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Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105147
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Eugenia V Dushkina
Yuliya N Sladkova
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Tatijana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengård
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Food Microbiology - statistics & numerical data
Food Safety
Food Supply - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Malnutrition - economics - epidemiology - etiology
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Russia - epidemiology
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories.
In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011.
Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high.
Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.
Notes
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1859222789517
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
PubMed ID
24471055 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia II: water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105571
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:22646
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Eugenia V Dushkina
Yuliya N Sladkova
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Tatjana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Birgitta Evengard
Lena M Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:22646
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Drinking
Drinking Water - analysis - microbiology
Far East
Humans
Russia
Sanitation - methods - standards
Sewage - analysis
Siberia
Water Microbiology
Water Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Water Quality - standards
Water Supply - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000-2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized--underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water.
Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40-80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32-90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5-12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages--0.2-2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus--up to 0.8%. Of a total of 56 chemical pollutants analyzed in water samples from centralized water supply systems, 32 pollutants were found to be in excess of hygienic limits, with the predominant pollutants being Fe (up to 55%), Cl (up to 57%), Al (up to 43%) and Mn (up to 45%).
In 18 selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East Category I and II water reservoirs, water sources (centralized--underground, surface; non-centralized) and drinking water are highly contaminated by chemical and biological agents. Full-scale reform of the Russian water industry and water security system is urgently needed, especially in selected regions.
Notes
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2008 May-Jun;(3):16-818590142
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
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Cites: Water Res. 2012 Mar 15;46(4):921-3322209280
PubMed ID
24350065 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105572
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Eugenia V Dushkina
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Yuliya N Sladkova
Tatjana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengard
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation - standards - statistics & numerical data
Sewage - adverse effects
Siberia - epidemiology
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories.
The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia.
This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011).
Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2002 Jan-Feb;(1):6611899884
PubMed ID
24350064 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122663
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18592
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
of safe intakes and exposure reduction measures; and the promotion of improved food security policies in the Russian Arctic, including practical advice for native peoples. Material and methods Levels and distribution patterns of PTSs in selected food samples collected during 2001�2003, as well
  1 document  
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St-Petersburg, Russia. alexey.d@inbox.ru
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18592
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
4941326
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Safety
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Male
Metals - isolation & purification
Organic Chemicals - isolation & purification
Population Groups
Risk Reduction Behavior
Russia
Abstract
The general aim was to assess dietary exposure to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among Eskimo (Inuit) and Chukchi of the Chukotka Peninsula of the Russian Arctic, and to establish recommendations for exposure risk reduction.
A cross-sectional evaluation of nutritional patterns of coastal and inland indigenous peoples of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (in 2001-2003); assessment of the levels of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in traditional foods and their comparison to Russian food safety limits; the identification of local sources of food contamination; and the recommendation and implementation of risk management measures.
Community-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples), substantiation of recommendations for daily (weekly, monthly) intakes of traditional food.
POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat, while Hg and Cd are high mainly in mammal viscera. Lead is relatively low in tissues of all animals studied. For the Chukotka coastal communities, seals constitute the principal source of the whole suite of PTSs considered. Consumption restrictions are recommended for marine and freshwater fish, some wild meats (waterfowl and seal), fats (whale and seal), liver (most animals) and kidney (reindeer, walrus and seal). Evidence is presented that contamination of foodstuffs may be significantly increased during storing/processing/cooking of food due to indoor and outdoor environmental conditions.
Based on the analytical findings and the local PTSs sources identified, guidelines on food safety are suggested, as well as measures to reduce food contamination and domestic and local sources. Important and urgent remedial actions are recommended to minimize PTSs environmental and domestic contamination. Waste clean-up activities started in coastal Chukotka in 2007.
Notes
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004;63 Suppl 2:179-8215736647
PubMed ID
22789517 View in PubMed
Documents
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Indicators of food and water security in an Arctic Health context--results from an international workshop discussion.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108075
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Lena Maria Nilsson
James Berner
Alexey A Dudarev
Gert Mulvad
Jon Øyvind Odland
Alan Parkinson
Arja Rautio
Constantine Tikhonov
Birgitta Evengård
Author Affiliation
Arctic Research Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. lena.nilsson@nutrires.umu.se
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Body Weight
Environmental monitoring
Food Safety
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Water Supply - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In August 2012, a literature search with the aim of describing indicators on food and water security in an Arctic health context was initialized in collaboration between the Arctic Human Health Expert Group, SDWG/AHHEG and the AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme within the Arctic Council) Human Health Assessment Group, AMAP/HHAG. In December 2012, workshop discussions were performed with representatives from both of these organizations, including 7 Arctic countries. The aim of this article is to describe the workshop discussions and the rational for the 12 indicators selected and the 9 rejected and to discuss the potential feasibility of these. Advantages and disadvantages of candidate indicators were listed. Informative value and costs for collecting were estimated separately on a 3-level scale: low, medium and high. Based on these reviews, the final selection of promoted and rejected indicators was performed and summarized in tables. Among 10 suggested indicators of food security, 6 were promoted: healthy weight, traditional food proportion in diet, monetary food costs, non-monetary food accessibility, food-borne diseases and food-related contaminants. Four were rejected: per-person dietary energy supply, food security modules, self-estimated food safety and healthy eating. Among 10 suggested indicators of water security, 6 were promoted: per-capita renewable water, accessibility of running water, waterborne diseases, drinking-water-related contaminants, authorized water quality assurance and water safety plans. Four were rejected: water consumption, types of water sources, periodic water shortages and household water costs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23940840 View in PubMed
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