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Active and passive surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi elucidate the process of Lyme disease risk emergence in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143987
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):909-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Nicholas H Ogden
Catherine Bouchard
Klaus Kurtenbach
Gabriele Margos
L Robbin Lindsay
Louise Trudel
Soulyvane Nguon
François Milord
Author Affiliation
Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada. nicholas_ogden@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):909-14
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Borrelia burgdorferi - classification - genetics
Cluster analysis
Communicable Diseases, Emerging - epidemiology - microbiology
Demography
Genetic Variation
Humans
Ixodes - microbiology
Logistic Models
Lyme Disease - epidemiology - microbiology
Phylogeny
Population Surveillance - methods
Quebec - epidemiology
Rodentia - parasitology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Tick Infestations - epidemiology - veterinary
Abstract
Northward expansion of the tick Ixodes scapularis is driving Lyme disease (LD) emergence in Canada. Information on mechanisms involved is needed to enhance surveillance and identify where LD risk is emerging.
We used passive and active surveillance and phylogeographic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi to investigate LD risk emergence in Quebec.
In active surveillance, we collected ticks from the environment and from captured rodents. B. burgdorferi transmission was detected by serological analysis of rodents and by polymerase chain reaction assays of ticks. Spatiotemporal trends in passive surveillance data assisted interpretation of active surveillance. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of B. burgdorferi in ticks identified likely source locations of B. burgdorferi.
In active surveillance, we found I. scapularis at 55% of sites, and we were more likely to find them at sites with a warmer climate. B. burgdorferi was identified at 13 I. scapularis-positive sites, but infection prevalence in ticks and animal hosts was low. Low infection prevalence in ticks submitted in passive surveillance after 2004-from the tick-positive regions identified in active surveillance-coincided with an exponential increase in tick submissions during this time. MLST analysis suggested recent introduction of B. burgdorferi from the northeastern United States.
These data are consistent with I. scapularis ticks dispersed from the United States by migratory birds, founding populations where the climate is warmest, and then establishment of B. burgdorferi from the United States several years after I. scapularis have established. These observations provide vital information for public health to minimize the impact of LD in Canada.
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):A30520601318
PubMed ID
20421192 View in PubMed
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Adipose organochlorine concentrations and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature17245
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):67-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Marian Pavuk
Alain Leblanc
Pierre Dumas
Jean Philippe Weber
Anja Olsen
Anne Tjønneland
Kim Overvad
Jørgen H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):67-74
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Pesticide Residues - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Postmenopause
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to environmental organochlorines has been examined as a potential risk factor for human breast cancer with mixed results. Our purpose was to examine associations between organochlorines and the development of breast cancer in a large prospective study using stored adipose tissue. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 409 postmenopausal women who developed breast cancer and 409 controls selected from the 29,875 women enrolled in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. We measured concentrations of 14 pesticides and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, collected upon enrollment, and estimated relative risk (RR) of breast cancer using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The results showed no higher risk of breast cancer among women with higher levels of any pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls; the RR associated with the upper quartile of 1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene concentration was 0.7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.5-1.2] contrasting the lower quartile, and for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls the similar risk was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-1.7). We observed a pattern of substantially lower risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in association with higher levels of most of the pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls; the RR for the higher quartile of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene was 0.1 (95% CI, 0.0-0.5) and for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls it was 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSION: The results do not support that higher organochlorine body levels increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The interpretation of the inverse association for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer is currently unclear.
PubMed ID
15668478 View in PubMed
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Adoptive paternal age and risk of psychosis in adoptees: a register based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119810
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47334
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Mats Ek
Susanne Wicks
Cecilia Magnusson
Christina Dalman
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. mats.ek@ki.se
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47334
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption - psychology
Age Factors
Father-Child Relations
Humans
Logistic Models
Psychology
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188). Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".
Notes
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PubMed ID
23071791 View in PubMed
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Adult-onset asthma and occupational exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15626
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
K. Torén
B. Järvholm
J. Brisman
S. Hagberg
B A Hermansson
L. Lillienberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Kjell.Toren@ymk.gu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - classification
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study examined certain occupational exposures and the risk for adult-onset asthma. METHODS: A nested case-referent study of adult-onset asthma was performed on a random population sample (N=15813), aged 21 to 51 years. Cases for the study included 2 groups: subjects reporting "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and a broader "asthma" group (N=362). The "asthma" group consisted of subjects with "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and subjects reporting asthma-like symptoms without having "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=111). The referents (N=2044) were randomly selected from the whole population sample. The case-referent sample was investigated with a comprehensive questionnaire about occupational exposures, asthma, respiratory symptoms, smoking, and atopy. Odds ratios were calculated with stratification for gender, year of diagnosis, and birth year. RESULTS: The highest odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma was associated with exposure to flour dust [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-5.2] and the occupational handling of resin-based paints (isocyanates) (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.9). Exposure to welding fumes, textile dust, and work with glues containing acrylates was also associated with an increased odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma. Including persons with asthma-like symptoms (ie, the asthma group) showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This population-based case-referent study from Sweden indicates that occupational exposure to acrylate-based compounds and welding fumes is associated with increased risk for adult-onset asthma.
PubMed ID
10569463 View in PubMed
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Adverse birth outcomes associated with open dumpsites in Alaska Native Villages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81448
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Sep 15;164(6):518-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2006
Author
Gilbreath Susan
Kass Philip H
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Sep 15;164(6):518-28
Date
Sep-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - epidemiology
Adult
Alaska - epidemiology
Arctic Regions
Birth weight
Chi-Square Distribution
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Fetal Growth Retardation - epidemiology
Gestational Age
Hazardous Waste - adverse effects
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Inuits
Logistic Models
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Refuse Disposal
Retrospective Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study evaluated adverse birth outcomes in infants whose birth records indicated maternal residence in villages containing dumpsites potentially hazardous to health and environment. Birth records from 1997 to 2001 identified 10,073 eligible infants born to mothers in 197 Alaska Native villages. Outcomes included low or very low birth weight, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth retardation. Infants from mothers in villages with intermediate (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.84) and high (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.32) hazard dumpsites had a higher proportion of low birth weight infants than did infants from mothers in the referent category. More infants born to mothers from intermediate (OR = 4.38, 95% CI: 2.20, 8.77) and high (OR = 3.98, 95% CI: 1.93, 8.21) hazard villages suffered from intrauterine growth retardation. On average, infants weighed 36 g less (95% CI: -71.2, -0.8) and 55.4 g less (95% CI: -95.3, -15.6) when born to highly exposed mothers than did infants in the intermediate and low exposure groups, respectively, an effect even larger in births to Alaska Native mothers only. No differences in incidence were detected across exposure levels for other outcomes. This is the first study to evaluate adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with open dumpsites in Alaska Native villages.
PubMed ID
16840520 View in PubMed
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Agroenvironmental determinants associated with the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in beach waters in Quebec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132370
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Sep;58(6):432-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
P. Turgeon
P. Michel
P. Levallois
P. Chevalier
D. Daignault
B. Crago
R. Irwin
S A McEwen
N F Neumann
M. Louie
Author Affiliation
Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada. patricia.turgeon@umontreal.ca
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Sep;58(6):432-9
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Bathing Beaches
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Human Activities
Humans
Lakes - microbiology
Logistic Models
Quebec
Seasons
Time Factors
Water Microbiology
Abstract
Exposure to microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials may constitute a health risk to human populations. It is believed that one route of exposure occurs when people engage in recreational activities in water contaminated with these microorganisms. The main objective of this study was to explore population-level and environmental determinants specifically associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) generic Escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters sampled from beaches located in southern Quebec, Canada. Water samples originated from the Quebec provincial beach surveillance program for the summers of 2004 and 2005. This study focused on three classes of determinants, namely: agricultural, population-level and beach characteristics for a total of 19 specific factors. The study was designed as a retrospective observational analysis and factors were assessed using logistic regression methods. From the multivariable analysis, the data suggested that the percentage of land used for spreading liquid manure was a significant factor associated with the presence of AMR E. coli (OR=27.73). Conceptually, broad factors potentially influencing the presence of AMR bacteria in water must be assessed specifically in addition to factors associated with general microbial contamination. Presence of AMR E. coli in recreational waters from beaches in southern Quebec may represent a risk for people engaging in water activities and this study provides preliminary evidence that agricultural practices, specifically spreading liquid manure in agricultural lands nearby beaches, may be linked to the contamination of these waters by AMR E. coli.
PubMed ID
21824340 View in PubMed
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Air Pollution and Dispensed Medications for Asthma, and Possible Effect Modifiers Related to Mental Health and Socio-Economy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Swedish Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291426
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 11 16; 14(11):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-16-2017
Author
Anna Oudin
Lennart Bråbäck
Daniel Oudin Åström
Bertil Forsberg
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden. anna.oudin@umu.se.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 11 16; 14(11):
Date
11-16-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - drug therapy
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental health
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Odds Ratio
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
It has been suggested that children that are exposed to a stressful environment at home have an increased susceptibility for air pollution-related asthma. The aim here was to investigate the association between air pollution exposure and asthma, and effect modification by mental health and by socio-economic status (as markers of a stressful environment). All individuals under 18 years of age in four Swedish counties during 2007 to 2010 (1.2 million people) were included. The outcome was defined as dispensing at least two asthma medications during follow up. We linked data on NO2 from an empirical land use regression to data from national registers on outcome and potential confounders. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. There was an odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.01-1.03) for asthma associated with a 10 µg·m-3 increase in NO2. The association only seemed to be present in areas where NO2 was higher than 15 µg·m-3 with an OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07-1.12), and the association seemed stronger in children with parents with a high education, OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07) in children to mothers and father with a high education, respectively. The association did not seem to depend on medication history of psychiatric disorders. There was weak evidence for the association between air pollution and asthma to be stronger in neighborhoods with higher education levels. In conclusion, air pollution was associated with dispensed asthma medications, especially in areas with comparatively higher levels of air pollution, and in children to parents with high education. We did not observe support for our hypothesis that stressors linked to socio-economy or mental health problems would increase susceptibility to the effects of air pollution on the development of asthma.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29144419 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and emergency department visits for otitis media: a case-crossover study in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141881
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Nov;118(11):1631-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Roger Zemek
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario and University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Nov;118(11):1631-6
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Alberta
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Child, Preschool
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant
Inhalation Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Odds Ratio
Otitis Media - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - analysis
Risk factors
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Weather
Abstract
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common early childhood infections, resulting in an enormous economic burden to the health care system through unscheduled doctor visits and antibiotic prescriptions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential association between ambient air pollution exposure and emergency department (ED) visits for OM.
Ten years of ED data were obtained from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and linked to levels of air pollution: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter (PM) of median aerometric diameter
Notes
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PubMed ID
20663739 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and respiratory health among children with asthmatic or cough symptoms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207815
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Aug;156(2 Pt 1):546-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
K L Timonen
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Aug;156(2 Pt 1):546-52
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Asthma - diagnosis - etiology
Child
Cough - diagnosis - etiology
Finland
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
Questionnaires
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology
Seasons
Suburban Population - statistics & numerical data
Temperature
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
During the winter of 1994, the association between daily changes in air pollution and in the respiratory health of children 7 to 12 yr of age were studied in Kuopio, Finland. Seventy-four children with asthmatic symptoms and 95 children with cough only, living either in urban or suburban areas, were followed for 3 mo. During the study period, the mean daily concentration of particulate air pollution (PM10) was 18 micrograms/m3 in the urban area and 13 micrograms/m3 in the suburban area. Lagged concentrations of PM10, black smoke, and NO2 were significantly associated with declines in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) among asthmatic children. The regression coefficient (x10) for a 2-d lag of PM10 was -0.911 (SE, 0.386) in the urban and -1.05 (0.596), in the suburban area. Among children with cough only, PM10, black smoke, and NO2 were not significantly associated with PEF. In the urban area, there was a significant association between SO2 and morning and evening PEF and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms among children who cough only. No other associations between air pollution and evening PEF or respiratory symptoms were observed. This study suggests that particulate air pollution is associated with respiratory health, especially among children with asthmatic symptoms.
PubMed ID
9279238 View in PubMed
Less detail

Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents: direct or annoyance-mediated associations?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268820
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:371-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Victoria Blanes-Vidal
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:371-7
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Ammonia - analysis
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Odors - analysis
Self Report
Abstract
Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies have relied on distances to waste sites to assign exposure status, and have not investigated whether the exposure-symptoms associations are direct or mediated by odor annoyance. In this study, individual-level exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non-urban residences (n=454) during 2005-2010 were characterized by data from emission-dispersion validated models. Logistic regression and mediating analyses were used to examine associations between exposures and questionnaire-based data on annoyance and non-specific symptoms, after adjusting by person-specific covariates. Strong dose-response associations were found between exposures and annoyance, and between annoyance and symptoms. Associations between exposures and symptoms (nausea, headache, dizziness, difficulty concentrating and unnatural fatigue) were indirect (annoyance-mediated). This study indicates that environmental exposures play an important role in the genesis of non-specific symptoms among residents exposed to low-to-moderate air pollution from biodegradable wastes, although the effects seem to be indirect, relayed through stress-related mechanisms.
PubMed ID
25192839 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of influential factors associated with the smoking behavior of aboriginal schoolchildren in remote Taiwanese mountainous areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123740
Source
J Sch Health. 2012 Jul;82(7):318-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Hsiao-Ling Huang
Chih-Cheng Hsu
Wu-Der Peng
Yea-Yin Yen
Ted Chen
Chih-Yang Hu
Hon-Yi Shi
Chien-Hung Lee
Fu-Li Chen
Pi-Li Lin
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Hygiene, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan.
Source
J Sch Health. 2012 Jul;82(7):318-27
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Altitude
Confidence Intervals
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Peer Group
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Schools
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Environment
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A disparity in smoking behavior exists between the general and minority populations residing in Taiwan's mountainous areas. This study analyzed individual and environmental factors associated with children's smoking behavior in these areas of Taiwan.
In this school-based study, data on smoking behavior and related factors for mountain-dwelling students were obtained from the 2008 and 2009 Control of School-aged Children Smoking Study surveys. A representative sample (N = 1239) from 26 primary schools was included. The association among 3 groups (never-, former-, and current-smokers) and the potential variables were simultaneously examined using unordered polytomous logistic regression analysis.
Between 13% and 34% of ever-smokers reported that their first smoking experience was in third grade. More than 70% were found to have bought cigarettes and 87% reported that the tobacco retailers had sold them cigarettes. The significant factors for current-smokers were predisposing factors, ie, attitude toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21); reinforcing factors, ie, family smoked in front of me (AOR = 2.44), friends smoked in front of me (AOR = 16.24), and school staff smoked in front of me (AOR = 2.98); and enabling factors, ie, cigarette availability and accessibility (AOR = 2.16 and 2.42, respectively). A student's perceived punishment for smoking at school had a positive significant effect on the risk of being former-smokers (AOR = 1.57).
The findings provide a basis for school and community to design and implement effective anti-smoking programs for remote mountain-based students to further reduce youth smoking.
PubMed ID
22671948 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of prevalence, triggers, risk factors and the related socio-economic effects of childhood asthma in the Student Lung Health Survey (SLHS) database, Canada 1996.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182024
Source
Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2003 Oct-Dec;15(4):349-58
Publication Type
Article
Author
Frank Mo
Chris Robinson
Bernard C Choi
Felix C Li
Author Affiliation
Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, 120 Colonnade Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9. Frank_Mo@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2003 Oct-Dec;15(4):349-58
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost of Illness
Female
Geography
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Public Health Informatics
Risk factors
Schools
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to provide information to improve the management of childhood asthma in Canada. The Student Lung Health Survey (SLHS) was conducted as a stratified and multi-staged cluster survey across Canada in 1996. It included a total of 136 public, private and separate schools in nine health units. The target study population was schoolchildren aged 5 to 19 years. Among all 5-19 years old students, the prevalence of asthma was 13.0%, with the prevalence for males being higher than for females, the adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) was 1.17, (95% CI 1.14-1.19) for males, in comparison with females. The prevalence in the 15-19 age group was higher than that in the 5-9 and 10-14 age group in females, but it was higher in the 5-9 and 10-14 age group than in the 15-19 age group in males. The mean delay from the onset of symptoms to time of first diagnosis was 1, 0.4 and 0.3 years for the 1-4, 5-9 and 10-14 age group respectively. However, there was no delay in the 15-19 group. The prevalence of asthma in Prince Edward Island (17.9%), Halifax (17.1%), and Kingston (16.1%) was higher than that in Saskatoon (10.0%). Sherbrooke (9.7%) and Kelowna (11.9%). The proportion of asthma for students who smoked more than 11 cigarettes per day (OR = 1.41), were exposed to passive smoke in home (OR = 7.29), in car (OR = 4.71), and in school (OR = 4.24) or had a family income less than CAN$40,000 (OR = 1.19), was significantly higher than groups without those factors. Risk factors and socio-economic status such as living conditions and environment, pets or plants in the home, parental education levels also affected the morbidity of asthma. The results of the SLHS study demonstrated the serious burden of childhood asthma, and asthma triggers, living and environmental conditions and lifestyle influence the prevalence and the effects of childhood asthma diagnosis, treatment, and education in Canada. Asthma is still a serious chronic condition for students and it influences their academic performance and their quality of life. The diagnostic methods and the practice guidelines for asthma control are useful for preventing and controlling asthma. These findings provide indications of interventions are being used for the control of asthma in Canada.
PubMed ID
14719417 View in PubMed
Less detail

An exploratory study of diabetes in a First Nation community with respect to serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE and PCBs and fish consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146289
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Dec;6(12):3179-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
Aline Philibert
Harold Schwartz
Donna Mergler
Author Affiliation
CINBIOSE, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), Montréal, Québec, Canada. philibert.aline@uqam.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Dec;6(12):3179-89
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Biological Markers
Confidence Intervals
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Pollutants
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Nutritional Status
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Risk factors
Statistics as Topic
Young Adult
Abstract
This study examined the association between self-reported diabetes, fish consumption and serum levels of organochlorines in a First Nation community. One quarter of the 101 participants reported diabetes. Serum PCBs, but not p,p'-DDE, were positively correlated to consumption frequency of total fish, walleye and pike, but not trout. Reported diabetes was positively associated to p,p'-DDE and some PCB congeners. Odds Ratios (OR) for reported diabetes for those in the upper 75th percentile for serum p,p'-DDE compared to the others were 3.5 (95% CI 1-13.8) and 6.1 (95% CI 1.4-27.3) (weight wet and lipid-standardized values, respectively) and for total sum of PCBs: 4.91 (95% CI 1.4-19.0) and 5.51 (95% CI 1.3-24.1). For participants who were in the upper 50th percentile for trout and white fish intake, reported diabetes was respectively 6 and 4 times lower compared to the others. These findings support the hypothesis that environmental exposure to elevated p,p'-DDE and PCBs is associated with increased risk of diabetes. Consumption of trout and white fish may be beneficial to reduce risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20049255 View in PubMed
Less detail

An international case-control study of glutathione transferase and functionally related polymorphisms and risk of primary adult brain tumors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78366
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Schwartzbaum Judith A
Ahlbom Anders
Lönn Stefan
Warholm Margareta
Rannug Agneta
Auvinen Anssi
Christensen Helle Collatz
Henriksson Roger
Johansen Christoffer
Lindholm Carita
Malmer Beatrice
Salminen Tiina
Schoemaker Minouk J
Swerdlow Anthony J
Feychting Maria
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology and Biometrics, School of Public Health, Ohio State University, Starling-Loving Hall, 320 W. Tenth Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. schwartzbaum.1@osu.edu
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Mar;16(3):559-65
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Brain Neoplasms - enzymology - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
England - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genotype
Glutathione Transferase - genetics
Haplotypes
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glutathione transferases (GST) detoxify environmental and endogenous compounds and levels of two polymorphic GST proteins, GSTM3 and GSTP1, are high in the brain. Previous studies of GSTM3 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and adult brain tumor risk have produced inconsistent results, whereas the GSTM3 -63 variant is newly identified and, therefore, has not yet been studied in this context. We therefore examined associations between GSTM3 -63, GSTM3 *A/*B, GSTP1 105, and GSTP1 114 variants and adult brain tumor risk and the interaction of the effects of these same polymorphisms with cigarette smoking. In addition, the enzymes NQO1 and CYP1A1 alter susceptibility to oxidative brain damage. Because there is less previous evidence for a role of NQO1, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 variants, we restricted analysis of these variants to a small preliminary study. METHODS: We genotyped DNA collected for an international population-based case-control study of 725 glioma cases, 329 of which were glioblastoma cases, 546 meningioma cases and 1,612 controls. Study participants were residents of Sweden, southeast England, Denmark, and Finland. RESULTS: We found no associations between the GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, CYP1A1, GSTM1, or GSTT1 polymorphisms and adult brain tumor risk with the possible exception of a weak association between the G-C (Val-Ala) GSTP1 105/114 haplotype and glioma [odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.54, 0.99], nor was there an interaction between the effects of the GSTM3 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we observed no strong evidence for an association between GST or related enzyme polymorphisms and adult brain tumor risk.
PubMed ID
17372252 View in PubMed
Less detail

An outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a burn unit: risk factors for acquisition and management.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190091
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 May;23(5):261-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
Andrew E Simor
Mark Lee
Mary Vearncombe
Linda Jones-Paul
Clare Barry
Manuel Gomez
Joel S Fish
Robert C Cartotto
Robert Palmer
Marie Louie
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, North York, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 May;23(5):261-7
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acinetobacter Infections - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Acinetobacter baumannii
Blood Component Transfusion - adverse effects
Burn Units
Burns - complications
Case-Control Studies
Cross Infection - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Environmental Monitoring - standards
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Hand Disinfection - standards
Hospitals, Teaching
Housekeeping, Hospital - standards
Humans
Hydrotherapy - adverse effects
Infection Control - methods
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
To describe the investigation and management of an outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii and to determine risk factors for acquisition of the organism.
A 14-bed regional burn unit in a Canadian tertiary-care teaching hospital.
Case-control study with multivariate analysis of potential risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Surveillance cultures were obtained from the hospital environment, from noninfected patients, and from healthcare providers.
A total of 31 (13%) of 247 patients with acute burn injuries acquired multiresistant A. baumannii between December 1998 and March 2000; 18 (58%) of the patients were infected. The organism was recovered from the hospital environment and the hands of healthcare providers. Significant risk factors for acquisition of multiresistant A. baumannii were receipt of blood products (odds ratio [OR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 3.4 to 34.4; P
PubMed ID
12026151 View in PubMed
Less detail

An outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection caused by contaminated mouth swabs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78754
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;44(6):794-801
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2007
Author
Iversen Bjørn G
Jacobsen Trond
Eriksen Hanne-Merete
Bukholm Geir
Melby Kjetil K
Nygård Karin
Aavitsland Preben
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bjiv@fhi.no
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;44(6):794-801
Date
Mar-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Equipment Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Probability
Pseudomonas Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Pseudomonas aeruginosa - isolation & purification
Sex Distribution
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium that can cause severe infection in susceptible patients. During the winter of 2001-2002, we investigated an outbreak of P. aeruginosa infection among patients in several hospitals across Norway. METHODS: A nationwide outbreak investigation was performed with case finding, questionnaires, and product sampling. All available clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa strains were genotyped. Detailed information was collected from patients with the outbreak strain or with any P. aeruginosa in blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. To identify risk factors, we conducted a case-control study among patients with P. aeruginosa isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples during October 2001-December 2002. Case patients were patients infected with the outbreak genotype, and control subjects were patients infected with other genotypes. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients from 24 hospitals were identified as having the outbreak strain; 39 of these patients had positive blood culture results. Seventy-one patients (31%) died while hospitalized; all of the patients who died had severe underlying disease. Among 39 case patients and 159 control subjects, use of the moist mouth swab (adjusted odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-13.6) and receipt of mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-17.2) were associated with infection due to the outbreak strain. Genotypically identical strains of P. aeruginosa were identified in 76 mouth swabs from 12 different batches and from the production line. CONCLUSIONS: Contamination of mouth swabs during production caused the largest-ever outbreak of P. aeruginosa infection in Norway. Susceptible patient groups should use only documented quality-controlled, high-level-disinfected products and items in the oropharynx.
PubMed ID
17304450 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82098
Source
Environ Res. 2006 Sep;102(1):83-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Friedman Lee S
Lukyanova Elena M
Kundiev Yuri I
Shkiryak-Nizhnyk Zoreslava A
Chislovska Nataliya V
Mucha Amy
Zvinchuk Alexander V
Oliynyk Irene
Hryhorczuk Daniel
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. lfriedman@tspri.org
Source
Environ Res. 2006 Sep;102(1):83-9
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - blood
Anthropometry
Cadmium - blood
Cadmium Poisoning - blood - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diet
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Industry
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Prospective Studies
Smoking
Socioeconomic Factors
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (0.25 microg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21 microg/L (range = 0.11-0.42 microg/L; SD = 0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21 microg/L; P = 0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P = 0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P = 0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR = 14.16; P
PubMed ID
16729996 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125071
Source
Int J Androl. 2012 Jun;35(3):294-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
K. Krysiak-Baltyn
J. Toppari
N E Skakkebaek
T S Jensen
H E Virtanen
K-W Schramm
H. Shen
T. Vartiainen
H. Kiviranta
O. Taboureau
K. Audouze
S. Brunak
K M Main
Author Affiliation
Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
Source
Int J Androl. 2012 Jun;35(3):294-302
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Artificial Intelligence
Cryptorchidism - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Dioxins - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Systems Biology
Abstract
During the past four decades, there has been an increase in the incidence rate of male reproductive disorders in some, but not all, Western countries. The observed increase in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders is suspected to be ascribable to environmental factors as the increase has been too rapid to be explained by genetics alone. To study the association between complex chemical exposures of humans and congenital cryptorchidism, the most common malformation of the male genitalia, we measured 121 environmental chemicals with suspected or known endocrine disrupting properties in 130 breast milk samples from Danish and Finnish mothers. Half the newborns were healthy controls, whereas the other half was boys with congenital cryptorchidism. The measured chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl-ethers, dioxins (OCDD/PCDFs), phthalates, polybrominated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Computational analysis of the data was performed using logistic regression and three multivariate machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, we performed systems biology analysis to explore the chemical influence on a molecular level. After correction for multiple testing, exposure to nine chemicals was significantly different between the cases and controls in the Danish cohort, but not in the Finnish cohort. The multivariate analysis indicated that Danish samples exhibited a stronger correlation between chemical exposure patterns in breast milk and cryptorchidism than Finnish samples. Moreover, PCBs were indicated as having a protective effect within the Danish cohort, which was supported by molecular data recovered through systems biology. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the mixture of environmental chemicals may contribute to observed adverse trends in male reproductive health.
PubMed ID
22519522 View in PubMed
Less detail

The association between childhood relocations and subsequent risk of suicide attempt, psychiatric problems, and low academic achievement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278158
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Apr;46(5):969-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
L M Bramson
M E Rickert
Q A Class
A. Sariaslan
C. Almqvist
H. Larsson
P. Lichtenstein
B M D'Onofrio
Source
Psychol Med. 2016 Apr;46(5):969-79
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Models, Psychological
Parents
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Siblings
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Given the frequency with which families change residences, the effects of childhood relocations have gained increasing research attention. Many researchers have demonstrated that childhood relocations are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes. However, drawing strong causal claims remains problematic due to uncontrolled confounding factors.
We utilized longitudinal, population-based Swedish registers to generate a nationally representative sample of offspring born 1983-1997 (n = 1 510 463). Using Cox regression and logistic regression, we examined the risk for numerous adverse outcomes after childhood relocation while controlling for measured covariates. To account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounds, we also compared differentially exposed cousins and siblings.
In the cohort baseline model, each annual relocation was associated with risk for the adverse outcomes, including suicide attempt [hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.20]. However, when accounting for offspring and parental covariates (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.09), as well as genetic and environmental confounds shared by cousins (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09) and siblings (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.04), the risk for suicide attempt attenuated. We found a commensurate pattern of results for severe mental illness, substance abuse, criminal convictions, and low academic achievement.
Previous research may have overemphasized the independent association between relocations and later adverse outcomes. The results suggest that the association between childhood relocations and suicide attempt, psychiatric problems, and low academic achievement is partially explained by genetic and environmental confounds correlated with relocations. This study demonstrates the importance of using family-based, quasi-experimental designs to test plausible alternate hypotheses when examining causality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26620451 View in PubMed
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Association between forgone care and household income among the elderly in five Western European countries - analyses based on survey data from the SHARE-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89561
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Mielck Andreas
Kiess Raphael
von dem Knesebeck Olaf
Stirbu Irina
Kunst Anton E
Author Affiliation
Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, PO Box 1129, 85758 Neuherberg, Germany. mielck@helmholtz-muenchen.de
Source
BMC Health Serv Res. 2009;9:52
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chronic Disease - therapy
Europe
Female
Health Care Surveys
Health Services Accessibility - economics
Health Services for the Aged - utilization
Health status
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Interviews as Topic
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sex Distribution
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association between access to health care and household income have rarely included an assessment of 'forgone care', but this indicator could add to our understanding of the inverse care law. We hypothesize that reporting forgone care is more prevalent in low income groups. METHODS: The study is based on the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)', focusing on the non-institutionalized population aged 50 years or older. Data are included from France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden. The dependent variable is assessed by the following question: During the last twelve months, did you forgo any types of care because of the costs you would have to pay, or because this care was not available or not easily accessible? The main independent variable is household income, adjusted for household size and split into quintiles, calculating the quintile limits for each country separately. Information on age, sex, self assessed health and chronic disease is included as well. Logistic regression models were used for the multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The overall level of forgone care differs considerably between the five countries (e.g. about 10 percent in Greece and 6 percent in Sweden). Low income groups report forgone care more often than high income groups. This association can also be found in analyses restricted to the subsample of persons with chronic disease. Associations between forgone care and income are particularly strong in Germany and Greece. Taking the example of Germany, forgone care in the lowest income quintile is 1.98 times (95% CI: 1.08-3.63) as high as in the highest income quintile. CONCLUSION: Forgone care should be reduced even if it is not justified by an 'objective' need for health care, as it could be an independent stressor in its own right, and as patient satisfaction is a strong predictor of compliance. These efforts should focus on population groups with particularly high prevalence of forgone care, for example on patients with poor self assessed health, on women, and on low income groups. The inter-country differences point to the need to specify different policy recommendations for different countries.
PubMed ID
19309496 View in PubMed
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