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The 20th century Danish facial cleft population--epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33384
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1999
Author
K. Christensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology, Odense University, Denmark. k-christensen@win-chs.ou.dk
Source
Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Mar;36(2):96-104
Date
Mar-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cleft Lip - epidemiology - genetics
Cleft Palate - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Epidemiology, Molecular
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Twin Studies
Variation (Genetics)
Abstract
Since Dr. Fogh-Andersen's legendary 1942 thesis, the Danish facial cleft population has been one of the most extensively studied in terms of epidemiology and genetic-epidemiology. The etiology of cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is still largely an enigma, and different results concerning environmental and genetic risk factors are obtained in different countries and regions. This may be due to etiological heterogeneity between settings. Therefore, an in-depth studied area with an ethnically homogeneous population, such as Denmark, has provided one of the best opportunities for progress in CLP etiological research. The present review summarizes epidemiological and genetic-epidemiological studies conducted in the 20th century Danish facial cleft population. Furthermore, analyses of sex differences, time trends and seasonality for more than 7000 CLP cases born in Denmark in the period 1936 to 1987 are presented. The review also points toward the excellent opportunities for continued etiological CLP research in Denmark in the 21st century using already established resources and an on-going prospective cohort study of 100,000 pregnant women.
PubMed ID
10213053 View in PubMed
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137Cs concentration among children in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident: Mogilev and Gomel oblasts, Belarus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35663
Source
Health Phys. 1994 Sep;67(3):272-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
M. Hoshi
Y. Shibata
S. Okajima
T. Takatsuji
S. Yamashita
H. Namba
N. Yokoyama
M. Izumi
S. Nagataki
K. Fujimura
Author Affiliation
Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University, Japan.
Source
Health Phys. 1994 Sep;67(3):272-5
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Adolescent
Cesium Radioisotopes - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Nuclear Reactors
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ukraine
Whole-Body Counting
Abstract
The level of radiation exposure in children in Belarus caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body 137Cs count. The subjects were 10,062 children (4,762 boys and 5,300 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel, Belarus, who received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project health examinations from May 1991 to December 1992 and who were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body 137Cs count per body weight varied from 21-48 Bq kg-1 and from 28-126 Bq kg-1 in Mogilev oblast and Gomel oblast, respectively. (The "oblast" is the largest administrative district constituting the country. Belarus consists of 6 oblasts). Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y-1, but the observed levels in the children were considerably higher than the average level of 2.3 Bq kg-1 reported in the past for the former Soviet Union.
Notes
Comment In: Health Phys. 1995 May;68(5):733-57730075
PubMed ID
8056594 View in PubMed
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Absence of an environmental effect on the recurrence of facial-cleft defects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35236
Source
N Engl J Med. 1995 Jul 20;333(3):161-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-20-1995
Author
K. Christensen
M M Schmidt
M. Vaeth
J. Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Epidemiology Science Center research unit, Steno Institute of Public Health, Aarhus.
Source
N Engl J Med. 1995 Jul 20;333(3):161-4
Date
Jul-20-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cleft Lip - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Cleft Palate - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Paternity
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND. The rate of recurrence of a broad range of birth defects may decrease among women who change residence after the birth of their first infant. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of changing residence on the recurrence of congenital facial-cleft defects. METHODS. We identified 4189 women who had infants with facial-cleft defects by linking a data base comprising the records of children with facial clefts born between 1952 and 1987 with the Central Person Registry in Denmark. Among the 4189 mothers, 1902 each had additional children after the first child with a facial-cleft defect. A total of 2692 younger siblings were identified. We compared the proportion of infants with facial-cleft defects among the younger siblings between mothers who had changed municipalities or sexual partners and those who had not. RESULTS. Changing the municipality of residence did not decrease the frequency with which facial-cleft defects recurred in younger siblings. Among the 907 infants of mothers who changed municipalities but not partners, 29 (3.2 percent) had facial-cleft defects, as compared with 48 (3.4 percent) of 1425 infants of mothers who changed neither municipality nor partner (relative risk, 0.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.5). However, a change of partner reduced the recurrence risk significantly. Among 236 infants of mothers who changed partners, 1 (0.4 percent) had a facial-cleft defect, as compared with 77 (3.3 percent) of 2350 infants of mothers who did not change partners (relative risk, 0.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.9). CONCLUSIONS. Recurrence of facial-cleft defects is not linked to the residence of the mother, but having a different partner reduced a woman's risk of having a second child with this defect.
PubMed ID
7791818 View in PubMed
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According to need? Predicting the amount of municipal home help allocated to elderly recipients in an urban area of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51849
Source
Health Soc Care Community. 2005 Jul;13(4):366-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Bettina Meinow
Ingemar Kåreholt
Mårten Lagergren
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. bettina.meinow@neurotec.ki.se
Source
Health Soc Care Community. 2005 Jul;13(4):366-77
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Health Policy
Health services needs and demand
Home Care Services - utilization
Humans
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
State Medicine
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
Given the cutbacks which have been carried out in the Swedish welfare state despite the unchanged official policy of allocation of home help services according to needs, it is essential to evaluate the factors which guide the allocation of home help today. Whereas numerous studies have identified factors which predict entry into the home help system, the present paper concentrates on predictors of the amount of home help amongst those allocated assistance. Data were obtained from the population-based care and services section of the 2002 Swedish National Study of Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). All home help recipients (> or = 65 years of age) living in an inner city district of Stockholm (Kungsholmen) were analysed with ordinary least squares regressions to identify predictors of the number of hours of home help (n = 943). Need indicators, i.e. dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), and cognitive impairment (Berger scale) were the strongest predictors of more hours of home help. The addition of sociodemographic (i.e. age, gender and income), environmental (i.e. informal care, housing adaptations and housing accessibility) and structural (i.e. variations in allocation decisions between one care manager and another) factors contributed only marginally to the explained variance. Hours of help entitlement increased slightly with greater age. Co-residing individuals were allocated significantly fewer home help hours than those living alone. Income and regular access to informal care were not significant predictors. The fact that services are provided according to need criteria does not necessarily mean that the provided services are adequate to meet needs. On the macro level, social policy decisions and available economic and manpower resources determine the allotment of municipal home help. However, this study in an urban sample suggests that, within the available resources, the amount of home help allocated is guided mainly by need indicators amongst those given assistance.
PubMed ID
15969708 View in PubMed
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Accumulation patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Steller's sea eagles and white-tailed sea eagles, threatened species, in Hokkaido, Japan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71695
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002 Apr;21(4):842-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
Kentaro Q Sakamoto
Tatsuya Kunisue
Mafumi Watanabe
Yasushi Masuda
Hisato Iwata
Shinsuke Tanabe
Fumiaki Akahori
Mayumi Ishizuka
Akio Kazusaka
Shoichi Fujita
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002 Apr;21(4):842-7
Date
Apr-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - pharmacokinetics
Female
Insecticides - pharmacokinetics
Male
Movement
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - pharmacokinetics
Raptors
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including coplanar congeners, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, chlordane-related compounds, and hexachlorobenzene, were found in the breast muscle of Steller's sea eagles (SSE) and white-tailed sea eagles (WSE) threatened species, collected in Hokkaido, Japan, during the two years from 1998 to 1999. Both PCBs and DDTs were the most notable compounds, with concentrations one to two orders of magnitude higher than the other compounds, that is, from 120 to 39,000 and from 68 to 15,000 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Non-ortho (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] 77, 126, and 169) and mono-ortho (IUPAC 105, 118, and 156)-substituted coplanar PCB congeners amounted to 9.2 to 740 pg/g of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents derived from the World Health Organization, Paris, France (WHO), toxic equivalent factors. The atmospheric PCBs and DDTs in eastern Siberian cities, such as Khabarovsk and Magadan, have been reported to be much higher than Hokkaido and the North Pacific. Thus, we speculated that the eagles might have been contaminated in these areas, where they spend most of the year except winter, which they spend in eastern Siberia. Adult eagles accumulated more PCBs and DDTs than younger ones. The patterns of PCB congeners were also found to change, depending on the age of the eagle examined; adult eagles showed relatively higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs thanjuvenile eagles did. This difference would be related to the efficiency of the excretion and the metabolism of each PCB congener in the eagles.
PubMed ID
11951960 View in PubMed
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Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15434
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2001
Author
R W Atkinson
H R Anderson
J. Sunyer
J. Ayres
M. Baccini
J M Vonk
A. Boumghar
F. Forastiere
B. Forsberg
G. Touloumi
J. Schwartz
K. Katsouyanni
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom. atkinson@sghms.ac.uk
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 1):1860-6
Date
Nov-15-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
England - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Italy - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Netherlands - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Particle Size
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data - trends
Population Surveillance
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - etiology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seasons
Spain - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data - trends
Weather
Abstract
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and all-respiratory disease (65+ yr) controlling for environmental factors and temporal patterns were investigated. Summary PM(10) effect estimates (percentage change in mean number of daily admissions per 10 microg/m(3) increase) were asthma (0-14 yr) 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2, 2.3), asthma (15-64 yr) 1.1% (0.3, 1.8), and COPD plus asthma and all-respiratory (65+ yr) 1.0% (0.4, 1.5) and 0.9% (0.6, 1.3). The combined estimates for Black Smoke tended to be smaller and less precisely estimated than for PM(10). Variability in the sizes of the PM(10) effect estimates between cities was also investigated. In the 65+ groups PM(10) estimates were positively associated with annual mean concentrations of ozone in the cities. For asthma admissions (0-14 yr) a number of city-specific factors, including smoking prevalence, explained some of their variability. This study confirms that particle concentrations in European cities are positively associated with increased numbers of admissions for respiratory diseases and that some of the variation in PM(10) effect estimates between cities can be explained by city characteristics.
PubMed ID
11734437 View in PubMed
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Acute health effects common during graffiti removal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50823
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001 Apr;74(3):213-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Author
S. Langworth
H. Anundi
L. Friis
G. Johanson
M L Lind
E. Söderman
B A Akesson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden. sven.langworth@pharmacia.com
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001 Apr;74(3):213-8
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - analysis
Analysis of Variance
Case-Control Studies
Chi-Square Distribution
Data Collection - methods
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Irritants - adverse effects - analysis
Male
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupations
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Solvents - adverse effects - analysis
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify possible health effects caused by different cleaning agents used in graffiti removal. METHODS: In 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed by active air sampling, biological monitoring, and by interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered, by physical examinations, porta7ble spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots, and with 177 population controls. RESULTS: The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were low, below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. The short-term exposures occasionally exceeded the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL), especially during work in poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators. The graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of tiredness and upper airway symptoms compared with the depot controls, and significantly more tiredness, headaches and symptoms affecting airways, eyes and skin than the population controls. Among the graffiti removers, some of the symptoms increased during the working day. On a group basis, the lung function registrations showed normal values. However, seven workers displayed a clear reduction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) over the working shift. CONCLUSIONS: Though their average exposure to organic solvents was low, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of unspecific symptoms such as fatigue and headache as well as irritative symptoms from the eyes and respiratory tract, compared with the controls. To prevent adverse health effects it is important to inform the workers about the health risks, and to restrict use of the most hazardous chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working practices and to encourage the use of personal protective equipment.
PubMed ID
11355296 View in PubMed
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Acute infections and environmental exposure to organochlorines in Inuit infants from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4455
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Carole Vézina
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Center, 945 Wolfe Street, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - poisoning
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - poisoning
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - poisoning
Inuits
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - poisoning
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
PubMed ID
15471725 View in PubMed
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Acute myeloid leukemia and clonal chromosome aberrations in relation to past exposure to organic solvents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20007
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000 Dec;26(6):482-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
M. Albin
J. Björk
H. Welinder
H. Tinnerberg
N. Mauritzson
B. Johansson
R. Billström
U. Strömberg
Z. Mikoczy
T. Ahlgren
P G Nilsson
F. Mitelman
L. Hagmar
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Sweden. maria.albin@ymed.lu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000 Dec;26(6):482-91
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Chromosome Aberrations
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Leukemia, Myeloid - chemically induced - epidemiology - genetics
Occupational Exposure
Organic Chemicals - adverse effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Solvents - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The effects of occupational and leisure-time exposures on the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were investigated with emphasis on clonal chromosome aberrations (CCA) and morphological subtypes. METHODS: Consecutively diagnosed cases of AML (N=333) and 1 population referent per case were retrospectively included in the study. Information on worktasks, companies, and leisure-time activities was obtained with telephone interviews. Exposure probability and intensity were assessed by occupational hygienists. Associations were evaluated with logistic regression. RESULTS: Exposure to organic solvents was associated with an increased risk of AML [low exposure: OR 1.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-2.3, moderate-high exposure: OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.0-5.0)]. For exposure to solvents, but not to benzene, the OR was 1.2 (95% CI 0.69-2.0) for "low" and 2.7 (95% CI 1.0-7.3) for "moderate-high" exposure. The observed effects increased with intensity and duration of exposure. The estimated effects were higher for patients >60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. The effect of exposure to organic solvents was not differential with regard to morphology [except possibly erythroleukemia: OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.0-17 or the presence of CCA in general]. No increased risk for AML with complex CCA or with total or partial losses of chromosomes 5 or 7 were observed, but a higher risk was found for AML with trisomy 8 (OR 11, 95% CI 2.7-42) as the sole aberration. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to organic solvents was associated with an increased risk of AML. This association was not due to benzene exposure alone and may be modified by age. Furthermore, specific associations with trisomy 8, and possibly also erythroleukemia, were suggested.
PubMed ID
11201395 View in PubMed
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Acute otitis media and sociomedical risk factors among unselected children in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3493
Source
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Jun 15;49(1):37-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-1999
Author
P. Homøe
R B Christensen
P. Bretlau
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. rh03259@rh.dk
Source
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Jun 15;49(1):37-52
Date
Jun-15-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Social Environment
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociomedical risk factors associated with episodes of acute otitis media (AOM), recurrent AOM (rAOM), and chronic otitis media (COM) in Greenlandic children and especially to point out children at high risk of rAOM (defined as > 5 AOM episodes since birth) and COM which are prevalent among Inuit children all over the Arctic. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and included 740 unselected children, 3, 4, 5, and 8-years-old, living in two major Greenlandic towns, Nuuk and Sisimiut. All children were otologically examined and the parents answered a questionnaire containing sociomedical variables including ethnicity, family history of OM, housing, insulation, crowding, daycare, passive cigarette smoking, breast feeding, type of diet, allergy, and chronic diseases. Historical data were cross-checked in medical records which also formed the basis for the drop-out analyses. Statistical analyses included frequency tests, calculation of odds ratio (OR), and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The attendance rate was 86%. Former episode of AOM was reported by 2/3 of the children, rAOM by 20%, and COM by 9%. The following variables were found significantly more often in children with AOM by simple frequency testing: Parental (OR = 1.83), sibling (OR = 1.62), and parental plus sibling (OR = 2.56) history of OM, crowding (OR = 5.55), long period of exclusive breast feeding ( > 4 months) (OR = 2.47), and recent acute disease (P = 0.034). The following variables were found significantly more often in children with rAOM or COM by simple frequency testing: Parental history of OM (OR = 1.60; OR = 2.11, respectively) and no recall of breast feeding (P = 0.005; P = 0.003, respectively). Also, COM was found significantly more often in children with two Greenlandic parents (OR = 3.07). A multiple logistic regression test denoted only parental history of OM (OR = 1.82) and long period of exclusive breast feeding (OR = 1.14) as significant predictors of AOM. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the risk factors usually associated with AOM could not be confirmed as risk factors in this survey. Parental history of OM and long period of exclusive breast feeding were the strongest factors associated with AOM in Greenlandic children and ethnicity was associated with COM. However, the study confirms that AOM is a multifactorial disease determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors.
PubMed ID
10428404 View in PubMed
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Adipose organochlorine concentrations and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17245
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):67-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Marian Pavuk
Alain Leblanc
Pierre Dumas
Jean Philippe Weber
Anja Olsen
Anne Tjønneland
Kim Overvad
Jørgen H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):67-74
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Postmenopause
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to environmental organochlorines has been examined as a potential risk factor for human breast cancer with mixed results. Our purpose was to examine associations between organochlorines and the development of breast cancer in a large prospective study using stored adipose tissue. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 409 postmenopausal women who developed breast cancer and 409 controls selected from the 29,875 women enrolled in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. We measured concentrations of 14 pesticides and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, collected upon enrollment, and estimated relative risk (RR) of breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The results showed no higher risk of breast cancer among women with higher levels of any pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls; the RR associated with the upper quartile of 1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene concentration was 0.7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.5-1.2] contrasting the lower quartile, and for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls the similar risk was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.7). We observed a pattern of substantially lower risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in association with higher levels of most of the pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls; the RR for the higher quartile of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene was 0.1 (95% CI, 0.0-0.5) and for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls it was 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSION: The results do not support that higher organochlorine body levels increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The interpretation of the inverse association for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer is currently unclear.
PubMed ID
15668478 View in PubMed
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Adult-onset asthma and occupational exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15626
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
K. Torén
B. Järvholm
J. Brisman
S. Hagberg
B A Hermansson
L. Lillienberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Kjell.Toren@ymk.gu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - classification
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study examined certain occupational exposures and the risk for adult-onset asthma. METHODS: A nested case-referent study of adult-onset asthma was performed on a random population sample (N=15813), aged 21 to 51 years. Cases for the study included 2 groups: subjects reporting "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and a broader "asthma" group (N=362). The "asthma" group consisted of subjects with "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and subjects reporting asthma-like symptoms without having "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=111). The referents (N=2044) were randomly selected from the whole population sample. The case-referent sample was investigated with a comprehensive questionnaire about occupational exposures, asthma, respiratory symptoms, smoking, and atopy. Odds ratios were calculated with stratification for gender, year of diagnosis, and birth year. RESULTS: The highest odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma was associated with exposure to flour dust [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-5.2] and the occupational handling of resin-based paints (isocyanates) (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.9). Exposure to welding fumes, textile dust, and work with glues containing acrylates was also associated with an increased odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma. Including persons with asthma-like symptoms (ie, the asthma group) showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This population-based case-referent study from Sweden indicates that occupational exposure to acrylate-based compounds and welding fumes is associated with increased risk for adult-onset asthma.
PubMed ID
10569463 View in PubMed
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Age and sex differences in genetic and environmental factors for self-rated health: a twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71966
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 May;56(3):S171-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
P. Svedberg
P. Lichtenstein
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Pia.Svedberg@mep.ki.se
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 May;56(3):S171-8
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Attitude to Health
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Mortality
Population Surveillance
Predictive value of tests
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Self-rated health has been shown to be a predictor for future health status and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-group and sex differences in genetic and environmental sources of variation for self-rated health. METHODS: A sample of twins from the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview with assessment of self-rated health. Structural equation model analyses on 1,243 complete twin pairs provided estimates of genetic and environmental components of variance. RESULTS: Individual differences primarily reflected individual specific environmental influences at all ages. The increase in total variance across age groups was primarily due to genetic influences in the age groups 45--74 years and greater environmental influences in the oldest age group (>74). No significant sex differences were found in variance components. DISCUSSION: Genetic variance in the two middle age groups (45--74) could reflect genetic susceptibility to age-dependent illnesses not yet expressed in the youngest group. The findings suggest that it might be more fruitful to explore the origins of individual differences for self-rated health in the context of an individual's age and birth cohort rather than in the context of sex.
PubMed ID
11316842 View in PubMed
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Age- and sex-specific relative thyroid radiation exposure to 131I in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature32325
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):242-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
W F Heidenreich
I. Kayro
M. Chepurny
P. Jacob
V. Spak
G M Goulko
H G Paretzke
Author Affiliation
GSF--Institut für Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Germany. heidenreich@gsf.de
Source
Health Phys. 2001 Mar;80(3):242-50
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infant
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sex Factors
Thyroid Gland - metabolism - radionuclide imaging
Ukraine
Abstract
The age- and sex-dependence of the 131I induced count rates is determined for the measurements performed in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident on the thyroids of over 60,000 persons. For this, the individual measurements are scaled in such a way that the mean values over age and sex on one side and the mean values over measurement series on the other side are normalized to one. The resulting distribution of all scaled measurements is roughly log-normal. Half of them lie within a factor 1.6 of the median. 131I induced count rates have a minimum at birth year 1986, about half the value of adults. The maximum count rates with about 30% above adults are reached for males around age 16 y. The count rates are up to about 40% (at age 14-17 y) higher for males than for females. The results are within statistical uncertainties independent of the geographical area and the urban or rural nature of the settlements. Starting from the relative count rates, the age- and sex-dependence is calculated for the thyroid activities 1 mo after the accident for the integrated activities and for the doses. The dose of young children is a factor of about 6.5 higher than that of adults. Uncertainties are estimated throughout.
PubMed ID
11219536 View in PubMed
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Age and temporal trends of total physical activity in Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49755
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Apr;35(4):617-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Anna Norman
Rino Bellocco
Florin Vaida
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Apr;35(4):617-22
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Occupations
Physical Fitness
Public Health
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Sports
Sweden
Abstract
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Despite a large public health interest in physical activity and its role in obesity and other chronic diseases, only few reports to date have addressed total levels and trends of physical activity. We have studied in a cross-sectional setting with a retrospective recall of physical activity an association of levels of total physical activity and different types of activities with age and with calendar-time. METHODS: In a population-based study of 33,466 men aged 45-79 yr in central Sweden, information on physical activity and other lifestyle factors was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Level of total activity at ages 15, 30, and 50 yr was assessed quantitatively, based on six questions on different activities: work/occupation, housework, walking/bicycling, exercise, inactive leisure time, and sleeping. The physical activity levels were measured as metabolic equivalents, MET-hours per days. RESULTS: Total daily physical activity decreased at age 30 yr (-1.6%, 95% CI: -1.7, -1.4) and at age 50 yr (-3.9%, 95% CI: -4.0, -3.7) compared with age 15 yr. Total physical activity decreased over a period of 60 yr in all three separate age groups (-9.1% among 15-yr-olds, 95% CI: -9.8, -8.5; -2.3% among 30-yr-olds 95% CI: -3.0, -1.6; and -2.9% among 50-yr-olds, 95% CI: -3.4, -2.5). CONCLUSION: These negative trends in physical activity observed by age and with time might explain the trends in increasing prevalence of obesity.
PubMed ID
12673145 View in PubMed
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Age at first experience of intercourse among Norwegian adolescents: a lifestyle perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12090
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(2):207-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
P. Kraft
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(2):207-13
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Coitus
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Incidence
Interpersonal Relations
Life Style
Male
Norway
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sexual Behavior
Smoking - epidemiology
Social Behavior
Social Values
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Age at first intercourse among Norwegian adolescents was studied by means of survival analysis. The data stemmed from a nation-wide survey of 3000 Norwegian adolescents aged 17-19, yielding a response rate of 61.8%. Median age at first intercourse was 17.3 years among girls and 18.0 years among boys. By means of Cox regression analysis associations between age at onset of intercourse and some correlates were estimated. Age at first intercourse was significantly associated with educational aspirations, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, peer affiliation, and frequency of visiting a discotheque. These inter-relationships confirm that age at onset of intercourse comprise an important indicator of the lifestyle of an individual. In order to influence sexual behaviour of adolescents it may thus be appropriate to employ health promotion activities focusing upon environmental and structural factors, as a supplement to traditional methods of sex education.
PubMed ID
1887284 View in PubMed
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Age-related macular degeneration among the Inuit in Greenland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6642
Source
Pages 320-323 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
, and at the Sisi- miut Health Centre during the months of April and May in 2001 . More than 70 % of the invited persons partici- pated in the study. Preliminary genealogical in- vestigations were subsequently performed in the National Eye Clinic for the Visually Impaired. The original fundus
  1 document  
Author
Andersen, N
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, The University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 320-323 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Macular degeneration - epidemiology - ethnology
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Visual impairment
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical appearance and prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland, to investigate risk factors and to initiate the search for possible genetic markers. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study including all individuals older than 60 years of age, born in Greenland and living in the communities of Nuuk and Sisimiut, was performed in 2000 and 2001. METHODS: All participants underwent an ophthalmologic examination, which was complemented by fundus photography and a questionnaire. RESULTS: 689 individuals, or more than 70%, participated in the study. Data are currently being processed. The preliminary data suggest that AMD among the Inuit is characterised by a rather uniform morphology and poor visual outcome. The detection of more cases of AMD in the early and late stages in relation to intermediate stages furthermore indicates a rapid development of AMD among the Inuit. CONCLUSION: The relative homogeneity of the Inuit population of Greenland may represent an opportunity for identifying the aetiological factors responsible for the development of AMD. The future results of this research project will hopefully also contribute towards an increased focus on the growing number of individuals with visual impairment due to AMD among the Inuit.
PubMed ID
15736677 View in PubMed
Documents
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Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72055
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov;73(8):561-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
H. Anundi
S. Langworth
G. Johanson
M L Lind
B. Akesson
L. Friis
N. Itkes
E. Söderman
B A Jönsson
C. Edling
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. helena.anundi@medsci.uu.se
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov;73(8):561-9
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Comparative Study
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Pyrrolidinones - analysis - blood - urine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Solvents - toxicity
Sweden
Teratogens
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures. METHODS: Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews. RESULTS: Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high. CONCLUSIONS: Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the health risks and to restrict the use of the most toxic chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working procedures and to encourage the use of personal protection equipment.
PubMed ID
11100951 View in PubMed
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Air pollution from traffic at the residence of children with cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19980
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):433-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2001
Author
O. Raaschou-Nielsen
O. Hertel
B L Thomsen
J H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):433-43
Date
Mar-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects
Benzene - adverse effects
Brain Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Leukemia - epidemiology - etiology
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Registries
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects
Abstract
The hypothesis that exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases the risk of developing cancer during childhood was investigated. The authors enrolled 1,989 children reported to the Danish Cancer Registry with a diagnosis of leukemia, tumor of the central nervous system, or malignant lymphoma during 1968-1991 and 5,506 control children selected at random from the entire childhood population. The residential histories of the children were traced from 9 months before birth until the time of diagnosis of the cases and a similar period for the controls. For each of the 18,440 identified addresses, information on traffic and the configuration of streets and buildings was collected. Average concentrations of benzene and nitrogen dioxide (indicators of traffic-related air pollution) were calculated for the relevant period, and exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and during childhood were calculated separately. The risks of leukemia, central nervous system tumors, and all selected cancers combined were not linked to exposure to benzene or nitrogen dioxide during either period. The risk of lymphomas increased by 25% (p for trend = 0.06) and 51% (p for trend = 0.05) for a doubling of the concentration of benzene and nitrogen dioxide, respectively, during the pregnancy. The association was restricted to Hodgkin's disease.
PubMed ID
11226975 View in PubMed
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Air pollution levels, meteorological conditions and asthma symptoms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16001
Source
Eur Respir J. 1993 Sep;6(8):1109-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1993
Author
B. Forsberg
N. Stjernberg
M. Falk
B. Lundbäck
S. Wall
Author Affiliation
Dept of Public Health and Environmental Studies, Umeå University, Sweden.
Source
Eur Respir J. 1993 Sep;6(8):1109-15
Date
Sep-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Dyspnea - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Weather
Abstract
We wanted to assess relations between the daily occurrence of asthma symptoms and fluctuations of air pollution concentrations and meteorological conditions. In a panel of 31 asthmatic patients residing in the town of Piteå in northern Sweden, severe symptoms of shortness of breath, wheeze, cough and phlegm were recorded in an asthma diary together with suspected causes. Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, black smoke, relative humidity and temperature were used to evaluate the relationship to the environment. By using multivariate analyses, we found that daily variations in the particulate pollution levels, indicated by black smoke levels below the criteria limits, had significant effects on the risk of developing severe symptoms of shortness of breath. This association was stronger among 10 subjects, who had at least five incident days with severe shortness of breath. Meteorological conditions were not significant in the multivariate models. Cough and phlegm did not show significant relationships to any environmental condition that was evaluated. Only one-third of the subjects reported, at least once during the study, symptoms believed to be related to air pollutants, although we found significant correlations between the pollution levels and the frequency of pollution-related symptoms. We conclude that an association has been established for black smoke as pollutant and shortness of breath as respiratory symptom, and that in certain asthmatics, effects were occurring at lower particulate levels than suggested previously.
PubMed ID
8224125 View in PubMed
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