Buccal epithelium cytogenetic disturbances were studied in schoolchildren from Moscow schools, a country school (Novgorod region) and a Moscow boarding school for chindren with musculoskeletal diseases (scoliosis and kyphosis). The minimal mean frequency of cells with karyorrhexis were revealed in children from an ecologically pure Novgorod region. Moscow schoolchildren demonstrated more than 13-fold higher level of this parameter. Children with spinal deformities had an intermediate frequency. Cells with karyolysis minimal mean frequency were observed in Moscow pupils. Children from Novgorod demonstrated a statistically valid higher level of this parameter, and the maximum was reached in Moscow boarding school. No difference between these groups was revealed in a study of the mean frequency of binucleated cells, cells with pyknosis, cells with micronuclei, or "broken eggs" incidence. Laser correlation spectrometry (LCS) method was used for parallel studies. It was shown that the distribution of spectra in Moscow pupils and in children with spinal deformities differs from that in children living in ecologically pure region. Normal spectra prevailed in pupils of country school, who demonstrated, in addition, high levels of anabolic and low levels of catabolic type metabolism. The examined Moscow schoolchildren demonstrated almost the same incidence of normal spectra. They differed from the country children by statistically valid reduction of anabolic type spectra, and by increased levels of catabolic type spectra. Young patients with spinal deformities demonstrated the maximum incidence of catabolic type spectra. The authors suggest the availability of a qualitative correlation between both the monitoring methods used in this study. It was shown that children living in unfavorable conditions and patients with musculoskeletal diseases manifested an enhanced incidence of buccal epithelium cells with karyorrhexis and karyolysis, as well as higher levels of catabolic type spectra accompanied by reduction of normal and anabolic type spectra.
A combined psychophysiologic study of 100 individuals living in territories contaminated by radionuclides and 60 people from ecologically clean region. There were no significant differences in the incidence of neurotic disorders between people from these regions (61.2 and 65.3%, respectively). The highest sensitivity to small radiation doses was observed at rather young age (20-40 years). It was found that a considerable role in the development of borderline psychic disorders belongs to both somatic disturbances due to low-dose radiation and psychogenic effects. A combined action of psychogenic and somatogenic factors aggravated symptoms of neurotic disorders and promoted widening of a range of psychic disturbances. Some part of the population from the contaminated territories tended to the development of cerebro-vascular psychoorganic pathology resultant from a breakdown of the reserves of the adaptation. Now the stress factor of radionuclides exposure is not so important as social and economic problems.
According to present achievements in radiation and molecular genetics it is possible to expect that due to chronic radiation exposure the relative increasing of genetic risk in following generations will be observed. It will be due, in the first place, to increasing a percent of multifactorial diseases (MFD). Most of geneticists refer bronchial asthma (BA) to multifactorial diseases. Genetics and epidemiological analysis of liability to BA in population of Ozyorsk situated in the control area of "Mayak" Production Association (PA "Mayak") was accomplished. Population risk, as probability for an individual in population to develop BA up to the end of life is 2.69%. It's higher than in Moscow (2.03%) (p
Negative pollution effects from atmospheric discharges by aluminium facilities exerted on population health can be traced by the parameters of the reproductive function in women, physical development of newborns, general and differential morbidity of children aged below one year as well as by anthropometric signs in birth, morbidity of children and adults, mortality, including due to oncology. The introduction of modern technologies including the preliminarily fire anode treatment and the use of highly effective methods of purification of industrial wastes cut the concentration (in atmospheric air) of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and of solid fluorides as well as of aluminium to maximum permissible concentration; it also essentially reduced the content of benzapilene. A better atmospheric air observed yet in the course of renovation contributed to a lower morbidity of children, aged below one year, as well as to the prevalence of diseases affecting the eyes, respiratory and digestive organs, skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue; it also cuts the number of congenital anomalies versus the data obtained in a neighboring district.
The second half of the XX century was dominated in the field of radiation protection of the environment by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept "if man is adequately protected by radiological standards then biota are also adequately protected". At the end of the XX--beginning of the XXI centuries in the area of area of radiation protection of nature an ecocentric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthroposentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, nonequidosal irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity.
Suggested system to formalize hygienic information is designed for definite and unambiguous assessment of varied totality of occupational environmental parameters in specific object of sanitary supervision; for study and analysis of physiologic, hygienic and clinical dependencies of workers' health state on the work conditions; for further specification of scientifically based prophylactic measures and social economic protection of workers.