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The 20th century Danish facial cleft population--epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33384
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology, Odense University, Denmark. k-christensen@win-chs.ou.dk
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cleft Lip - epidemiology - genetics
Cleft Palate - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Epidemiology, Molecular
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Twin Studies
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
Since Dr. Fogh-Andersen's legendary 1942 thesis, the Danish facial cleft population has been one of the most extensively studied in terms of epidemiology and genetic-epidemiology. The etiology of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is still largely an enigma, and different results concerning environmental and genetic risk factors are obtained in different countries and regions. This may be due to etiological heterogeneity between settings. Therefore, an in-depth studied area with an ethnically homogeneous population, such as Denmark, has provided one of the best opportunities for progress in CLP etiological research. The present review summarizes epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies conducted in the 20th century Danish facial cleft population. Furthermore, analyses of sex differences, time trends and seasonality for more than 7000 CLP cases born in Denmark in the period 1936 to 1987 are presented. The review also points toward the excellent opportunities for continued etiological CLP research in Denmark in the 21st century using already established resources and an on-going prospective cohort study of 100,000 pregnant women.
PubMed ID
10213053 View in PubMed
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Accidents and close call situations connected to the use of mobile phones.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127715
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Mar;45:75-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Leena Korpinen
Rauno Pääkkönen
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland. leena.korpinen@tut.fi
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2012 Mar;45:75-82
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Causality
Cellular Phone
Educational Status
Finland
Human Engineering
Humans
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of our work was to study the accidents and close call situations connected to the use of mobile phones. We have analyzed how the accidents/close call situations are connected to background information, in particular age, gender and self-reported symptoms. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting the questionnaire to 15,000 working-age Finns. The responses (6121) were analyzed using the logistic regression models. Altogether 13.7% of respondents had close call situations and 2.4% had accidents at leisure, in which the mobile phone had a partial effect, and at work the amounts were 4.5% and 0.4% respectively, during the last 12 months. Essentially, we found that: (1) men tend to have more close calls and accidents while on a mobile phone, (2) younger people tend to have more accidents and close calls while on a mobile phone, but it does not appear to be large enough to warrant intervention, (3) employed people tend to have more problems with mobile phone usage and accidents/close calls, and (4) there was a slight increase in mobile-phone-related accidents/close calls if the respondent also reported sleep disturbances and minor aches and pains. In the future, it is important to take into account and study how symptoms can increase the risk of accidents or close call situations in which a mobile phone has a partial effect.
PubMed ID
22269487 View in PubMed
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Acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma samples of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) of the Wadden Sea and of the isle Helgoland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98848
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;155(1):67-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
A. Kakuschke
H-B Erbsloeh
S. Griesel
A. Prange
Author Affiliation
GKSS Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. antjekakuschke@web.de
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jan;155(1):67-71
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute-Phase Proteins - metabolism
Age Factors
Animals
Denmark
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Geography
Germany
Haptoglobins - metabolism
Male
Marine Biology - methods
Oceans and Seas
Phoca - blood
Seasons
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Haptoglobin (Hp) which is synthesized in response to infection, inflammation, trauma or toxicological damage is known as a major acute phase protein in numerous species. Quantification of the circulating concentration of this protein can provide an objective measure of the health status, but there is a lack of investigations on harbour seals. We investigated the Hp concentration in samples of 123 seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German and Danish Wadden Sea to study physiological ranges of Hp levels. Hp levels between 2002, the end of the phocine distemper virus epidemic (PDV), and 2007 were considered, and Hp concentrations between animals of different sex, ages as well as living areas were compared. Furthermore, as a case study, six animals from the open sea isle Helgoland were investigated in 2006. Influences on the health status of the seal population e.g. the PDV epidemic were reflected by increased Hp levels in North Sea seals in 2002. The results of the Wadden Sea seals showed no significant age-, sex-, or geographical area-related differences. Interestingly, for the seals of the open sea isle Helgoland higher Hp values were measured compared to the Wadden Sea seals. The present study demonstrates that Hp can be used as a diagnostic tool to monitor the health status of harbour seals.
PubMed ID
19818410 View in PubMed
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Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107728
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
food insecurity in a Greenlandic community and the importance of social, economic and environmental stressors. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:285-303. *Birgit Niclasen Box 7011 3905 Nuussuaq Greenland Email: Niclasen@greennet.gl 780 Citatim: Int J Circumpolar Health 201 3, 72: 20849
  1 document  
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Max Petzold
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Greenlandic Branch, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Male
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level.
To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use.
The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home.
Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.06) (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984271 View in PubMed
Documents
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The age- and sex-specific occurrence of bothersome neck pain in the general population--results from the Stockholm public health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120422
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:185
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Eva Skillgate
Cecilia Magnusson
Michael Lundberg
Johan Hallqvist
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, Stockholm, SE-17177, Sweden. Eva.Skillgate@ki.se
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:185
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Public Health - methods - trends
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Neck pain is very common but the occurrence of bothersome neck pain is not well described. Therefore our objective was to report on the prevalence and incidence of, as well as the rate of recovery from, bothersome neck pain in men and women of different ages in the general population.
We used data from a recently conducted population-based cohort study, comprising 23,794 individuals in Stockholm County, Sweden. Study participants were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire in 2002/2003 and 2007, and information on episodes of neck pain was gathered at baseline and at follow-up. We then measured bothersome neck pain in 2005 and 2006 retrospectively in 2007 using the follow-up questionnaire.
The one-year prevalence of bothersome neck pain for at least seven consecutive days was 25% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24-25) among women and 16% (95% CI: 15-16) among men, peaking in individuals aged 30-59 years. The one-year incidence proportion of bothersome neck pain was 7% (95% CI: 6-7) among women, and 4% (95% CI: 4-5) among men. Women recovered more infrequently than men. The one-year incidence proportion of recovery (of at least one year duration) was 11% (95% CI: 10-12) among women and 14% (95% CI: 12-16) among men.
Bothersome neck pain is most common in middle-aged individuals. Women are more likely than men to have and to develop bothersome neck pain, and less likely to recover from such pain. Younger men and women have a higher incidence, but recover more often from bothersome neck pain than older individuals.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23006655 View in PubMed
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Age- and sex-specific relative thyroid radiation exposure to 131I in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32325
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):242-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
W F Heidenreich
I. Kayro
M. Chepurny
P. Jacob
V. Spak
G M Goulko
H G Paretzke
Author Affiliation
GSF--Institut für Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Germany. heidenreich@gsf.de
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):242-50
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infant
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Thyroid Gland - metabolism - radionuclide imaging
Ukraine
Abstract
The age- and sex-dependence of the 131I induced count rates is determined for the measurements performed in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident on the thyroids of over 60,000 persons. For this, the individual measurements are scaled in such a way that the mean values over age and sex on one side and the mean values over measurement series on the other side are normalized to one. The resulting distribution of all scaled measurements is roughly log-normal. Half of them lie within a factor 1.6 of the median. 131I induced count rates have a minimum at birth year 1986, about half the value of adults. The maximum count rates with about 30% above adults are reached for males around age 16 y. The count rates are up to about 40% (at age 14-17 y) higher for males than for females. The results are within statistical uncertainties independent of the geographical area and the urban or rural nature of the settlements. Starting from the relative count rates, the age- and sex-dependence is calculated for the thyroid activities 1 mo after the accident for the integrated activities and for the doses. The dose of young children is a factor of about 6.5 higher than that of adults. Uncertainties are estimated throughout.
PubMed ID
11219536 View in PubMed
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Age, gender, and urban-rural differences in the correlates of physical activity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177461
Source
Prev Med. 2004 Dec;39(6):1115-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Ronald C Plotnikoff
Alain Mayhew
Nicholas Birkett
Constantinos A Loucaides
George Fodor
Author Affiliation
Center for Health Promotion Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2T4. ron.plotnikoff@ualberta.ca
Source
Prev Med. 2004 Dec;39(6):1115-25
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Canada
Exercise - physiology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Marital status
Middle Aged
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The majority of the population is inactive, and strategies to date for promoting regular physical activity have been limited in their effectiveness. Further research is needed to identify correlates of physical activity in different subgroups to design more efficacious interventions. This study sought to identify correlates of physical activity across men and women, urban and rural geographical locations, and four distinct age groups (18-25; 26-45; 46-59; and 60+).
This study employed data from a large provincial household random sample (N = 20,606) of Canadians. Analyses were utilized to examine the amount of variance explained in self-reported physical activity by a number of demographic and/or biological, psychological, behavioral, social, and environmental variables within each subgroup.
Proportion of friends who exercise, injury from past physical activity, educational level, perceived health status, and alcohol consumption were among the strongest correlates across subgroups.
A number of correlates were identified as being significant across all subgroups examined. Most differences in the correlates of physical activity were found within different age groups rather than among urban and rural residents and gender.
PubMed ID
15539045 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism--North America and Asia. A comparison of population surveys with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229351
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Apr;47(4):313-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1990
Author
J E Helzer
G J Canino
E K Yeh
R C Bland
C K Lee
H G Hwu
S. Newman
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110.
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Apr;47(4):313-9
Date
Apr-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alberta
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Comorbidity
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Korea
Male
Middle Aged
Missouri
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Puerto Rico
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Taiwan
Abstract
The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) is a highly structured instrument that enables lay examiners to gather the clinical information necessary to generate psychiatric disorders according to the DSM-III, Feighner, and Research Diagnostic Criteria. It was developed originally as the diagnostic interview for the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) survey. Because it adheres to DSM-III and can be used by lay interviewers, thus making it practical for studies involving large samples, it has been used for other population surveys in North and South America, Europe, and Asia. This investigation compares the epidemiology of DSM-III-defined alcohol abuse and addiction in DIS-based population surveys cross-nationally (in St Louis, Mo; Edmonton, Canada; Puerto Rico; Taipei City, Taiwan; and South Korea). We found considerable variation in the lifetime prevalence of alcoholism but a similarity in the age of onset, the symptomatic expression, and the associated risk factors. We also found an inverse correlation between the prevalence of alcoholism and the strength of the association of the risk factors we examined. The work described herein demonstrates the utility of consistent definition and method in cross-cultural psychiatric research. The substantive findings have implications for the definition of alcoholism and for a better understanding of genetic and environmental interactions in its etiology.
PubMed ID
2322082 View in PubMed
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Ambient sulphur dioxide exposure and emergency department visits for migraine in Vancouver, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151800
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2009;22(1):7-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
Brian H Rowe
Gilaad G Kaplan
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. mietek_szyszkowicz@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2009;22(1):7-12
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Migraine Disorders - chemically induced
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sulfur Dioxide - toxicity
Young Adult
Abstract
Ambient exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) has been previously associated with emergency department (ED) visits for migraine headaches. In the present study, the objective was to examine the relationship between ED visits for migraine and ambient sulphur dioxide concentrations.
This was a time-series study of 1059 ED visits for migraine (ICD-9: 346) recorded at a Vancouver hospital between 1999 and 2003 (1 520 days). Air pollution levels of SO2 were measured by fixed-site monitoring stations. The generalized linear mixed models technique was applied to regress daily counts of ED visits for migraine on the levels of the pollutant after adjusting for meteorological conditions: temperature and relative humidity. The analysis was stratified by season and gender.
Positive and statistically significant correlations were observed for SO2 exposure and ED visits for migraine for females during colder months (October-March). The percentage increase in daily visits was 16.8% (95% CI: 1.2-34.8) for a 4-day average (of daily mean concentrations) SO2 level, for an interquartile range (IQR) increase of 1.9 ppb.
Our findings provide additional support for a consistent correlation between migraine headache and air pollution (SO2).
PubMed ID
19329386 View in PubMed
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An epidemiological study of bicycle-related injuries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34286
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1997 May;29(3):363-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
E. Eilert-Petersson
L. Schelp
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Science, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1997 May;29(3):363-72
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Bicycling - injuries
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to describe bicycle-related injuries in relation to injury patterns, age, gender and medical treatment in a defined Swedish population and to identify factors contributing to injury. The study group comprised all patients living in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, visiting a physician or dentist because of bicycle-related injury during one year (November 1989-October 1990). Cyclists were mostly injured on pavements, pedestrian malls and cycle tracks. Twenty percent of the events occurred on public roads in urban areas; most frequently, the injured were in the age range 0-24. The most common bicycle injury event involved no other party. The events were often caused by environmental factors, in combination with behaviour such as excessive speed, lack of attention, breach of traffic regulations or a co-ordination problem. Head injuries, including oral injuries, were the most common, in particular among children and adolescents. One in four children in the age range 0-9 sustained an oral injury.
PubMed ID
9183474 View in PubMed
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An exploratory spatial analysis of pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations in Ontario by age and gender.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168434
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Feb;135(2):253-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
E J Crighton
S J Elliott
R. Moineddin
P. Kanaroglou
R E G Upshur
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Environmental Studies Program, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. eric.crighton@uottawa.ca
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Feb;135(2):253-61
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza, Human - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Pneumonia - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Retrospective Studies
Sex Factors
Abstract
Pneumonia and influenza represent a significant public health burden in Canada and abroad. Knowledge of how this burden varies geographically provides clues to understanding the determinants of these illnesses, and insight into the effective management of health-care resources. We conducted a retrospective, population-based, ecological-level study to assess age- and gender-specific spatial patterns of pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations in the province of Ontario, Canada from 1992 to 2001. Results revealed marked variability in hospitalization rates by age, as well as clear and statistically significant patterns of high rates in northern rural counties and low rates in southern urban counties. A moderate yet significant level of positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I=0.21, P
Notes
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PubMed ID
16824252 View in PubMed
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An exploratory study of individual and environmental correlates of fear of falling among community-dwelling seniors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149853
Source
J Aging Health. 2009 Sep;21(6):881-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Johanne Filiatrault
Johanne Desrosiers
Lise Trottier
Author Affiliation
School of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7. johanne.filiatrault@umontreal.ca
Source
J Aging Health. 2009 Sep;21(6):881-94
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidental Falls
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Environment
Fear
Female
Geriatric Assessment
Health Services Accessibility
Health Surveys
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Rural Population
Sex Factors
Social Support
Urban Population
Abstract
Objectives. The objective of this study was to identify individual and environmental correlates of fear of falling among community-dwelling seniors. Method. The study sample involved 288 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older going through the normal aging process. Fear of falling and a series of individual and environmental characteristics were measured with a questionnaire during home interviews. Results. Multivariate logistic regression procedures showed that the strongest correlates of fear of falling are gender, support from a spouse or partner, and residential area. Being a female as well as living in a smaller city or rural area were shown to be risk factors for fear of falling, whereas the availability of support from a spouse or partner was a protective factor. Discussion. Findings from this study suggest that researchers should adopt an ecological perspective to understanding the phenomenon of fear of falling among seniors and collect data on a broader range of individual and environmental factors.
PubMed ID
19581425 View in PubMed
Less detail

An integrated exploration into the social and environmental determinants of health: the Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit (SPHERU).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189501
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2002;23(2):71-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Ronald Labonte
Nazeem Muhajarine
Sylvia Abonyi
Georgia Bell Woodard
Bonnie Jeffery
George Maslany
Michael McCubbin
Allison Williams
Author Affiliation
Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchwan, Canada S7N 5E5. ronald.labonte@usask.ca
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2002;23(2):71-6
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environment
Ethnic Groups
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Research - economics - organization & administration
Research Design
Saskatchewan
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Universities - organization & administration
Abstract
The Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit (SPHERU) is a new interdisciplinary research institute established by the Universities of Saskatchewan and Regina. SPHERU developed four of its research programs using a hierarchic model of health determining conditions and contexts. In descending order these programs include: Economic and Environmental Globalization, Governance and Health Community/Environment as a Health Determinant Multiple Roles, Gender and Health Determinants of Healthy Childhood Development A fifth program researching the determinants of health of indigenous peoples spans all four levels. Two research projects, one on power, control and health, and another on community capacity building approaches to human service programs, assist SPHERU in developing the theoretical linkages between its programs. This article describes SPHERU's research model and the Unit's approach to research and summarizes each of its current research programs and projects.
PubMed ID
12095458 View in PubMed
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An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123494
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;22(5):476-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Erik Lampa
Lars Lind
Anna Bornefalk Hermansson
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
P Monica Lind
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. erik.lampa@medsci.uu.se
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;22(5):476-82
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Benzhydryl Compounds
Biological Markers - blood
Child
Chlorine Compounds - blood
Cluster analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Pesticides - blood
Phenols - blood
Phthalic Acids - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Principal Component Analysis
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (=6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (=6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.
PubMed ID
22692364 View in PubMed
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Annoyance and disturbance of daily activities from road traffic noise in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158995
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):784-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
David S Michaud
Stephen E Keith
Dale McMurchy
Author Affiliation
Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. dmichaud@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):784-92
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attitude
Canada - epidemiology
Dyssomnias - etiology - psychology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Loudness Perception
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects
Psychoacoustics
Questionnaires
Sampling Studies
Sex Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology
Time Factors
Abstract
This study evaluated road traffic noise annoyance in Canada in relation to activity interference, subject concerns about noise and self-reported distance to a major road. Random digit dialing was employed to survey a representative sample of 2565 Canadians 15 years of age and older. Respondents highly annoyed by traffic noise were significantly more likely to perceive annoyance to negatively impact health, live closer to a heavily traveled road and report that traffic noise often interfered with daily activities. Sex, age, education level, community size and province had statistically significant associations with traffic noise annoyance. High noise annoyance consistently correlated with frequent interference of activities. Reducing noise at night (10 pm-7 am) was more important than during the rest of the day.
PubMed ID
18247883 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between ambient temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospitalisations in Gothenburg, Sweden: 1985-2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114137
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62059
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Janine Wichmann
Annika Rosengren
Karin Sjöberg
Lars Barregard
Gerd Sallsten
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, Gothenborg, Sweden. gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62059
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution
Female
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Hospital Mortality
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology - history
Patient Admission
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Young Adult
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally and evidence is steadily increasing on the role of non-traditional risk factors such as meteorology and air pollution. Nevertheless, many research gaps remain, such as the association between these non-traditional risk factors and subtypes of CVD, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and AMI hospitalisations using a case-crossover design in Gothenburg, Sweden (1985-2010). A secondary analysis was also performed for out-of-hospital ischemic heart disease (IHD) deaths. Susceptible groups by age and sex were explored. The entire year as well as the warm (April-September) and cold periods (October-March) were considered. In total 28,215 AMI hospitalisations (of 22,475 people) and 21,082 out-of-hospital IHD deaths occurred during the 26-year study period. A linear exposure-response corresponding to a 3% and 7% decrease in AMI hospitalisations was observed for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in the 2-day cumulative average of temperature during the entire year (11°C) and the warm period (6°C), respectively, with and without adjustment for PM10, NO2, NOx or O3. No heat waves occurred during the warm period. No evidence of an association in the cold period nor any association between temperature and IHD deaths in the entire year, warm or cold periods--with and without adjusting for PM10, NO2, NOx or O3 was found. No susceptible groups, based on age or sex, were identified either. The inverse association between temperature and AMI hospitalisations (entire year and warm period) in Gothenburg is in accordance with the majority of the few other studies that investigated this subtype of CVD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23646115 View in PubMed
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The association between endotoxin and lung function among children and adolescents living in a rural area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128591
Source
Can Respir J. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):e89-94
Publication Type
Article
Author
Joshua A Lawson
James A Dosman
Donna C Rennie
Jeremy Beach
Stephen C Newman
Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. josh.lawson@usask.ca
Source
Can Respir J. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):e89-94
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cotinine - analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Rural Health
Saliva - chemistry
Saskatchewan
Sex Factors
Spirometry
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Vital Capacity
Abstract
BACKGROUND/
Knowledge of the effects of domestic endotoxin on children's lung function is limited. The association between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze and lung function among school-age children (six to 18 years of age) was examined. The interaction between endotoxin and other personal and environmental characteristics and lung function was also assessed.
A case-control study was conducted in and around the rural community of Humboldt, Saskatchewan, between 2005 and 2007. Parents of cases reported either doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the previous year. Controls were randomly selected from those not reporting these conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and conditions, while spirometry was used to measure lung function including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Dust collected from the child's play area floor and the child's mattress was used to quantify endotoxin, and saliva was collected to quantify cotinine levels and assess tobacco smoke exposure.
There were 102 cases and 207 controls included in the present study. Lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with higher mattress endotoxin load among female cases (beta=-0.25, SE=0.07 [P
Notes
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PubMed ID
22187693 View in PubMed
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The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135934
Source
Environ Health Prev Med. 2012 Jan;17(1):2-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Sine Skovbjerg
Alice Rasmussen
Robert Zachariae
Lone Schmidt
Rikke Lund
Jesper Elberling
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermato-Allergology, The Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Ledreborg Alle 40, 2, 2820, Gentofte, Denmark. sinsko01@geh.regionh.dk
Source
Environ Health Prev Med. 2012 Jan;17(1):2-9
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Principal Component Analysis
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Factors
Social Support
Somatoform Disorders - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether other risk factors influence this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events.
Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from the study have been published previously in this journal. The study included participants from a general population-based study who had reported symptoms of chemical sensitivities (n = 787) and two patient groups. The first patient group (n = 101) included individuals who had contacted the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, and the second included individuals who had been diagnosed with environmental intolerance (n = 136). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted with four IEI-related domains, i.e., mucosal and CNS symptoms, chemical intolerances and social consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables.
Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for major life events and social support.
The results suggest that the association between IEI and psychological distress cannot be explained by known risk factors. More studies, including longitudinal studies, are needed to determine the role of psychological distress in the development and course of IEI.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21431806 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between job characteristics and plasma fibrinogen in a normal working population: a cross sectional analysis in referents of the SHEEP Study. Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54225
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Jun;53(6):348-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
A. Tsutsumi
T. Theorell
J. Hallqvist
C. Reuterwall
U. de Faire
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Japan.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Jun;53(6):348-54
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Employment - psychology
Female
Fibrinogen - analysis
Humans
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Social Class
Stress - blood
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between job characteristics and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. DESIGN: Cross sectional design. SETTING: The Greater Stockholm area. SUBJECTS: A total of 1018 men and 490 women aged 45-70 who were randomly selected from the general population during 1992-1994. They were all employed and had no history of myocardial infarction. MAIN RESULTS: The self reported job characteristics were measured by a Swedish version of the Karasek demand-control questionnaire. For inferred scoring of job characteristics, psychosocial exposure categories (job control and psychological demands) were assigned by linking each subject's occupational history with a work organisation exposure matrix. Job strain was defined as the ratio between demands and control. In univariate analyses, expected linear trends were found in three of four tests of association between high plasma fibrinogen and low control (the self reported score for women and the inferred score for both sexes), in one of four tests of association between high plasma fibrinogen and high demands (the inferred score for women) and in two of four tests of association between high plasma fibrinogen and job strain (the inferred score for both sexes). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that men in the inferred job strain group have an increased risk of falling into the increased plasma fibrinogen concentration group (above median level of the distribution) (odds ratio (OR) 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) after adjustment for the variables that were associated with plasma fibrinogen in the univariate analyses. In women, low self reported control, high inferred demand, and inferred job strain were significantly associated with increased plasma fibrinogen concentration (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0, 1.8, OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0, 2.2, OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that adverse job characteristics may be related to plasma fibrinogen concentrations and this relation is more relevant in female workers. The clearest evidence for psychosocial effects on plasma fibrinogen seems to be with job control and the associations are clearer for the objective than for the self report variables.
PubMed ID
10396481 View in PubMed
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