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Validity of a single item food security questionnaire in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104271
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Helga Bjørnøy Urke
Zhirong R Cao
Grace M Egeland
Source
Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1616-23
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutrition Surveys
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population.
Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/2), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys.
For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%.
Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
PubMed ID
24864166 View in PubMed
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Reconciling traditional knowledge, food security, and climate change: experience from Old Crow, YT, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104280
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Vasiliki Douglas
Hing Man Chan
Sonia Wesche
Cindy Dickson
Norma Kassi
Lorraine Netro
Megan Williams
Source
Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2014;8(1):21-7
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods - organization & administration
Culture
Focus Groups
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Preservation - economics - methods
Food Storage - economics - methods
Food Supply - economics - methods
Gardening - education - methods
Humans
Indians, North American - education
Nutritional Sciences - education
Transportation - economics - methods
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Because of a lack of transportation infrastructure, Old Crow has the highest food costs and greatest reliance on traditional food species for sustenance of any community in Canada's Yukon Territory. Environmental, cultural, and economic change are driving increased perception of food insecurity in Old Crow.
To address community concerns regarding food security and supply in Old Crow and develop adaptation strategies to ameliorate their impact on the community.
A community adaptation workshop was held on October 13, 2009, in which representatives of different stakeholders in the community discussed a variety of food security issues facing Old Crow and how they could be dealt with. Workshop data were analyzed using keyword, subject, and narrative analysis techniques to determine community priorities in food security and adaptation.
Community concern is high and favored adaptation options include agriculture, improved food storage, and conservation through increased traditional education. These results were presented to the community for review and revision, after which the Vuntut Gwitchin Government will integrate them into its ongoing adaptation planning measures.
PubMed ID
24859099 View in PubMed
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Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167002
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kevin A Lombard
Susan Forster-Cox
Dan Smeal
Mick K O'Neill
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA. klombard@nmsu.edu
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;6(4):640
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Diet
Gardening - economics - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Rural Health
Southwestern United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the Navajo nation involving public health officials, nutritionists, and horticultural extension agents that could also be applied internationally in similar multicultural, semi-arid climates.
PubMed ID
17044752 View in PubMed
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Prevalance and associations of food insecurity in children with diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138900
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Stacey Marjerrison
Elizabeth A Cummings
N Theresa Glanville
Sara F L Kirk
Mary Ledwell
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Pediatr. 2011 Apr;158(4):607-11
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Body mass index
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - economics - epidemiology - therapy
Diet
Disease Management
Female
Health Behavior
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - analysis
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Male
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Poverty
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine the prevalence of food insecurity in households with a child with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus (DM), investigate whether food insecurity is associated with poorer DM control, and describe the household characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families with a child with DM.
Telephone interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting families over a 16-month period. Food insecurity was assessed through a validated questionnaire; additional questions elicited demographic information and DM management strategies. Charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.
A total of 183 families were interviewed. Food insecurity was present in 21.9% (95% confidence interval, 15.87%-27.85%), significantly higher than the overall prevalences in Nova Scotia (14.6%) and Canada (9.2%). Food insecurity was associated with higher HbA1c level; however, in multivariate analysis, only child's age and parents' education were independent predictors of HbA1c. Children from food-insecure families had higher rates of hospitalization, for which food security status was the only independent predictor. Common characteristics and coping strategies of food-insecure families were identified.
Food insecurity was more common in families with a child with DM, and the presence of food insecurity was predictive of the child's hospitalization. Risk factors identified in this study should be used to screen for this problem in families with a child with DM.
PubMed ID
21126743 View in PubMed
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[Epidemic security of the population of Tyrnyauz in Kabardin-Balkar Republic under the conditions of emergency situation caused by flood].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185655
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Nov-Dec;(6 Suppl):19-21
Publication Type
Article
Author
K Kh Khatsukov
I V Vaisman
G V Serov
D A Saubanova
Iu V Kudriavtsev
G M Grizhebovskii
Author Affiliation
Ministry of Health of the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Center in the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Nalchik, Russia.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001 Nov-Dec;(6 Suppl):19-21
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Communicable Disease Control - standards
Disasters
Emergency Medical Service Communication Systems
Food Services - standards
Humans
Russia
Water Microbiology - standards
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
Materials characterizing the consequences of emergency situation caused by natural type in Tyrnyauz, the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, are presented. As shown in these materials, mud flows from the surrounding mountains resulted in the damage inflicted to the main life-supporting systems of the town: water supply and sewage, power supply, medical institutions and, partially, housing resources. As the result of urgent measures carried out in cooperation with the departments of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, health services and state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance services epidemiological safety could be ensured in the town. In carrying out prophylactic measures the main attention was paid to the provision of the population with good-quality drinking water, foodstuffs, the active detection of patients with enteric infections, the bacteriological control of water in surface reservoirs for the pathogenic microflora.
PubMed ID
12718165 View in PubMed
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Food insufficiency is associated with psychiatric morbidity in a nationally representative study of mental illness among food insecure Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257037
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Katherine A Muldoon
Putu K Duff
Sarah Fielden
Aranka Anema
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kmuldoon@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May;48(5):795-803
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Transients and Migrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies suggest that people who are food insecure are more likely to experience mental illness. However, little is known about which aspects of food insecurity place individuals most at risk of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of mental illness among food insecure Canadians, and examine whether mental illness differs between those who are consuming insufficient amounts of food versus poor quality foods.
This analysis utilized the publically available dataset from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 4.1. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to examine the associations between food insecurity and mental health disorder diagnosis, while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were used to identify vulnerable sub-groups.
Among 5,588 Canadian adults (18-64 years) reporting food insecurity, 58 % reported poor food quality and 42 % reported food insufficiency. The prevalence of mental health diagnosis was 24 % among participants with poor food quality, and 35 % among individuals who were food insufficient (hunger). After adjusting for confounders, adults experiencing food insufficiency had 1.69 adjusted-odds [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.91] of having a mental health diagnosis. Stratified analyses revealed increased odds among women (a-OR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.62-2.20), single parent households (a-OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.51-2.78), and non-immigrants (a-OR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.64-2.16).
The prevalence of mental illness is alarmingly high in this population-based sample of food insecure Canadians. These findings suggest that government and community-based programming aimed at strengthening food security should integrate supports for mental illness in this population.
PubMed ID
23064395 View in PubMed
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Bill C-51: Proposed federal regulation of traditional medicine

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257055
Source
Pages 394-404 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
2010
knowledge for health and security and 50% rely on Indigenous knowledge for crops and food (Dei, Hall & Rosenburg, 2000). The United Nations Sub -commission on Prevention of Discrimina- tion and Protection of Minorities reports (7) that the annual market va lue of pharmaceutica l prod - ucts derived
  1 document  
Author
Orr P
Author Affiliation
Independent Legislative Counsel, Ontario, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada
Source
Pages 394-404 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Aboriginal
Bill C-51
Canadian Food and Drugs Act
Medicine
Traditional medicine
Parliament
Abstract
Bill C-51 was introduced in Parliament in 2008. The Bill included changes to the Canadian Food and Drugs Act that some argue would have a significant effect on the delivery of traditional medicine by Aboriginal healers in Canada. Although the Bill has "died on the order paper," it is likely to be reintroduced by the current government in substantially the same form. The paper identifies the elements of the proposed changes in the federal government's legislative policy towards the practice of traditional medicine, as contained in the proposed legislation, discusses their possible effects on the practice of traditional medicine and assesses the potential ramifications on the rights of Aboriginal persons to practice traditional medicine.
Documents
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Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257212
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Bogdan Cristescu
Gordon B Stenhouse
Mark S Boyce
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82738
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Choice Behavior
Ecosystem
Female
Food chain
Humans
Male
Ursidae
Abstract
On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e2790522194798
Cites: Oecologia. 2009 Mar;159(3):669-7819089457
Cites: Q Rev Biol. 1995 Jun;70(2):165-917610234
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Dec 22;272(1581):2627-3416321785
Cites: Ecology. 2011 Feb;92(2):398-40721618919
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2008 Apr;23(4):194-20118308423
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e3169922363710
Cites: PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e1195420694139
Cites: Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-6721298447
Cites: Trends Ecol Evol. 2007 Aug;22(8):394-40017590476
PubMed ID
24367549 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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Campylobacter spp. in Icelandic poultry operations and human disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186436
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
N J Stern
K L Hiett
G A Alfredsson
K G Kristinsson
J. Reiersen
H. Hardardottir
H. Briem
E. Gunnarsson
F. Georgsson
R. Lowman
E. Berndtson
A M Lammerding
G M Paoli
M T Musgrove
Author Affiliation
USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Poultry Microbiological Safety Research Unit, 950 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30604-5677, USA.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2003 Feb;130(1):23-32
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abattoirs
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Campylobacter - isolation & purification
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Chickens - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Food-Processing Industry
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Risk assessment
Seasons
Abstract
We describe the observed relationship of campylobacter in poultry operations to human cases in a closed environment. During 1999 in Iceland, domestic cases of campylobacteriosis reached peak levels at 116/100,000 and in 2000 dropped to 33/100,000. Approximately 62% of broiler carcass rinses were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in 1999. During 2000, only 15% of the broiler flocks tested Campylobacter spp. positive. In 2000, carcasses from flocks which tested positive on the farms at 4 weeks of age were subsequently frozen prior to distribution. We suggest that public education, enhanced on-farm biological security measures, carcass freezing and other unidentified factors, such as variations in weather, contributed to the large reduction in poultry-borne campylobacteriosis. There is no immediate basis for assigning credit to any specific intervention. We continue to seek additional information to understand the decline in campylobacteriosis and to create a risk assessment model for Campylobacter spp. transmission through this well defined system.
PubMed ID
12613742 View in PubMed
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Barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity for First Nation youths in northern Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82158
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Skinner Kelly
Hanning Rhona M
Tsuji Leonard J S
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2006 Apr;65(2):148-61
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Diet - economics - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Rural Population
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate barriers and supports for healthy eating and physical activity in youths in a remote sub-arctic community, Fort Albany First Nation, Ontario, Canada. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative multi-method participatory approach. METHODS: The study included a purposive convenience sample of two adult (n = 22) and three youths (n = 30; students in grades 6 to 8) focus groups, unstructured one-on-one interviews with adult key informants (n = 7), and a scan of the community environment. Data were coded and analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Hurricane thinking and concept mapping were used to illustrate findings and relationships between concepts. RESULTS: Dominant emerging themes included empowerment, trust, resources, barriers and opportunities, while major sub-themes included food security, cost, accessibility/availability, capacity building, community support, programs/training and the school snack/breakfast program. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous barriers to healthy nutrition and physical activity exist in this community and are possibly similar in other remote communities. Empowerment is a core issue that should be considered in the design of public health interventions for First Nations youths in remote sub-arctic communities.
PubMed ID
16711466 View in PubMed
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Food security in older adults: community service provider perceptions of their roles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158582
Source
Can J Aging. 2007;26(4):317-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Heather H Keller
John J M Dwyer
Vicki Edwards
Christine Senson
H. Gayle Edward
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON. hkeller@uoguelph.ca
Source
Can J Aging. 2007;26(4):317-28
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Community Health Services
Focus Groups
Food
Food Services - organization & administration
Geriatric Assessment
Health education
Health Services for the Aged
Humans
Ontario
Social Class
Social Support
Abstract
Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food security, and (c) opinions about constraints that influenced these roles. A constant comparison analysis identified key themes. The formal caregivers reported six roles for improving food security: (a) monitoring, (b) coordination, and (c) promoting services, (d) education, (e) advocacy, and (f) providing a social environment. The final theme summarizes these roles as "the need for personalization of service". Social and community service providers are involved in roles that can promote the health of older adults by addressing their food insecurity. Social service providers need to be acknowledged and supported in this health promotion role.
PubMed ID
18304920 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158692
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Valerie Tarasuk
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2. sharon.kirkpatrick@utoronto.ca
Source
J Nutr. 2008 Mar;138(3):604-12
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet
Eating
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - economics
Humans
Infant
Male
Malnutrition
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Household food insecurity constrains food selection, but whether the dietary compromises associated with this problem heighten the risk of nutrient inadequacies is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between household food security status and adults' and children's dietary intakes and to estimate the prevalence of nutrient inadequacies among adults and children, differentiating by household food security status. We analyzed 24-h recall and household food security data for persons aged 1-70 y from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (cycle 2.2). The relationship between adults' and children's nutrient and food intakes and household food security status was assessed using regression analysis. Estimates of the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes by food security status and age/sex group were calculated using probability assessment methods. Poorer dietary intakes were observed among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households and many of the differences by food security status persisted after accounting for potential confounders in multivariate analyses. Higher estimated prevalences of nutrient inadequacy were apparent among adolescents and adults in food-insecure households, with the differences most marked for protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. Among children, few differences in dietary intakes by household food security status were apparent and there was little indication of nutrient inadequacy. This study indicates that for adults and, to some degree, adolescents, food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intakes. These findings highlight the need for concerted public policy responses to ameliorate household food insecurity.
Notes
Erratum In: J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1399
PubMed ID
18287374 View in PubMed
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How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279661
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:28704
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jerry Hupp
Michael Brubaker
Kira Wilkinson
Jennifer Williamson
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:28704
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic Regions
Food Supply
Fruit
Humans
Rural Population
Abstract
Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality.
To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions.
We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities.
Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable.
Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect berry abundance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26380964 View in PubMed
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Impacts of decline harvest of country food on nutrient intake among Inuit in Arctic Canada: impact of climate change and possible adaptation plan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279878
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):31127
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Renata Rosol
Stephanie Powell-Hellyer
Hing Man Chan
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):31127
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Background The pervasive food insecurity and the diet transition away from local, nutrient-rich country foods present a public health challenge among Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic. While environmental factors such as climate change decreased the accessibility and availability of many country food species, new species were introduced into regions where they were previously unavailable. An adaptation such as turning to alternate country food species can be a viable solution to substitute for the nutrients provided by the declined food species. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact on nutrient intake using hypothetical scenarios that current commonly harvested country foods were reduced by 50%, and were replaced with alternate or new species. Methods Data collected during the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey from 36 Canadian Arctic communities spanning Nunavut, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and Nunatsiavut were used. Results A 50% decline in consumption of fish, whale, ringed seals and birds (the food that was reported to be in decline) resulted in a significant decrease in essential nutrient intake. Possible substitute foods were identified but some nutrients such as zinc and especially vitamin D were most often found lacking in the alternative diet. Conclusions If the alternative species are not available or feasible, more expensive and less nutritionally dense store-bought foods may be sought. Given the superior quality of country foods and their association with food security, and Inuit cultural health and personal identity, developing skills and awareness for adaptation, promoting regional sharing networks, forming a co-management agency and continuing nutritional monitoring may potentially preserve the nutritional integrity of Inuit diet, and in turn their health and cultural survival.
PubMed ID
28156428 View in PubMed
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Adaptation in Arctic circumpolar communities: food and water security in a changing climate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279882
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):33820
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
James Berner
Michael Brubaker
Boris Revitch
Eva Kreummel
Moses Tcheripanoff
Jake Bell
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):33820
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The AMAP Human Health Assessment Group has developed different adaptation strategies through a long-term collaboration with all Arctic countries. Different adaptation strategies are discussed, with examples mainly from native population groups in Alaska.
PubMed ID
28156421 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity, vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory infections among Inuit children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279886
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):29954
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Sze Man Tse
Hope Weiler
Tom Kovesi
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):29954
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Background Food insecurity, vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent conditions among Inuit children. However, the relationship between these conditions has not been examined in this population. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food insecurity and severe respiratory infections before age 2 years and health centre visits for a respiratory problem in the past year. We also explored the relationship between serum vitamin D status and respiratory outcomes in this population. Design We included children aged 3-5 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the health of preschool Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, from 2007 to 2008 (n=388). Parental reports of severe respiratory infections in the first 2 years of life and health care visits in the past 12 months were assessed through a questionnaire. Child and adult food security were assessed separately and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured in a subgroup of participants (n=279). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between food security, vitamin D and each of the 2 respiratory outcomes. Results Child and adult food insecurity measures were not significantly associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Household crowding [odds ratio (OR)=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.09, p=0.01 for the child food security model] and higher birth weight (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.43, p=0.03) were associated with reported severe chest infections before age 2 years while increasing age was associated with decreased odds of reported health care visits for a respiratory problem (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.91, p=0.02). Neither vitamin D insufficiency nor deficiency was associated with these respiratory outcomes. Conclusions Using a large cross-sectional survey of Inuit children, we found that household crowding, but not food security or vitamin D levels, was associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Further studies are warranted to examine the impact of decreasing household crowding on the respiratory health of these children.
PubMed ID
28156414 View in PubMed
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Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279923
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017;76(1):1279451
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Tracey Galloway
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017;76(1):1279451
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities.
Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities.
NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.
PubMed ID
28151097 View in PubMed
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Food-based approaches to combat the double burden among the poor: challenges in the Asian context.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157021
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Geok Lin Khor
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia. khorgl@medic.upm.edu.my
Source
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:111-5
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - methods - standards
Asia - epidemiology
Developing Countries
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Malnutrition - epidemiology - prevention & control
Nutritional Status
Obesity - epidemiology - prevention & control
Poverty
Abstract
Estimates of FAO indicate that 14% of the population worldwide or 864 million in 2002-2004 were undernourished in not having enough food to meet basic daily energy needs. Asia has the highest number of undernourished people, with 163 million in East Asia and 300 million in South Asia. Meanwhile obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases continue to escalate in the region. The double burden of malnutrition also affects the poor, which is a serious problem in Asia, as it has the largest number of poor subsisting on less than $1/day. As poverty in the region is predominantly rural, agriculture-based strategies are important for improving household food security and nutritional status. These measures include shifting toward production of high-value products for boosting income, enhancing agricultural biodiversity, increasing consumption of indigenous food plants and biofortified crops. Urban poor faces additional nutritional problems being more sensitive to rising costs of living, lack of space for home and school gardening, and trade-offs between convenience and affordability versus poor diet quality and risk of contamination. Time constraints faced by working couples in food preparation and child care are also important considerations. Combating the double burden among the poor requires a comprehensive approach including adequate public health services, and access to education and employment skills, besides nutrition interventions.
PubMed ID
18296315 View in PubMed
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Can Canadian seniors on public pensions afford a nutritious diet?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157087
Source
Can J Aging. 2008;27(1):69-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Rebecca J Green
Patricia L Williams
C Shanthi Johnson
Ilya Blum
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Canada.
Source
Can J Aging. 2008;27(1):69-79
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet - economics
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Male
Nutritive Value
Pensions
Abstract
This study examined whether Canada's public pensions (Old Age Security and Canada Pension Plan) provided adequate income for seniors living in Nova Scotia in 2005 to afford a basic nutritious diet. Monthly incomes were compared to essential monthly expenses for four household scenarios: (a) married couple, 80 years and 78 years, in urban Nova Scotia; (b) single male, 77 years in rural Nova Scotia; (c) a couple, 70 years and 65 years, in rural Nova Scotia; (d) widowed female, 85 years, in urban Nova Scotia. The monthly food costs for the four households were CAN$313.32, $193.83, $316.71, and $150.89, respectively. Results showed that both single-member households lacked the necessary funds for a nutritious diet, while living with a partner seemed to protect against inadequate financial resources. These findings illustrate the need to improve Canada's retirement systems to ensure all seniors have adequate financial resources to meet their basic needs-including nutritious food-prevent chronic disease, and ultimately improve quality of life.
PubMed ID
18492638 View in PubMed
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