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Food policy in the Canadian North: Is there a role for country food markets?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269705
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2016 Jan 25;152:35-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-25-2016
Received in revised form 11 January 2016 Accepted 22 January 2016 Available online 25 January 2016 Keywords: Nunavut Canada Greenland Food policy Food security Food systems Inuit Country food markets * Corresponding author. E-mail address: james.ford@mcgill.ca (J.D. Ford). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016
  1 document  
Author
James D Ford
Joanna Petrasek Macdonald
Catherine Huet
Sara Statham
Allison MacRury
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2016 Jan 25;152:35-40
Date
Jan-25-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
188882
Abstract
Food insecurity is widely reported to be at a crisis level in the Inuit territory of Nunavut, Canada. Various policies, programs, and initiatives have been proposed to tackle the problem, with increasing interest in developing a system of country food markets (CFMs) similar to Greenland. We examine if CFMs offer a feasible, sustainable, and effective model for strengthening food systems in Nunavut, examining the model of Greenland and drawing on semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 45). The Greenland experience indicates that CFMs can provide access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food on a regular basis, and can diversify locally available foods. These benefits are transferable to Nunavut, although knowledge gaps, regulatory and institutional conditions, and concerns over how CFMs might affect the cultural basis of food systems, underlies apprehension over their development in the territory. We conclude that Nunavut is not currently in the position to develop CFMs, but the role of such markets in potentially strengthening food systems should not be discounted. Future development would need to solicit community input on CFMs, resolve regulatory issues around wildlife management and harvesting, and study how future risks would affect sustainability and effectiveness.
PubMed ID
26829007 View in PubMed
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The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127113
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Catherine Huet
Renata Rosol
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):541-7
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits
Male
Nunavut
Poverty Areas
Abstract
Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P = 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P = 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P = 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
PubMed ID
22323760 View in PubMed
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Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283392
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 Jun 15;17(1):578
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2017
Author
Catherine Huet
James D Ford
Victoria L Edge
Jamal Shirley
Nia King
Sherilee L Harper
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 Jun 15;17(1):578
Date
Jun-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada.
Randomly selected households were surveyed in Iqaluit in September 2012 and May 2013. Household food security status was determined using an adapted United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module. Univariable logistic regressions were used to examine unconditional associations between food security status and demographics, socioeconomics, frequency of food consumption, and method of food preparation in households with children by season.
Households with children (n = 431) and without children (n = 468) participated in the survey. Food insecurity was identified in 32.9% (95% CI: 28.5-37.4%) of households with children; this was significantly higher than in households without children (23.2%, 95% CI: 19.4-27.1%). The prevalence of household food insecurity did not significantly differ by season. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the person responsible for food preparation, including low formal education attainment (ORSept = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8.0; ORMay = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.8), unemployment (ORSept = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; ORMay = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), and Inuit identity (ORSept = 8.9, 95% CI: 3.4-23.5; ORMay = 21.8, 95% CI: 6.6-72.4), were associated with increased odds of food insecurity in households with children. Fruit and vegetable consumption (ORSept = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; ORMay = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), as well as eating cooked (ORSept = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0; ORMay = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) and raw (ORSept = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.0; ORMay = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.1) fish were associated with decreased odds of food insecurity among households with children, while eating frozen meat and/or fish (ORSept = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0; ORMay = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7) was associated with increased odds of food insecurity.
Food insecurity is high among households with children in Iqaluit. Despite the partial subsistence livelihoods of many Inuit in the city, we found no seasonal differences in food security and food consumption for households with children. Interventions aiming to decrease food insecurity in these households should consider food consumption habits, and the reported demographic and socioeconomic determinants of food insecurity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28619039 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of affirmative responses to questions of food insecurity: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130409
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):488-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Renata Rosol
Catherine Huet
Michele Wood
Crystal Lennie
Geraldine Osborne
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):488-97
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Deprivation
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Malnutrition - ethnology - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Population Surveillance
Poverty - ethnology
Prevalence
Socioeconomic Factors
Starvation - ethnology - prevention & control
Abstract
Assess the prevalence of food insecurity by region among Inuit households in the Canadian Arctic.
A community-participatory, cross-sectional Inuit health survey conducted through face-to-face interviews.
A quantitative household food security questionnaire was conducted with a random sample of 2,595 self-identified Inuit adults aged 18 years and older, from 36 communities located in 3 jurisdictions (Inuvialuit Settlement Region; Nunavut; Nunatsiavut Region) during the period from 2007 to 2008. Weighted prevalence of levels of adult and household food insecurity was calculated.
Differences in the prevalence of household food insecurity were noted by region, with Nunavut having the highest prevalence of food insecurity (68.8%), significantly higher than that observed in Inuvialuit Settlement Region (43.3%) and Nunatsiavut Region (45.7%) (p=0.01). Adults living in households rated as severely food insecure reported times in the past year when they or other adults in the household had skipped meals (88.6%), gone hungry (76.9%) or not eaten for a whole day (58.2%). Adults living in households rated as moderately food insecure reported times in the past year when they worried that food would run out (86.5%) and when the food did not last and there was no money to buy more (87.8%).
A high level of food insecurity was reported among Inuit adults residing in the Canadian Arctic, particularly for Nunavut. Immediate action and meaningful interventions are needed to mitigate the negative health impacts of food insecurity and ensure a healthy Inuit population.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):447-922208994
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):444-622208993
PubMed ID
22005728 View in PubMed
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