completed in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories fills a data gap across other biomonitoring studies in Canada as it integrates community results, will support stakeholders in the development of public health strategies, and will inform environmental health issue prioritization.
PubMed ID
30524727 View in PubMed
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Vavilov's Collection of Worldwide Crop Genetic Resources in the 21st Century.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296807
Source
Biopreserv Biobank. 2018 Oct; 16(5):377-383
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
N I Dzyubenko
Author Affiliation
The N.I. Vavilov All Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Federal Research Center , St. Petersburg, Russia .
Source
Biopreserv Biobank. 2018 Oct; 16(5):377-383
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Climate
Conservation of Natural Resources
Crops, Agricultural - genetics
Food Supply
Genetic Variation
History, 21st Century
Russia
Seed Bank - history - organization & administration
Seeds - genetics - growth & development
Abstract
N.I. Vavilov was among the first scientists who recognized the high potential value of plant genetic resources (PGR) for humankind. In addition to his fundamental work on the centers of crop origin, he emphasized the importance of collection and ex situ conservation of cultivated plants and their wild relatives, to make them available for breeding programs and for future generations. Vavilov's ideas formed a solid scientific basis for the long-term efforts on securing PGR in ex situ genebanks, both internationally and in Russia. The collection of seeds and living plants at the N.I. Vavilov All Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR) is one of the oldest in the world. The size of the collection increased from 301 accessions in 1901 to over 330,000 accessions in 2017, now representing 64 botanical families, 376 genera, and 2169 species. Acquisition was mainly focused on crops that are suitable for cultivation in Russia such as potatoes, barley, wheat, sorghum, beans, vegetables, forage species, and many others. For over a century, VIR has been providing the materials for breeding programs and research, which resulted in developing new cultivars with unique characteristics such as high yield combined with deceased resistance, improved storability, cold and drought tolerance, or ability to grow on deserts and polluted lands. The main field collection near St. Petersburg and 11 main branches across the country covering a wide spectrum of climatic conditions combined with modern seed storage, in vitro and cryobank facilities, and molecular laboratories form a solid platform for breeding, regeneration, and evaluation of accessions in the collection. This article gives a brief overview of VIR as the leading genebank and breeding center in Russia, its main activities in conservation and utilization of PGR for national food security and its role in developing national policies in this area.
PubMed ID
30325664 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299315
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Arctic Regions
Blood glucose
Blood pressure
Body Weights and Measures
Diet - ethnology
Female
Food Supply - methods
Health Behavior
Humans
Indians, North American
Language
Lipids - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
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Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299330
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Communication
Community Participation - methods
Cooperative Behavior
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Food Supply - standards
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
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Commentary - The Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program: Indigenous Climate Leaders' Championing Adaptation Effort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299531
Source
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2019 Apr; 39(4):127-130
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2019
Author
Gabrielle Richards
Jim Frehs
Erin Myers
Marilyn Van Bibber
Author Affiliation
Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program (CCHAP), Indigenous Service Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2019 Apr; 39(4):127-130
Date
Apr-2019
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program (CCHAP) is a program within the First Nations Inuit Health Branch of Indigenous Services Canada (which was previously under the responsibility of Health Canada). The CCHAP supports Inuit and First Nation communities in mitigating and adapting to the health impacts of climate change. The impacts of climate change on Indigenous health can be observed in multiple areas including, but not limited to, food security, cultural medicines, mental health and landbased practices. This program seeks to address the needs of climate change and health in First Nation and Inuit communities to support resiliency and adaptation to a changing climate both now and in the future through its emphasis on youth and capacity building. The commentary is based on the Program's eleven years of experience working with and for Indigenous communities and provides an overview of the CCHAP model and the work it has and continues to support. This paper demonstrates three examples of community-based projects to mitigate and adapt to the health impacts of climate change to demonstrate climate change resiliency within Indigenous communities.
Le Programme sur le changement climatique et l’adaptation du secteur de la santé (PCCASS) est un programme qui relève de la Direction générale de la santé des Premières nations et des Inuits de Services aux Autochtones Canada (qui relevait auparavant de Santé Canada). Le PCCASS aide les collectivités des Premières Nations et des Inuits à réduire l’impact des changements climatiques sur la santé et à s’adapter à ces derniers. Les conséquences des changements climatiques sur la santé des Autochtones se font sentir dans plusieurs secteurs, notamment la sécurité alimentaire, les remèdes traditionnels, la santé mentale et les pratiques reposant sur l’utilisation des terres. Le programme vise à répondre aux besoins des collectivités des Premières Nations et des Inuits engendrés par les changements climatiques et les problèmes de santé qui en découlent, afin de favoriser la résilience et l’adaptation face aux changements climatiques actuels et à venir, et ce, en mettant au premier plan les jeunes et le renforcement des compétences. Cet article, qui se fonde sur les onze années d’expérience du PCCASS avec les collectivités autochtones, fournit un aperçu de son modèle et des travaux qu’il a soutenus et qu’il continue de soutenir. On y présente trois exemples de projets communautaires pour réduire les conséquences des changements climatiques sur la santé et s’y adapter, projets qui témoignent de la résilience des collectivités autochtones face aux changements climatiques.
The Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program (CCHAP) for First Nations South of 60N directly supports First Nations communities to develop and undertake adaptation and mitigation projects to build upon their needs within a changing climate. This commentary outlines the CCHAP’s work and history, and highlights three cases, in Selkirk First Nation, Arviat and The Mi’kmaw Climate Action, which demonstrate the work these communities have undertaken with support from the Program.
Le Programme sur le changement climatique et l’adaptation du secteur de la santé (PCCASS) pour les Premières Nations au nord du 60e parallèle apporte un soutien direct aux communautés des Premières Nations dans l’élaboration et la mise en oeuvre de projets d’adaptation et d’atténuation pour subvenir à leurs besoins dans le cadre d’un climat en mutation. Ce commentaire fournit un aperçu du travail et de l’historique du PCCASS et présente trois projets, sur le territoire de la Première Nation de Selkirk, à Arviat et sur le territoire Mi’kmaq, qui illustrent le travail entrepris par ces communautés avec le soutien du Programme.
PubMed ID
31021063 View in PubMed
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Temporal trends, lake-to-lake variation, and climate effects on Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) mercury concentrations from six High Arctic lakes in Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299998
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 May 02; 678:801-812
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-02-2019
Author
Karista E Hudelson
Derek C G Muir
Paul E Drevnick
Günter Köck
Deborah Iqaluk
Xiaowa Wang
Jane L Kirk
Benjamin D Barst
Alice Grgicak-Mannion
Rebecca Shearon
Aaron T Fisk
Author Affiliation
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada; Centre Eau Terre Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université du Québec, Québec, QC G1K 9A9, Canada. Electronic address: karistaeh@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 May 02; 678:801-812
Date
May-02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Climate warming and mercury (Hg) are concurrently influencing Arctic ecosystems, altering their functioning and threatening food security. Non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in small lakes were used to biomonitor these two anthropogenic stressors, because this iconic Arctic species is a long-lived top predator in relatively simple food webs, and yet population characteristics vary greatly, reflecting differences between lake systems. Mercury concentrations in six landlocked Arctic char populations on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut have been monitored as early as 1989, providing a novel dataset to examine differences in muscle [Hg] among char populations, temporal trends, and the relationship between climate patterns and Arctic char [Hg]. We found significant lake-to-lake differences in length-adjusted Arctic char muscle [Hg], which varied by up to 9-fold. Arctic char muscle [Hg] was significantly correlated to dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations in water; neither watershed area or vegetation cover explained differences. Three lakes exhibited significant temporal declines in length-adjusted [Hg] in Arctic char; the other three lakes had no significant trends. Though precipitation, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice duration were tested, no single climate variable was significantly correlated to length-adjusted [Hg] across populations. However, Arctic char Hg in Resolute Lake exhibited a significant correlation with sea ice duration, which is likely closely linked to lake ice duration, and which may impact Hg processing in lakes. Additionally, Arctic char [Hg] in Amituk Lake was significantly correlated to snow fall, which may be linked to Hg deposition. The lack of consistent temporal trends in neighboring char populations indicates that currently, within lake processes are the strongest drivers of [Hg] in char in the study lakes and potentially in other Arctic lakes, and that the influence of climate change will likely vary from lake to lake.
PubMed ID
31085496 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295550
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate change and national crop wild relative conservation planning.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295768
Source
Ambio. 2017 Oct; 46(6):630-643
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Jade Phillips
Joana Magos Brehm
Bob van Oort
Åsmund Asdal
Morten Rasmussen
Nigel Maxted
Author Affiliation
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. jadephill10@gmail.com.
Source
Ambio. 2017 Oct; 46(6):630-643
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources
Crops, Agricultural
Food Supply
Norway
Abstract
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security. We investigate the potential impact of climate change on CWR richness in Norway. The consequences of a 1.5 and 3.0 °C temperature rise were studied for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, 2080 and then compared to the present climate. The results indicate a pattern of shifting CWR richness from the south to the north, with increases in taxa turnover and in the numbers of threatened taxa. Recommendations for in situ and ex situ conservation actions over the short and long term for the priority CWRs in Norway are presented. The methods and recommendations developed here can be applied within other nations and at regional and global levels to improve the effectiveness of conservation actions and help ensure global food security.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28215020 View in PubMed
Less detail

Design of a human biomonitoring community-based project in the Northwest Territories Mackenzie Valley, Canada, to investigate the links between nutrition, contaminants and country foods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294629
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Mylene Ratelle
Matthew Laird
Shannon Majowicz
Kelly Skinner
Heidi Swanson
Brian Laird
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health and Health Systems , University of Waterloo , Waterloo , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1510714
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Community-based projects place emphasis on a collaborative approach and facilitate research among Indigenous populations regarding local issues and challenges, such as traditional foods consumption, climate change and health safety. Country foods (locally harvested fish, game birds, land animals and plants), which contribute to improved food security, can also be a primary route of contaminant exposure among populations in remote regions. A community-based project was launched in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions of the Northwest Territories (Canada) to: 1) assess contaminants exposure and nutrition status; 2) investigate the role of country food on nutrient and contaminant levels and 3) understand the determinants of message perception on this issue. Consultation with community members, leadership, local partners and researchers was essential to refine the design of the project and implement it in a culturally relevant way. This article details the design of a community-based biomonitoring study that investigates country food use, contaminant exposure and nutritional status in Canadian subarctic First Nations in the Dehcho and Sahtù regions. Results will support environmental health policies in the future for these communities. The project was designed to explore the risks and benefits of country foods and to inform the development of public health strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30157724 View in PubMed
Less detail

A scoping review of traditional food security in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298121
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1419678
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Date
12-2018
Author
Amanda Walch
Philip Loring
Rhonda Johnson
Melissa Tholl
Andrea Bersamin
Author Affiliation
a Department of Biology & Wildlife , University of Alaska Fairbanks , Fairbanks , AK , USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1419678
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review
Keywords
Alaska
Alaska Natives
Food
Food Supply
Humans
Abstract
Food insecurity is a public health concern. The pillars of food security include food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, the pillars may focus on traditional foods.
To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska.
Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: “traditional foods”, “food security”, “access”, “availability”, “utilisation”, “Alaska”, “Alaska Native” and “indigenous”.
Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents met the inclusion criteria. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8).
Studies that estimate the prevalence of traditional food insecurity in Alaska are virtually absent from the literature. Instead most studies provide a review of factors related to food security. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.
PubMed ID
29292675 View in PubMed
Less detail

Geographic and socio-demographic predictors of household food insecurity in Canada, 2011-12.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298422
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-03-2019
Author
Valerie Tarasuk
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain
Andrew Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. valerie.tarasuk@utoronto.ca.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jan 03; 19(1):12
Date
Jan-03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Geography
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Household food insecurity is a potent social determinant of health and health care costs in Canada, but understanding of the social and economic conditions that underlie households' vulnerability to food insecurity is limited.
Data from the 2011-12 Canadian Community Health Survey were used to determine predictors of household food insecurity among a nationally-representative sample of 120,909 households. Household food insecurity over the past 12?months was assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Households were classified as food secure or marginally, moderately, or severely food insecure based on the number of affirmative responses. Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to determine geographic and socio-demographic predictors of presence and severity of household food insecurity.
The prevalence of household food insecurity ranged from 11.8% in Ontario to 41.0% in Nunavut. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, households' odds of food insecurity were lower in Quebec and higher in the Maritimes, territories, and Alberta, compared to Ontario. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were also higher among households reliant on social assistance, Employment Insurance or workers' compensation, those without a university degree, those with children under 18, unattached individuals, renters, and those with an Aboriginal respondent. Higher income, immigration, and reliance on seniors' income sources were protective against food insecurity. Living in Nunavut and relying on social assistance were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity, but severity was also associated with income, education, household composition, Aboriginal status, immigration status, and place of residence. The relation between income and food insecurity status was graded, with every $1000 increase in income associated with 2% lower odds of marginal food insecurity, 4% lower odds of moderate food insecurity, and 5% lower odds of severe food insecurity.
The probability of household food insecurity in Canada and the severity of the experience depends on a household's province or territory of residence, income, main source of income, housing tenure, education, Aboriginal status, and household structure. Our findings highlight the intersection of household food insecurity with public policy decisions in Canada and the disproportionate burden of food insecurity among Indigenous peoples.
PubMed ID
30606152 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adaptation in Arctic circumpolar communities: food and water security in a changing climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289270
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33820
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2016
Author
James Berner
Michael Brubaker
Boris Revitch
Eva Kreummel
Moses Tcheripanoff
Jake Bell
Author Affiliation
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, USA; jberner@anthc.org.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33820
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Communicable diseases
Community-Based Participatory Research
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Inuits
Rural Health
Socioeconomic Factors
Water supply
Abstract
The AMAP Human Health Assessment Group has developed different adaptation strategies through a long-term collaboration with all Arctic countries. Different adaptation strategies are discussed, with examples mainly from native population groups in Alaska.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27974139 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289309
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:31127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2016
Author
Renata Rosol
Stephanie Powell-Hellyer
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:31127
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Animals
Animals, Wild
Arctic Regions
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fats
Edible Grain
Female
Food Preferences
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Nutritional Status
Abstract
The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species.
Data collected during the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used.
A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet.
If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27388896 View in PubMed
Less detail

Network Experiences from a Cross-Sector Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory Collaboration: A Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291140
Source
Health Secur. 2017 Jul/Aug; 15(4):384-391
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
Johanna Thelaus
Anna Lindberg
Susanne Thisted Lambertz
Mona Byström
Mats Forsman
Hans Lindmark
Rickard Knutsson
Viveca Båverud
Andreas Bråve
Pontus Jureen
Annelie Lundin Zumpe
Öjar Melefors
Source
Health Secur. 2017 Jul/Aug; 15(4):384-391
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animal Diseases - diagnosis - prevention & control - transmission
Animals
Bioterrorism
Consumer Product Safety
Cooperative Behavior
Europe
Health Resources
Humans
Laboratories - standards
Quality Assurance, Health Care
Safety - standards
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Sweden
United States
World Health Organization
Abstract
The Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics (FBD) is a network that fosters collaboration among the 4 agencies with responsibility for the laboratory diagnostics of high-consequence pathogens, covering animal health and feed safety, food safety, public health and biodefense, and security. The aim of the network is to strengthen capabilities and capacities for diagnostics at the national biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories to improve Sweden's biopreparedness, in line with recommendations from the EU and WHO. Since forming in 2007, the FBD network has contributed to the harmonization of diagnostic methods, equipment, quality assurance protocols, and biosafety practices among the national BSL-3 laboratories. Lessons learned from the network include: (1) conducting joint projects with activities such as method development and validation, ring trials, exercises, and audits has helped to build trust and improve communication among participating agencies; (2) rotating the presidency of the network steering committee has fostered trust and commitment from all agencies involved; and (3) planning for the implementation of project outcomes is important to maintain gained competencies in the agencies over time. Contacts have now been established with national agencies of the other Nordic countries, with an aim to expanding the collaboration, broadening the network, finding synergies in new areas, strengthening the ability to share resources, and consolidating long-term financing in the context of harmonized European biopreparedness.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28805472 View in PubMed
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Red blood cell folate levels in Canadian Inuit women of childbearing years: influence of food security, body mass index, smoking, education, and vitamin use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293007
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 May 09; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-09-2018
Author
Kait Duncan
Anders C Erickson
Grace M Egeland
Hope Weiler
Laura T Arbour
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Island Medical Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2018 May 09; :
Date
May-09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The benefits of folic acid for prevention of congenital anomalies are well known. For the Inuit of Canada, where vitamin use is low and access to folate-rich foods limited, fortification is likely a major source of intake. We sought to determine whether red blood cell folate (RBCF) levels of Inuit women reached accepted target levels.
The Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, included evaluation of RBCF levels among 249 randomly selected non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using descriptive statistics and linear regression analyses, RBCF levels were assessed and compared across several socio-demographic variables to evaluate the characteristics associated with RBCF status.
Mean (SD) RBCF levels of 935.5 nmol/L (±?192) reached proposed target levels (>?906 nmol/L); however, 47% of women had lower than target levels. In bivariate analysis, non-smoking, higher education, higher income, food security, increased body mass index, and vitamin use were each significantly associated with higher RBCF. Increased levels of smoking had a negative association with RBCF levels (-?5.8 nmol/L per cigarette smoked per day (p?=?0.001)). A total of 6.8% of women reported taking vitamin supplements, resulting in a 226 nmol/L higher RBCF level on average compared to non-users (p?
PubMed ID
29981096 View in PubMed
Less detail

Undocumented adult migrants in Sweden: mental health and associated factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297688
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 Dec 12; 18(1):1369
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-12-2018
Author
Lena M C Andersson
Anders Hjern
Henry Ascher
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Sprängkullsgatan 23, PO Box 720, SE- 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden. Lena.Andersson@socwork.gu.se.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 Dec 12; 18(1):1369
Date
Dec-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Undocumented Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Undocumented migrants (UMs) in Europe constitute a heterogeneous group. They are typically in a vulnerable and marginalised situation, since most of them have exhausted their options for gaining asylum and protection from war and persecution, many are traumatised and fear disclosure and deportation, and they typically lack basic social security. The present study investigates living conditions, access to human rights and mental health of UMs living in Sweden.
A cross-sectional study with adult UMs was performed in the three largest cities in Sweden in 2014-2016. Sampling was done via informal networks. A socioeconomic questionnaire was constructed, and psychiatric symptoms were screened for using Beck's Depression Inventory II, Beck's Anxiety Inventory and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) for civilians. Trained field workers conducted the interviews. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used.
A total number of 104 individuals participated. Preliminary findings show that 68% of respondents were suffering from either moderate or severe anxiety, 71% from either moderate or severe depression and 58% from PTSD. No statistically significant gender differences occurred, but age was statistically significant in relation to anxiety and depression. The majority feared returning to their country of origin, for political reasons, due to war in progress there and/or because they belonged to a minority and feared harassment. Almost all had an unstable housing situation and were often forced to move. Fifty-seven percent experienced food insecurity.
The psychosocial situation among UMs in Sweden, in addition to insecure living conditions without a guarantee of basic needs being met is stressful, and many UMs live in constant fear of disclosure and deportation, all of which has a detrimental effect of the mental health. It is important to understand both associated risk factors for ill-health and coping strategies in this vulnerable population in order try to reduce ongoing stress.
PubMed ID
30541531 View in PubMed
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