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A 3-year follow-up of sun behavior in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106960
Source
JAMA Dermatol. 2014 Feb;150(2):163-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Luise Winkel Idorn
Pameli Datta
Jakob Heydenreich
Peter Alshede Philipsen
Hans Christian Wulf
Author Affiliation
Dermatological Research Department D92, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
JAMA Dermatol. 2014 Feb;150(2):163-8
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Melanoma - etiology - pathology
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - etiology - pathology
Sunlight - adverse effects
Time Factors
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
IMPORTANCE UV radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary environmental risk factor for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). OBJECTIVE To measure changes in sun behavior from the first until the third summer after the diagnosis of CMM using matched controls as a reference. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three-year follow-up, observational, case-control study performed from May 7 to September 22, 2009, April 17 to September 15, 2010, and May 6 to July 31, 2011, at a university hospital in Denmark of 21 patients with CMM and 21 controls matched to patients by sex, age, occupation, and constitutive skin type participated in the study. Exposure to UVR was assessed the first and second summers (n=20) and the first and third summers (n=22) after diagnosis. Data from 40 participants were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Exposure to UVR was assessed by personal electronic UVR dosimeters that measured time-related UVR in standard erythema dose (SED) and corresponding sun diaries (mean, 74 days per participant each participation year). RESULTS Patients' daily UVR dose and UVR dose in connection with various behaviors increased during follow-up (quantified as an increase in daily UVR dose each year; all days: mean, 0.3 SED; 95% CI, 0.05-0.5 SED; days with body exposure: mean, 0.6 SED; 95% CI, 0.07-1.2 SED; holidays: mean, 1.2 SED; 95% CI, 0.3-2.1 SED; days abroad: 1.9 SED; 95% CI, 0.4-3.4 SED; and holidays with body exposure: mean, 2.3 SED; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4 SED). After the second year of follow-up, patients' UVR dose was higher than that of controls, who maintained a stable UVR dose. No difference was found between groups in the number of days with body exposure or the number of days using sunscreen in the second and third years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our findings suggest that patients with CMM do not maintain a cautious sun behavior in connection with an increase in UVR exposure, especially on days with body exposure, when abroad, and on holidays.
PubMed ID
24080851 View in PubMed
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A 15-year surveillance study of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a cohort of young girls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49320
Source
J Infect. 1992 Sep;25(2):147-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1992
Author
B. Christenson
M. Böttiger
A. Svensson
S. Jeansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health and Infectious Diseases Control, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Infect. 1992 Sep;25(2):147-54
Date
Sep-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Cohort Studies
Female
Herpes Simplex - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Simplexvirus - immunology
Species Specificity
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
A cohort of 839 young girls at the ages of 14 and 15 years was screened for total antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) and, if positive, for specific antibodies to HSV-2, by means of a sensitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cohort was followed from 1972-1987. Blood samples were obtained on six occasions during these 16 years. In total, 2270 blood samples were taken. The number of sero-converting girls was studied in relation to calendar time. Two methods were constructed for the statistical analyses. The first of these gave an estimate of the sero-prevalence at different points in time. This analysis showed that the sero-prevalence which was 23% against HSV-1 in 1972 had increased to 36% in 1976. At the end of the study in 1987, 50% of the cohort had sero-converted against HSV-1. The proportion of girls who had sero-converted against HSV-2 was 0.4% in the 14-15-year-olds and had reached 22% by the end of the study. The second statistical method used all the available information implicit in the observations so as to obtain a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate of the prevalence. The ML estimates were slightly more precise, but the two estimates did not differ significantly. The observations were further analysed by the Mantel-Haenszel test in order to see if there was any dependence between positivity to HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively but none was found.
PubMed ID
1331244 View in PubMed
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A 1982-1992 surveillance programme on Danish pottery painters. Biological levels and health effects following exposure to soluble or insoluble cobalt compounds in cobalt blue dyes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15957
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1994 Jun 30;150(1-3):95-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-30-1994
Author
J M Christensen
O M Poulsen
Author Affiliation
Danish National Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Copenhagen.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1994 Jun 30;150(1-3):95-104
Date
Jun-30-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cobalt - adverse effects - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Lung - drug effects - physiology
Male
Mutagenicity Tests
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Paint
Reference Values
Thyroid Gland - drug effects - physiology
Time Factors
Abstract
This paper provides a short overview of cobalt-related diseases with particular reference to the potential carcinogenicity of cobalt compounds, and a review of a 10-year surveillance programme on plate painters exposed to cobalt in two Danish porcelain factories. Clinical experience and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cobalt exposure may lead to severely impaired lung function, i.e. hard metal lung disease and occupational cobalt-related asthma, contact dermatitis and cardiovascular effects. However, the evidence for the carcinogenicity of cobalt and cobalt compounds is considered inadequate (IARC, 1991). Most frequently, exposure to cobalt occurs simultaneously with exposure to other elements known to pose a health risk, (e.g. nickel, arsenic, chromium, tungsten). The importance of cobalt as sole causal agent in hard metal lung diseases, cardiomyopathy and cancer are still a matter of controversy. In the two Danish porcelain factories, cobalt blue underglaze dyes have been used since 1888. In contrast to the exposure experience of hard metal factories, the exposure of plate painters occurs with only low trace levels of other potentially harmful compounds such as the carcinogenic metals nickel, arsenic and chromium. Consequently, the nearly-pure cobalt exposure makes the plate painters an attractive group for studies on the health effects of cobalt. During the period 1982-1992 the surveillance programme showed a profound reduction in the urine level of cobalt (Co-U) from 100-fold to 10-fold above the median level of the unexposed control subjects. In the same period, the airborne cobalt exposure declined from 1356 nmol/m3 to 454 nmol/m3, the Danish occupational exposure limit being 845 nmol/m3. In 1982, when the cobalt exposure was above the occupational exposure limit, the plate painters showed a chronic impaired lung function. The obstructive effects may be similar to some of the effects observed in hard metal workers. In 1988, a study on the effect of cobalt exposure at low levels revealed no inhibitory effects on thyroid function, but the ratio between T4 and T3 increased, indicating that low cobalt exposure may have an impact on the metabolism of thyroid hormones. Parallel studies were conducted on the metabolism and excretion of cobalt. The gastrointestinal uptake of soluble CoCl was considerably higher than the uptake of insoluble cobalt(II) oxide. In addition, it was demonstrated that ingestion of controlled amounts of the soluble cobalt compound resulted in significantly higher concentrations of cobalt in urine and blood (Co-B) from females compared with males (P
PubMed ID
7939615 View in PubMed
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Acculturation and celiac disease risk in second-generation immigrants: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122335
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;47(10):1174-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Carl Johan Wingren
Daniel Agardh
Juan Merlo
Author Affiliation
Unit for Social Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden. carl_johan.wingren@med.lu.se
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;47(10):1174-80
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acculturation
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Effect
Cohort Studies
Cost of Illness
Emigrants and Immigrants - statistics & numerical data
Environmental health
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mothers - statistics & numerical data
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The burden of celiac disease (CD) is increasingly recognized as a global problem. However, whether this situation depends on genetics or environmental factors is uncertain. The authors examined these aspects in Sweden, a country in which the risk of CD is generally considered to be high. If environmental factors are relevant, CD risk in second-generation immigrant children should be related to maternal length of stay in Sweden before delivery.
Linking the Swedish Medical Birth Registry to other national registries, the authors investigated all singleton children (n = 792,401) born in Sweden between 1987 and 1993. They studied the risk of CD in children before age 6 as a function of the mother's geographical region of birth and length of stay in Sweden before delivery using Cox regression models.
In children whose mothers immigrated to Sweden from a country outside of Europe, a maternal length of stay in Sweden of more than 5 years increased the hazard ratio (HR) of CD (1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.81). The authors observed a similar result among children born to mothers from a Nordic country outside of Sweden (HR 1.57, 95% CI 0.89-2.75), but a non-conclusive protective effect was observed in second-generation immigrant children from a non-Nordic European country (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39-1.09).
The risk of CD among second-generation immigrants seems to be conditioned by maternal length of stay in Sweden before delivery, suggesting that environmental factors contribute to the variation in CD risk observed across populations.
PubMed ID
22827636 View in PubMed
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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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Acute fatal effects of short-lasting extreme temperatures in Stockholm, Sweden: evidence across a century of change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107127
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Nov;24(6):820-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Daniel Oudin Åström
Bertil Forsberg
Sören Edvinsson
Joacim Rocklöv
Author Affiliation
From the aDepartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; bAgeing and Living Conditions Programme, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; cCentre for Population Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; and dDepartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Nov;24(6):820-9
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Extreme Cold - adverse effects
Extreme Heat - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Risk
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of extreme weather events. Short-term effects of extreme hot and cold weather and their effects on mortality have been thoroughly documented, as have epidemiologic and demographic changes throughout the 20th century. We investigated whether sensitivity to episodes of extreme heat and cold has changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until the present.
We collected daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901-2009 for present-day Stockholm County, Sweden. Heat extremes were defined as days for which the 2-day moving average of mean temperature was above the 98th percentile; cold extremes were defined as days for which the 26-day moving average was below the 2nd percentile. The relationship between extreme hot/cold temperatures and all-cause mortality, stratified by decade, sex, and age, was investigated through time series modeling, adjusting for time trends.
Total daily mortality was higher during heat extremes in all decades, with a declining trend over time in the relative risk associated with heat extremes, leveling off during the last three decades. The relative risk of mortality was higher during cold extremes for the entire period, with a more dispersed pattern across decades. Unlike for heat extremes, there was no decline in the mortality with cold extremes over time.
Although the relative risk of mortality during extreme temperature events appears to have fallen, such events still pose a threat to public health.
PubMed ID
24051892 View in PubMed
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Acute health effects common during graffiti removal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50823
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001 Apr;74(3):213-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
S. Langworth
H. Anundi
L. Friis
G. Johanson
M L Lind
E. Söderman
B A Akesson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. sven.langworth@pharmacia.com
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001 Apr;74(3):213-8
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - analysis
Analysis of Variance
Case-Control Studies
Chi-Square Distribution
Data Collection - methods
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Irritants - adverse effects - analysis
Male
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupations
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Solvents - adverse effects - analysis
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify possible health effects caused by different cleaning agents used in graffiti removal. METHODS: In 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed by active air sampling, biological monitoring, and by interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered, by physical examinations, porta7ble spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots, and with 177 population controls. RESULTS: The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were low, below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. The short-term exposures occasionally exceeded the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL), especially during work in poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators. The graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of tiredness and upper airway symptoms compared with the depot controls, and significantly more tiredness, headaches and symptoms affecting airways, eyes and skin than the population controls. Among the graffiti removers, some of the symptoms increased during the working day. On a group basis, the lung function registrations showed normal values. However, seven workers displayed a clear reduction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over the working shift. CONCLUSIONS: Though their average exposure to organic solvents was low, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of unspecific symptoms such as fatigue and headache as well as irritative symptoms from the eyes and respiratory tract, compared with the controls. To prevent adverse health effects it is important to inform the workers about the health risks, and to restrict use of the most hazardous chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working practices and to encourage the use of personal protective equipment.
PubMed ID
11355296 View in PubMed
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Acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma samples of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) of the Wadden Sea and of the isle Helgoland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98848
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;155(1):67-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
A. Kakuschke
H-B Erbsloeh
S. Griesel
A. Prange
Author Affiliation
GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. antjekakuschke@web.de
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;155(1):67-71
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute-Phase Proteins - metabolism
Age Factors
Animals
Denmark
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Geography
Germany
Haptoglobins - metabolism
Male
Marine Biology - methods
Oceans and Seas
Phoca - blood
Seasons
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Haptoglobin (Hp) which is synthesized in response to infection, inflammation, trauma or toxicological damage is known as a major acute phase protein in numerous species. Quantification of the circulating concentration of this protein can provide an objective measure of the health status, but there is a lack of investigations on harbour seals. We investigated the Hp concentration in samples of 123 seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German and Danish Wadden Sea to study physiological ranges of Hp levels. Hp levels between 2002, the end of the phocine distemper virus epidemic (PDV), and 2007 were considered, and Hp concentrations between animals of different sex, ages as well as living areas were compared. Furthermore, as a case study, six animals from the open sea isle Helgoland were investigated in 2006. Influences on the health status of the seal population e.g. the PDV epidemic were reflected by increased Hp levels in North Sea seals in 2002. The results of the Wadden Sea seals showed no significant age-, sex-, or geographical area-related differences. Interestingly, for the seals of the open sea isle Helgoland higher Hp values were measured compared to the Wadden Sea seals. The present study demonstrates that Hp can be used as a diagnostic tool to monitor the health status of harbour seals.
PubMed ID
19818410 View in PubMed
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Adaptive dimensions of health research among indigenous Siberians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78876
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Mar-Apr;19(2):165-80
Publication Type
Article
Author
Snodgrass J Josh
Sorensen Mark V
Tarskaia Larissa A
Leonard William R
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA. jjosh@uoregon.edu
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Mar-Apr;19(2):165-80
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology
Arctic Regions
Basal Metabolism
Biomedical research
Cold - adverse effects
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Culture
Geography
Humans
Life Style
Population Groups
Siberia
Time Factors
Abstract
Present evidence suggests that modern humans were the first hominid species to successfully colonize high-latitude environments (> or =55 degrees N). Given evidence for a recent (
PubMed ID
17286259 View in PubMed
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Adjusting for temporal variation in the analysis of parallel time series of health and environmental variables.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205764
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Apr-Jun;8(2):129-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
S. Cakmak
R. Burnett
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. scakmak@ehd.hwc.ca
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Apr-Jun;8(2):129-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Hospitalization
Humans
Lung Diseases - etiology
Models, Statistical
Ontario
Ozone - adverse effects
Public Health
Temperature
Time Factors
Abstract
Time series of daily administrative cardio-respiratory health and environmental information have been extensively used to assess the potential public health impact of ambient air pollution. Both series are subject to strong but unrelated temporal cycles. These cycles must be removed from the time series prior to examining the role air pollution plays in exacerbating cardio-respiratory disease. In this paper, we examine a number of methods of temporal filtering that have been proposed to eliminate such temporal effects. The techniques are illustrated by linking the number of daily admissions to hospital for respiratory diseases in Toronto, Canada for the 11 year period 1981 to 1991 with daily concentrations of ambient ozone. The ozone-hospitalization relationship was found to be highly sensitive to the length of temporal cycle removed from the admission time series, and to day of the week effects, ranging from a relative risk of 0.874 if long wave cycles were not removed at all to 1.020 for models which removed at least cycles greater than or equal to one month based on the interquartile pollutant range. The specific statistical method of adjustment was not a critical factor. The association was not as sensitive to removal of cycles less than one month, except that negative autocorrelation increased for series in which cycles of one week or less were removed. We recommend three criteria in selecting the degree of smoothing in the outcome: removal of temporal cycles, minimizing autocorrelation and optimizing goodness of fit. The association between ambient ozone levels and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases was also sensitive to the season of examination, with weaker associations observed outside the summer months.
PubMed ID
9577746 View in PubMed
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Age dependencies of 90Sr incorporation in dental tissues: comparative analysis and interpretation of different kinds of measurements obtained for residents on the Techa River.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183632
Source
Health Phys. 2003 Oct;85(4):409-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Evgenia I Tolstykh
Elena A Shishkina
Marina O Degteva
Denis V Ivanov
Valentina A Shved
Sergey N Bayankin
Lynn R Anspaugh
Bruce A Napier
Albrecht Wieser
Peter Jacob
Author Affiliation
Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 454076 Chelyabinsk, Russia. evgenia@urcrm.chel.su
Source
Health Phys. 2003 Oct;85(4):409-19
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Bone and Bones - radiation effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Dental Enamel - radiation effects
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Radioactive fallout
Russia
Strontium Radioisotopes - analysis
Time Factors
Tooth - growth & development - radiation effects
Abstract
Human teeth have been considered as dosimeters for decades. Methods include the in vivo measurement of 90Sr/90Y in teeth with a tooth-beta counter, the radiochemical determination of 90Sr in whole teeth, and the measurement of dose in teeth by use of electron paramagnetic resonance. Presented in this paper are results of 2,514 tooth-beta counter measurements, 334 radiochemical measurements, and 218 electron paramagnetic resonance measurements for residents living in settlements along the Techa River. All three kinds of measurements indicate a sharp peak that corresponds to the uptake of 90Sr by tooth tissue. The results can be interpreted in terms of an intake function for 90Sr only if the period of calcification of each individual tooth is considered--such detail on a tooth-by-tooth basis is presented in this paper. The conclusion is reached that the tooth-beta counter data are the most reliable in terms of reconstruction of 90Sr intake; this is due in part to the fact that the tooth-beta counter measures four teeth (all at position 1) with essentially the same time periods of mineralization and because there are a large number of tooth-beta counter measurements. The main utility of electron paramagnetic resonance measurements is considered to be the validation of estimates of external dose; but for this purpose teeth with 90Sr taken up into enamel must be avoided.
PubMed ID
13678281 View in PubMed
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Age of onset in concordant twins and other relative pairs with multiple sclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150146
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Aug 1;170(3):289-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2009
Author
A Dessa Sadovnick
Irene M Yee
Colleen Guimond
Jacques Reis
David A Dyment
George C Ebers
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Genetics, Vancouver Coastal Health Authority-University of British Columbia Hospital, G-920 Detwiller Pavilion, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. sadovnik@infinet.net
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Aug 1;170(3):289-96
Date
Aug-1-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
British Columbia - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Family
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Parents
Pedigree
Risk factors
Siblings
Time Factors
Twins - genetics
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
The ages of onset in multiple sclerosis cases span more than 7 decades. Data are presented for affected relative pairs from a Canadian population base of 30,000 multiple sclerosis index cases (1993-2008). The effects of genetic sharing, parent of origin, intergenerational versus collinear differences, and gender on the ages of onset were evaluated in the following concordant pairs: monozygotic twins (n = 29), dizygotic twins (n = 10), siblings (n = 614), first cousins (n = 405), half siblings (n = 29), parent/child (n = 285), and aunt/uncle/niece/nephew (avunculars) (n = 289). Fisher's z test assessed intraclass correlation (r) for ages of onset. Correlations for monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, and first cousins were 0.60, 0.54, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. Dizygotic twins resembled monozygotic twins more than siblings. The age-of-onset correlation for maternal half siblings (r = 0.37) was higher than that for paternal half siblings (r = 0.26), consistent with other observations suggesting an intrauterine environmental effect on multiple sclerosis risk. Intergenerational comparisons are complicated by substantial increases of multiple sclerosis incidence over time. Genetic loading (familial vs. sporadic cases) did not generally influence the age of onset, but correlation of age of onset in multiple sclerosis relative pairs was proportional to genetic sharing. A maternal parent-of-origin effect on the age of onset in collinear generations was suggested.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19546151 View in PubMed
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Agroenvironmental determinants associated with the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in beach waters in Quebec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132370
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Sep;58(6):432-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
P. Turgeon
P. Michel
P. Levallois
P. Chevalier
D. Daignault
B. Crago
R. Irwin
S A McEwen
N F Neumann
M. Louie
Author Affiliation
Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada. patricia.turgeon@umontreal.ca
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Sep;58(6):432-9
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Bathing Beaches
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Human Activities
Humans
Lakes - microbiology
Logistic Models
Quebec
Seasons
Time Factors
Water Microbiology
Abstract
Exposure to microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials may constitute a health risk to human populations. It is believed that one route of exposure occurs when people engage in recreational activities in water contaminated with these microorganisms. The main objective of this study was to explore population-level and environmental determinants specifically associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) generic Escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters sampled from beaches located in southern Quebec, Canada. Water samples originated from the Quebec provincial beach surveillance program for the summers of 2004 and 2005. This study focused on three classes of determinants, namely: agricultural, population-level and beach characteristics for a total of 19 specific factors. The study was designed as a retrospective observational analysis and factors were assessed using logistic regression methods. From the multivariable analysis, the data suggested that the percentage of land used for spreading liquid manure was a significant factor associated with the presence of AMR E. coli (OR=27.73). Conceptually, broad factors potentially influencing the presence of AMR bacteria in water must be assessed specifically in addition to factors associated with general microbial contamination. Presence of AMR E. coli in recreational waters from beaches in southern Quebec may represent a risk for people engaging in water activities and this study provides preliminary evidence that agricultural practices, specifically spreading liquid manure in agricultural lands nearby beaches, may be linked to the contamination of these waters by AMR E. coli.
PubMed ID
21824340 View in PubMed
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Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72055
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov;73(8):561-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
H. Anundi
S. Langworth
G. Johanson
M L Lind
B. Akesson
L. Friis
N. Itkes
E. Söderman
B A Jönsson
C. Edling
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. helena.anundi@medsci.uu.se
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov;73(8):561-9
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Comparative Study
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Pyrrolidinones - analysis - blood - urine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Solvents - toxicity
Sweden
Teratogens
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures. METHODS: Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews. RESULTS: Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high. CONCLUSIONS: Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the health risks and to restrict the use of the most toxic chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working procedures and to encourage the use of personal protection equipment.
PubMed ID
11100951 View in PubMed
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Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82661
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):362-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Ellingsen Dag G
Fladseth Geir
Daae Hanne L
Gjølstad Merete
Kjaerheim Kristina
Skogstad Marit
Olsen Raymond
Thorud Syvert
Molander Paal
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 8149 Dep, N-0033, Oslo, Norway. dag.ellingsen@stami.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2006 Mar;8(3):362-8
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cotinine - urine
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nicotine - analysis
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Public Facilities - legislation & jurisprudence
Restaurants
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence
Time Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p
PubMed ID
16528420 View in PubMed
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Airborne occupational exposure, ABO phenotype, and risk of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53175
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun;29(6):689-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
P. Suadicani
H O Hein
F. Gyntelberg
Author Affiliation
The Copenhagen Male Study, Epidemiological Research Unit, Clinic of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, NV, Denmark. PS11@bbh.hosp.dk
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun;29(6):689-96
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ABO Blood-Group System
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - chemically induced
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Health Surveys
Humans
Industry
Inflammation Mediators - toxicity
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - blood - chemically induced - etiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: We have previously found a quite strong interplay between occupational airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), with long-term exposure being associated with a significantly increased risk among men with phenotype O, and not among men with other ABO phenotypes. We suggested that the biological pathway could be a stronger systemic inflammatory response in men with blood group O. Several inflammatory mediators likely to increase the risk of IHD have recently been linked also to obesity, suggesting that long-term exposure to airborne pollutants might play a role in the aetiology of obesity. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that long-term occupational exposure to airborne pollutants would be more strongly associated with obesity in men with phenotype O than in men with other ABO phenotypes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional exposure-response study taking into account potential confounders. SETTING: The Copenhagen Male Study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3290 men aged 53-74 y. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of obesity (BMI > or =30 (kg/m2)). RESULTS: Overall, no differences were found in the prevalence of obesity between men with the O phenotype (n=1399) and men with other phenotypes (n=1891), 8.6 and 9.0%. However, only among men with the O phenotype was long-term occupational exposure (at least 5 y of frequent exposure) to various respirable airborne pollutants: dust, asbestos, soldering fumes, welding fumes, organic solvents, fumes from lacquer, paint or varnish, toxic components, breath irritants, stench or strongly smelling products, and irritants (other than breath irritants or contagious components) associated with an increased prevalence of obesity. Statistically, the strongest univariate associations were found for asbestos exposure, welding fumes, and breath irritants. Odds ratios (95% confidence limits) for these factors were 3.7 (1.8-7.6), 2.7 (1.6-4.4), and 2.6 (1.5-4.4), respectively. This particular relationship of airborne exposures with obesity in men with phenotype O was supported in multivariate analysis including interaction terms and taking into account a number of potential confounders. In contrast, no gene-environment interactions with obesity were found with respect to ABO phenotypes and a number of nonrespirable exposures. CONCLUSION: The finding of a quite strong interplay between long-term exposure to airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of obesity may open up new possibilities for clarifying mechanisms underlying the global obesity epidemic.
PubMed ID
15809661 View in PubMed
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Air quality during the winter in Qu├ębec day-care centers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224262
Source
Am J Public Health. 1992 Mar;82(3):432-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1992
Author
S. Daneault
M. Beausoleil
K. Messing
Author Affiliation
Center for the Study of Biological Interactions between Health and Environment, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1992 Mar;82(3):432-4
Date
Mar-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Electric Power Supplies
Environmental monitoring
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Heating - methods - standards
Humans
Humidity
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Quebec
Temperature
Time Factors
Ventilation - methods - standards
Abstract
Over 90% of 91 day care centers in greater Montréal, Québec exceeded 1000 ppm of CO2 during January through April 1989. Four variables were independent positive predictors of CO2 levels: the density of children in the center; presence of electric heating; absence of a ventilation system; and building age. High levels of CO2 are associated with respiratory tract and other symptoms. Clear standards and inspection policies should be established for day care center air quality.
Notes
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Cites: Am J Public Health. 1988 Sep;78(9):1175-73407814
PubMed ID
1536362 View in PubMed
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Ambient air pollution and daily emergency department visits for headache in Ottawa, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159167
Source
Headache. 2008 Jul;48(7):1076-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Headache. 2008 Jul;48(7):1076-81
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - trends
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Headache - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Seasons
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
No extensive studies exist on the relation between ambient air pollution and health outcomes such as migraine or headache. From other side, existing publications indicated that air pollutants can trigger migraine or headache.
To examine associations between emergency department (ED) visits for headache and environmental conditions: ambient air pollution concentrations adjusted for weather factors (atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity).
This is a time-series study of 8012 ED visits for headache (International Classification for Diseases ninth revision: 784) recorded at an Ottawa hospital between 1992 and 2000. The generalized linear mixed models technique is used to model relation between daily counts of ED visits for headache and ambient air pollutants (gases: sulphur dioxide [SO(2)], nitrogen dioxide [NO(2)], carbon monoxide [CO]). The counts of visits for all patients, male and female patients, are analyzed separately.
The percentage increase in daily ED visits for headache was 4.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 6.4) and 4.9% (95% CI: 1.2, 8.8) for 1-day and 2-day lagged exposure to SO(2) for an increase in the interquartile range (IQR, IQR = 3.9 ppb). The positive statistically significant associations were also observed for exposure to NO(2) and CO for all and male ED visits for headache.
Presented findings provide support for the hypothesis that ED visits for headache are related to ambient air pollution.
PubMed ID
18218009 View in PubMed
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Analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Swedish human milk. A time-related trend study, 1972-1997.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49225
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999 Nov 26;58(6):329-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-26-1999
Author
D. Meironyté
K. Norén
A. Bergman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Daiva.Meironyte@mbb.ki.se
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999 Nov 26;58(6):329-41
Date
Nov-26-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental health - trends
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Humans
Infant
Mass Fragmentography
Milk, human - chemistry
Phenyl Ethers - analysis
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
A previously described method for analysis of organochlorine compounds in human milk was adopted for analysis of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) substituted with three to six bromine atoms. Analytes were extracted from human milk with the lipophilic gel Lipidex 5000. Further purifications were performed on partly deactivated aluminum oxide and silica gel columns, followed by gel permeation chromatography. The concentrations of BDEs were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The average recoveries of 2,2',4-triBDE (BDE-17), 2,4,4'-triBDE (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-47), 2,3',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-66), 2,2,3,4,4'-pentaBDE (BDE-85), 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexaBDE (BDE-154) added to the samples before extraction ranged from 86% to 102%. Pooled samples of breast milk, collected at eight time periods between 1972 and 1997, were analyzed for PBDEs. BDE-47 was the most abundant PBDE congener in all samples. In total, eight PBDE congeners were identified in the milk. The sum of the concentrations of BDE congeners in human milk increased from 0.07 to 4.02 ng/g lipids during the 25-yr period studied.
PubMed ID
10580757 View in PubMed
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